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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2018

Matthias Woeckener, Danielle L. Boisvert, Eric M. Cooke, Nicholas Kavish, Richard H. Lewis, Jessica Wells, Todd A. Armstrong, Eric J. Connolly and James M. Harper

Research reports a positive relationship between parental rejection and antisocial behavior in adolescents and young adults. Studies also report a positive association…

Abstract

Purpose

Research reports a positive relationship between parental rejection and antisocial behavior in adolescents and young adults. Studies also report a positive association between testosterone and antisocial behavior. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether testosterone moderates the influence of parental rejection on antisocial behavior in a sample of young adults.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study analyzed a sample of undergraduate students (N=322) to examine the interaction between testosterone and parental rejection in the prediction of antisocial behavior. Multivariate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to explore this association.

Findings

Results from OLS regression models revealed that parental rejection and testosterone were independently associated with antisocial behavior and that the effect of parental rejection on antisocial behavior was stronger at higher levels of testosterone.

Originality/value

This current study is the first to examine how testosterone conditions the influence of parental rejection on antisocial behavior in young adults. Findings from the study add to the growing body of literature examining the interplay between biological and environmental factors.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Corinna Laube and Wouter van den Bos

Teenagers are typically described as impulsive and risk taking. Yet recent research shows that this observation does not hold in all contexts. Rather, adolescents show…

Abstract

Teenagers are typically described as impulsive and risk taking. Yet recent research shows that this observation does not hold in all contexts. Rather, adolescents show higher impulsivity and risk taking than children or adults in affective contexts. Motivational and affective processes are therefore of particular interest when trying to understand typical adolescent behavior. Additionally, pubertal hormones are hypothesized to play a special role in adolescents’ motivated decision making. However, evidence for the mechanisms underlying this relationship is sparse. In this chapter, we aim to integrate findings from human and animal studies in order to elucidate the specific impact of pubertal hormones on motivational processes in adolescence. Against this background, we critically discuss and reinterpret recent findings in psychology and neuroscience, speculate about underlying mechanisms, and suggest new approaches for future studies of adolescent behavior.

Details

Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-474-7

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2019

Benjamin G. Serpell, Stephen Larkham and Christian J. Cook

Team effectiveness is often predicated by a group’s ability to communicate. However, the effect of stress response on communication success, particularly nonverbal…

Abstract

Purpose

Team effectiveness is often predicated by a group’s ability to communicate. However, the effect of stress response on communication success, particularly nonverbal engagement, and how this might affect team performance, is not clear; a “phenomenon” this study sought to explore.

Design/methodology/approach

This was an observational study in a cohort of professional rugby players. Participants gave presentations to their peers on two separate occasions during a “live-in” camp designed to have psychologically stressful elements. Presentations were video recorded and audience engagement was measured. Testosterone and cortisol were used as biomarkers of stress response, with a high testosterone–cortisol ratio considered positive. A team training session followed the presentations and participants were rated for training quality.

Findings

A small decline in testosterone was observed each day after waking. Conversely, cortisol rose after waking, with the rise being the highest on the first day. A decline in testosterone–cortisol ratio was also seen each day after waking; the decline was greatest on the first day. Presentation duration and audience engagement was greatest for the second presentation; when the testosterone-cortisol ratio decline and the cortisol increase after waking was smaller. Training quality was also better that day. Pooled data revealed a moderate inverse relationship and weak positive relationships for audience engagement with post-meeting cortisol and post-meeting testosterone–cortisol ratio, respectively. Training quality was related to testosterone and testosterone–cortisol ratio, but inversely related to cortisol.

Originality/value

This study suggests that in stressful conditions, as suggested by an awakening hormone response, communication and team performance could become compromised with reduced ability to engage with others.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

Töres Theorell

The importance of anabolism and regeneration is related to lack or loss of control. This chapter discusses the psychophysiological basis for such relationships. In the…

Abstract

The importance of anabolism and regeneration is related to lack or loss of control. This chapter discusses the psychophysiological basis for such relationships. In the threat of lost control, energy mobilisation is activated and regeneration is inhibited – since regeneration (repairing) has low priority in emergency situations. This pattern can be traced on several psychophysiological levels, from the brain to most of the cells in the body. Such a mechanism explains why the body becomes vulnerable and increasingly sensitive to load when threat of lost control is excessive and long lasting. In several empirical examples, various indicators of anabolism and regeneration have paralleled improvement versus deterioration in psychosocial conditions, in particular lack or loss of control. In these studies, indicators of anabolism and regeneration (such as concentration of sex hormones with anabolic and regenerative functions in blood and saliva) have been followed in subjects going through deteriorating versus improving life conditions. The demand-support model is used as a theoretical basis for the discussion.

Details

Current Perspectives on Job-Stress Recovery
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-544-0

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2018

Helen Jefferson Lenskyj

Abstract

Details

Gender, Athletes’ Rights, and the Court of Arbitration for Sport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-753-1

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Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2017

Madeleine Pape

Purpose: In this chapter, I analyze proceedings from 2015 when the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) was asked to determine whether Dutee Chand, an Indian sprinter…

Abstract

Purpose: In this chapter, I analyze proceedings from 2015 when the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) was asked to determine whether Dutee Chand, an Indian sprinter, could compete as a female athlete. Excluded on the basis that her naturally high testosterone levels conferred an unfair athletic advantage, Chand argued that existing policies in international sport were scientifically flawed. The purpose of the analysis is to examine whether the case led to a shift in the gender politics of sport, law, and science.

Methodology/Approach: I present a textual analysis of the arbitral award document, drawing on feminist methodology to identify where and how the adjudicating panel’s assessment of the case was gendered.

