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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

Marcelo Mendoza

Automatic text categorization has applications in several domains, for example e‐mail spam detection, sexual content filtering, directory maintenance, and focused…

Abstract

Purpose

Automatic text categorization has applications in several domains, for example e‐mail spam detection, sexual content filtering, directory maintenance, and focused crawling, among others. Most information retrieval systems contain several components which use text categorization methods. One of the first text categorization methods was designed using a naïve Bayes representation of the text. Currently, a number of variations of naïve Bayes have been discussed. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate naïve Bayes approaches on text categorization introducing new competitive extensions to previous approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper focuses on introducing a new Bayesian text categorization method based on an extension of the naïve Bayes approach. Some modifications to document representations are introduced based on the well‐known BM25 text information retrieval method. The performance of the method is compared to several extensions of naïve Bayes using benchmark datasets designed for this purpose. The method is compared also to training‐based methods such as support vector machines and logistic regression.

Findings

The proposed text categorizer outperforms state‐of‐the‐art methods without introducing new computational costs. It also achieves performance results very similar to more complex methods based on criterion function optimization as support vector machines or logistic regression.

Practical implications

The proposed method scales well regarding the size of the collection involved. The presented results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the approach.

Originality/value

The paper introduces a novel naïve Bayes text categorization approach based on the well‐known BM25 information retrieval model, which offers a set of good properties for this problem.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2020

V. Srilakshmi, K. Anuradha and C. Shoba Bindu

This paper aims to model a technique that categorizes the texts from huge documents. The progression in internet technologies has raised the count of document…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to model a technique that categorizes the texts from huge documents. The progression in internet technologies has raised the count of document accessibility, and thus the documents available online become countless. The text documents comprise of research article, journal papers, newspaper, technical reports and blogs. These large documents are useful and valuable for processing real-time applications. Also, these massive documents are used in several retrieval methods. Text classification plays a vital role in information retrieval technologies and is considered as an active field for processing massive applications. The aim of text classification is to categorize the large-sized documents into different categories on the basis of its contents. There exist numerous methods for performing text-related tasks such as profiling users, sentiment analysis and identification of spams, which is considered as a supervised learning issue and is addressed with text classifier.

Design/methodology/approach

At first, the input documents are pre-processed using the stop word removal and stemming technique such that the input is made effective and capable for feature extraction. In the feature extraction process, the features are extracted using the vector space model (VSM) and then, the feature selection is done for selecting the highly relevant features to perform text categorization. Once the features are selected, the text categorization is progressed using the deep belief network (DBN). The training of the DBN is performed using the proposed grasshopper crow optimization algorithm (GCOA) that is the integration of the grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA) and Crow search algorithm (CSA). Moreover, the hybrid weight bounding model is devised using the proposed GCOA and range degree. Thus, the proposed GCOA + DBN is used for classifying the text documents.

Findings

The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated using accuracy, precision and recall is compared with existing techniques such as naive bayes, k-nearest neighbors, support vector machine and deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) and Stochastic Gradient-CAViaR + DCNN. Here, the proposed GCOA + DBN has improved performance with the values of 0.959, 0.959 and 0.96 for precision, recall and accuracy, respectively.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a technique that categorizes the texts from massive sized documents. From the findings, it can be shown that the proposed GCOA-based DBN effectively classifies the text documents.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

N. Venkata Sailaja, L. Padmasree and N. Mangathayaru

Text mining has been used for various knowledge discovery based applications, and thus, a lot of research has been contributed towards it. Latest trending research in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Text mining has been used for various knowledge discovery based applications, and thus, a lot of research has been contributed towards it. Latest trending research in the text mining is adopting the incremental learning data, as it is economical while dealing with large volume of information.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary intention of this research is to design and develop a technique for incremental text categorization using optimized Support Vector Neural Network (SVNN). The proposed technique involves four major steps, such as pre-processing, feature selection, classification and feature extraction. Initially, the data is pre-processed based on stop word removal and stemming. Then, the feature extraction is done by extracting semantic word-based features and Term Frequency and Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF). From the extracted features, the important features are selected using Bhattacharya distance measure and the features are subjected as the input to the proposed classifier. The proposed classifier performs incremental learning using SVNN, wherein the weights are bounded in a limit using rough set theory. Moreover, for the optimal selection of weights in SVNN, Moth Search (MS) algorithm is used. Thus, the proposed classifier, named Rough set MS-SVNN, performs the text categorization for the incremental data, given as the input.