Findings: The CAS decision defined the right to compete as primarily a matter for science to decide, in the process obscuring the gendered and tilted playing field upon which scientific knowledge production takes place. Furthermore, the right to unconditional recognition as a woman was reduced to science alone.

Social Implications: My analysis reveals that Chand’s victory is a precarious one, with binary and biologized models of sex and gender prevailing when the institutions of sport, law, and science determine the policy boundaries of “fair play” for female athletes.

Originality/Value of Study: This chapter shows how the institutions of sport, law, and science work together to determine gender. As a consequence, even feminist versions of the biology of sex difference risk reifying the authority of science as the dominant knowledge form within the institutional spaces of sport and law.

Details

Gender Panic, Gender Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-203-1

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2003

Heather Hartley

We are in the midst of a broad societal change in which women’s sexual problems are becoming increasingly medicalized, characterized as treatable medical conditions and…

Abstract

We are in the midst of a broad societal change in which women’s sexual problems are becoming increasingly medicalized, characterized as treatable medical conditions and defined and understood as a largely physiologically based disease, called “female sexual dysfunction” (FSD). When a condition is medicalized, a medical framework is used to understand it, and medical interventions are used to treat it. As part of this process, then, over the last several years, researchers and pharmaceutical companies have turned attention to developing medical treatments for FSD. As this medicalization continues to unfold with potentially important impacts, it is crucial that we understand the forces working to shape it.

Details

Gender Perspectives on Health and Medicine
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-239-9

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2017

Stephanie Sloan and Eleanor Brewster

The management of sexual offending is a major challenge, particularly in men who have an intellectual disability. Psychological therapies have been shown beneficial, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The management of sexual offending is a major challenge, particularly in men who have an intellectual disability. Psychological therapies have been shown beneficial, and programmes designed for use in the general population have been adapted for use in offenders who have an intellectual disability. There is also a role for pharmacological management, although the quality of evidence for this is noticeably lacking, most likely associated with the ethical and legal issues encountered in conducting well designed and controlled trials in this area. The purpose of this paper is to look at the pharmacological management options available.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken. Additionally, the references lists for identified papers were examined for any further relevant publications.

Findings

The two main categories of drugs used in the management of inappropriate sexual behaviour are the testosterone-lowering drugs and the psychotropic drugs. Most trials were open and utilised self-report measures of drug effectiveness, limiting their usefulness. Most trials noted beneficial effect. Side effect profiles and patient adherence can limit the effectiveness of anti-libidinal medication in practice.

Originality/value

There is very limited evidence available for the use of pharmacological agents in the management of inappropriate sexual behaviour, owing to the lack of adequately controlled clinical trials. New studies are therefore required, particularly of larger sample sizes, longer durations, and examining characteristics of those who benefit from pharmacological treatment, although the ethical issues of conducting such studies is duly acknowledged.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2013

Emily R. Rosario, Melissa R. Bustos and Colleen Moore

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a significant public health problem that affect an estimated 1.7 million US residents yearly. TBI patients experience a variety of…

Abstract

Purpose

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a significant public health problem that affect an estimated 1.7 million US residents yearly. TBI patients experience a variety of symptoms related to physical functioning, sensory processing, cognition, communication, behavior, and mental health, all of which differ in severity by individual. Recent evidence suggests that hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction may be impacting recovery. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness about the frequency of hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction following a TBI and its effect on functional recovery.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the literature regarding hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction following TBI and discusses the potential benefits of hormone replacement therapy for individuals with hormone deficiencies.

Findings

The rate of hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction following TBI has been reported as anywhere between 25 and 80 percent. Specifically, abnormal hormone levels, both chronic and acute, are generally estimated to be approximately 5-22 percent for thyroid hormones, 15-33 percent for growth hormone (GH), and 25-80 percent for testosterone. The effect of hypopituitarism has been reported on several aspects cognitive and physical function as well as overall quality of life. In these studies, GH and testosterone deficiencies appear to underlie the observed impairments.

Originality/value

The paper suggests the importance of understanding and screening for hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction as hormone replacement therapy may be a beneficial intervention to promote physical and cognitive rehabilitation.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 4 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

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Article
Publication date: 28 April 2010

Alyson Blanchard and Minna Lyons

This study investigates whether a higher level of pre‐natal testosterone, as indicated by the 2D: 4D digit ratio, is a correlate of psychopathy and cognitive empathy. The…

Abstract

This study investigates whether a higher level of pre‐natal testosterone, as indicated by the 2D: 4D digit ratio, is a correlate of psychopathy and cognitive empathy. The main research hypothesis predicts that 2D: 4D digit ratios will correlate negatively with psychopathy scores and positively with cognitive empathy scores. The study facilitates a within‐subjects correlational design, using a quasi‐experimental method consisting of questionnaires and digit measurements. Fifty‐four participants volunteered and were gathered via purposive and convenience sampling. Each participant completed a self‐report psychopathy scale, a cognitive empathy test, a verbal IQ test and a scan of both hands. The scans were later measured and computed for digit ratios. T‐tests, multiple partial correlations and multiple regression found that, contrary to the research hypothesis, a higher level of pre‐natal oestrogen, as indicated by a larger 2D: 4D digit ratio, is a positive correlate of psychopathy in females, and a positive correlate of callous affect (psychopathy sub‐scale) in males, at less than 0.01 probability levels. Gender is also a correlate of psychopathy, as males scored significantly higher than females at 0.01 probability levels. This result sheds an interesting new light on the physiological correlates of psychopathy and the role that pre‐natal oestrogen plays in organisational effects on the brain during pre‐ and post‐natal development.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

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