Findings

For the experimentation, the 20 News group dataset, and the Reuters dataset are used. Simulation results indicate that the proposed Rough set based MS-SVNN has achieved 0.7743, 0.7774 and 0.7745 for the precision, recall and F-measure, respectively.

Originality/value

In this paper, an online incremental learner is developed for the text categorization. The text categorization is done by developing the Rough set MS-SVNN classifier, which classifies the incoming texts based on the boundary condition evaluated by the Rough set theory, and the optimal weights from the MS. The proposed online text categorization scheme has the basic steps, like pre-processing, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. The pre-processing is carried out to identify the unique words from the dataset, and the features like semantic word-based features and TF-IDF are obtained from the keyword set. Feature selection is done by setting a minimum Bhattacharya distance measure, and the selected features are provided to the proposed Rough set MS-SVNN for the classification.

Details

Data Technologies and Applications, vol. 54 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9288

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Koraljka Golub

To provide an integrated perspective to similarities and differences between approaches to automated classification in different research communities (machine learning…

Abstract

Purpose

To provide an integrated perspective to similarities and differences between approaches to automated classification in different research communities (machine learning, information retrieval and library science), and point to problems with the approaches and automated classification as such.

Design/methodology/approach

A range of works dealing with automated classification of full‐text web documents are discussed. Explorations of individual approaches are given in the following sections: special features (description, differences, evaluation), application and characteristics of web pages.

Findings

Provides major similarities and differences between the three approaches: document pre‐processing and utilization of web‐specific document characteristics is common to all the approaches; major differences are in applied algorithms, employment or not of the vector space model and of controlled vocabularies. Problems of automated classification are recognized.

Research limitations/implications

The paper does not attempt to provide an exhaustive bibliography of related resources.

Practical implications

As an integrated overview of approaches from different research communities with application examples, it is very useful for students in library and information science and computer science, as well as for practitioners. Researchers from one community have the information on how similar tasks are conducted in different communities.

Originality/value

To the author's knowledge, no review paper on automated text classification attempted to discuss more than one community's approach from an integrated perspective.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 62 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Waleed Zaghloul, Sang M. Lee and Silvana Trimi

The purpose of this paper is to compare the performance of neural networks (NNs) and support vector machines (SVMs) as text classifiers. SVMs are considered one of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the performance of neural networks (NNs) and support vector machines (SVMs) as text classifiers. SVMs are considered one of the best classifiers. NNs could be adopted as text classifiers if their performance is comparable to that of SVMs.

Design/methodology/approach

Several NNs are trained to classify the same set of text documents with SVMs and their effectiveness is measured. The performance of the two tools is then statistically compared.

Findings

For text classification (TC), the performance of NNs is statistically comparable to that of the SVMs even when a significantly reduced document size is used.

Practical implications

This research finds not only that NNs are very viable TC tools with comparable performance to SVMs, but also that it does so using a much reduced size of document. The successful use of NNs in classifying reduced text documents would be its great advantage as a classification tool, compared to others, as it can bring great savings in terms of computation time and costs.

Originality/value

This paper is of value by showing statistically that NNs could be adopted as text classifiers with effectiveness comparable to SVMs, one of the best text classifiers currently used. This research is the first step towards utilizing NNs in text mining and its sub‐areas.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 109 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Carlos G. Figuerola, Angel Zazo Rodríguez and José Luis Alonso Berrocal

Automatic categorisation can be understood as a learning process during which a program recognises the characteristics that distinguish each category or class from others…

Abstract

Automatic categorisation can be understood as a learning process during which a program recognises the characteristics that distinguish each category or class from others, i.e. those characteristics which the documents should have in order to belong to that category. As yet few experiments have been carried out with documents in Spanish. Here we show the possibilities of elaborating pattern vectors that include the characteristics of different classes or categories of documents, using techniques based on those applied to the expansion of queries by relevance; likewise, the results of applying these techniques to a collection of documents in Spanish are given. The same collection of documents was categorised manually and the results of both procedures were compared.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 57 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Fuchun Peng and Xiangji Huang

The purpose of this research is to compare several machine learning techniques on the task of Asian language text classification, such as Chinese and Japanese where no…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to compare several machine learning techniques on the task of Asian language text classification, such as Chinese and Japanese where no word boundary information is available in written text. The paper advocates a simple language modeling based approach for this task.

Design/methodology/approach

Naïve Bayes, maximum entropy model, support vector machines, and language modeling approaches were implemented and were applied to Chinese and Japanese text classification. To investigate the influence of word segmentation, different word segmentation approaches were investigated and applied to Chinese text. A segmentation‐based approach was compared with the non‐segmentation‐based approach.

Findings

There were two findings: the experiments show that statistical language modeling can significantly outperform standard techniques, given the same set of features; and it was found that classification with word level features normally yields improved classification performance, but that classification performance is not monotonically related to segmentation accuracy. In particular, classification performance may initially improve with increased segmentation accuracy, but eventually classification performance stops improving, and can in fact even decrease, after a certain level of segmentation accuracy.

Practical implications

Apply the findings to real web text classification is ongoing work.

Originality/value

The paper is very relevant to Chinese and Japanese information processing, e.g. webpage classification, web search.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 63 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2018

Efthimia Mavridou, Konstantinos M. Giannoutakis, Dionysios Kehagias, Dimitrios Tzovaras and George Hassapis

Semantic categorization of Web services comprises a fundamental requirement for enabling more efficient and accurate search and discovery of services in the semantic Web…

Abstract

Purpose

Semantic categorization of Web services comprises a fundamental requirement for enabling more efficient and accurate search and discovery of services in the semantic Web era. However, to efficiently deal with the growing presence of Web services, more automated mechanisms are required. This paper aims to introduce an automatic Web service categorization mechanism, by exploiting various techniques that aim to increase the overall prediction accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposes the use of Error Correcting Output Codes on top of a Logistic Model Trees-based classifier, in conjunction with a data pre-processing technique that reduces the original feature-space dimension without affecting data integrity. The proposed technique is generalized so as to adhere to all Web services with a description file. A semantic matchmaking scheme is also proposed for enabling the semantic annotation of the input and output parameters of each operation.

Findings

The proposed Web service categorization framework was tested with the OWLS-TC v4.0, as well as a synthetic data set with a systematic evaluation procedure that enables comparison with well-known approaches. After conducting exhaustive evaluation experiments, categorization efficiency in terms of accuracy, precision, recall and F-measure was measured. The presented Web service categorization framework outperformed the other benchmark techniques, which comprise different variations of it and also third-party implementations.

Originality/value

The proposed three-level categorization approach is a significant contribution to the Web service community, as it allows the automatic semantic categorization of all functional elements of Web services that are equipped with a service description file.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

José L. Navarro‐Galindo and José Samos

Nowadays, the use of WCMS (web content management systems) is widespread. The conversion of this infrastructure into its semantic equivalent (semantic WCMS) is a critical…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays, the use of WCMS (web content management systems) is widespread. The conversion of this infrastructure into its semantic equivalent (semantic WCMS) is a critical issue, as this enables the benefits of the semantic web to be extended. The purpose of this paper is to present a FLERSA (Flexible Range Semantic Annotation) for flexible range semantic annotation.

Design/methodology/approach

A FLERSA is presented as a user‐centred annotation tool for Web content expressed in natural language. The tool has been built in order to illustrate how a WCMS called Joomla! can be converted into its semantic equivalent.

Findings

The development of the tool shows that it is possible to build a semantic WCMS through a combination of semantic components and other resources such as ontologies and emergence technologies, including XML, RDF, RDFa and OWL.

Practical implications

The paper provides a starting‐point for further research in which the principles and techniques of the FLERSA tool can be applied to any WCMS.

Originality/value

The tool allows both manual and automatic semantic annotations, as well as providing enhanced search capabilities. For manual annotation, a new flexible range markup technique is used, based on the RDFa standard, to support the evolution of annotated Web documents more effectively than XPointer. For automatic annotation, a hybrid approach based on machine learning techniques (Vector‐Space Model + n‐grams) is used to determine the concepts that the content of a Web document deals with (from an ontology which provides a taxonomy), based on previous annotations that are used as a training corpus.

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2004

Thomas Mandl and Christa Womser‐Hacker

A framework for the long‐term learning of user preferences in information retrieval is presented. The multiple indexing and method‐object relations (MIMOR) model tightly…

Abstract

A framework for the long‐term learning of user preferences in information retrieval is presented. The multiple indexing and method‐object relations (MIMOR) model tightly integrates a fusion method and a relevance feedback processor into a learning model. Several black box matching functions can be combined into a linear combination committee machine which reflects the user's vague individual cognitive concepts expressed in relevance feedback decisions. An extension based on the soft computing paradigm couples the relevance feedback processor and the matching function into a unified retrieval system.

Details

New Library World, vol. 105 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Keywords

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