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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

Alexandros Paraskevas

Although the threat of terrorist attacks is not a new phenomenon for hotels, limited literature exists on measures that hotels can take to prevent them or limit their…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although the threat of terrorist attacks is not a new phenomenon for hotels, limited literature exists on measures that hotels can take to prevent them or limit their damage. The purpose of this paper is to propose a baseline strategy to address this threat.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the terrorist attack cycle and the security function models introduced in this paper, 19 hotel security experts, members of an international working group on terrorism, were tasked to reach consensus on a baseline anti‐terrorist strategy for a hotel. To reach this consensus, the study employed the Nominal Group Technique.

Findings

The study presents a six‐step baseline anti‐terrorism strategy and a series of measures and actions under each step. In the centre of this strategy lies the disruption of the terrorist attack cycle.

Research limitations/implications

There are limitations inherent to the Nominal Group Technique which may not allow the generalizability of the findings. However, every effort was made to ensure the reliability and validity of the study.

Practical implications

The study suggests a shift from physical protection alone to a more intelligence‐led approach. Counter‐surveillance, terrorist behavioral analysis, higher visibility of security measures, stronger relationships with local community leaders, collaborative relationships with emergency response agencies and strategic use of risk intelligence providers will have to take a higher place in the agendas of hotel security departments.

Originality/value

The paper presents, for the first time, two models that industry practitioners will find useful when designing security policies: the terrorist attack cycle and the security function model. Each component of the proposed strategy provides a starting point for the design of security strategies tailored on the security needs and budget of any hotel property.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 29 February 2008

Janet Chan

This chapter examines the ‘new lateral surveillance’, spearheaded by government anti-terrorism campaigns urging citizens to report any suspicious people and objects they…

Abstract

This chapter examines the ‘new lateral surveillance’, spearheaded by government anti-terrorism campaigns urging citizens to report any suspicious people and objects they encounter. Drawing a comparison between this and the community crime prevention (CCP) programmes of past decades, the chapter discusses the likely effectiveness of such campaigns in controlling crime and increasing security, suggests an alternative interpretation and discusses the consequences of the culture of suspicion generated by this form of surveillance. It concludes that the new lateral surveillance is a form of ‘high policing’ that is both political and dangerous in its vulnerability to errors.

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Surveillance and Governance: Crime Control and Beyond
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1416-4

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2018

Jeff Gruenewald, Brent R. Klein, Grant Drawve, Brent L. Smith and Katie Ratcliff

The purpose of this paper is to provide a metric for validating the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting (SAR) Initiative’s (NSI) sixteen-category instrument, which is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a metric for validating the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting (SAR) Initiative’s (NSI) sixteen-category instrument, which is designed to guide law enforcement in the collection and analysis of suspicious behaviors preceding serious crimes, including terrorist attacks.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on suspicious preoperational activities and terrorism incident outcomes in the USA between 1972 and 2013 come from the American Terrorism Study (ATS). Using a mixed-method approach, the authors conduct descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the frequencies of the least and most prevalent suspicious activities (or SAR indicators) and how they predict the likelihood of terrorism prevention. In addition, the authors contextualize how configurations of SAR indicators are associated with the successful thwarting of terrorism incidents by law enforcement using an analytical method known as conjunctive analysis of case configurations (CACC).

Findings

The study reveals several key findings. First, certain behaviors categorized as suspicious, such as making threats, occur more frequently than others. Second, making threats, conducting surveillance and terrorist recruitment/financing predict law enforcement interdiction in terrorism plots, while misrepresentation (or the manufacturing and use of false documents) is more associated with terrorist success. Third, prevalent SAR indicators operate differently in the context of various combinations of suspicious activities to shape the likelihood for law enforcement interdiction.

Research limitations/implications

The current study’s findings may not be generalizable to other forms of violent extremism and terrorism outside of the USA.

Practical implications

This study illuminates opportunities for the NSI to provide law enforcement with the necessary tools to reduce terrorism risk and prevent future attacks.

Originality/value

To our knowledge, no scholarly work to date has assessed how observable behavioral indicators of suspicious preoperational activities affect the outcomes of terrorist plots.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Arabinda Acharya

The purpose of this paper is to challenge the “myth” that terrorism is cheap and that terrorists are extremely efficient in how they use their money.

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1058

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to challenge the “myth” that terrorism is cheap and that terrorists are extremely efficient in how they use their money.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper makes a critical assessment of the “costs” involved in terrorist attacks and addresses the debate about how this affects the overall strategy against terrorist financing.

Findings

This paper argues that costs of terrorism are many and not limited to what is spent on an actual attack. Owing to military and financial counter‐measures, terrorists appear to have lost overall operational efficiency; they are no longer capable of carrying out large‐scale and complex operations like the September 2001 attacks.

Originality/value

Small amounts involved in carrying out a terrorist attack have led to the perception that terrorism is cheap and terrorist attacks can be inexpensively implemented. This has undermined the global and national efforts to counter the financing of terrorism (CFT). This paper is an attempt to persuade the stakeholders in the CFT community that targeting terrorist financing has been and must remain one of the most important fronts in the war against terrorism.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Abstract

Details

Intelligence and State Surveillance in Modern Societies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-171-1

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2021

Alexandra McKelvie

Coined by Giorgio Agamben, the ‘State of Exception’ refers to the paradoxical predicament of exceptional measures. By virtue of their application, such proposals authorise…

Abstract

Coined by Giorgio Agamben, the ‘State of Exception’ refers to the paradoxical predicament of exceptional measures. By virtue of their application, such proposals authorise an ‘extra-legal’ executive capacity that, despite probable affront to constitutional integrity, are nevertheless acknowledged as essential in political crises. Profound threats to national security – such as 9/11 – thus stipulate the authoritative exertion of extraconstitutional competency-manifested in the unique conditions of President Bush’s declaration of double state emergency. Although discourse on military privatisation is abundant, the logic of post-9/11 preventative intervention, and the classified alliance with private actors, remains overlooked despite provoking complex questions regarding valid democratic governance. By eroding the boundary of traditionally state-circumscribed functions, outsourced intelligence is argued as the most discerning debasement of emergency power; calling for a revised understanding of exceptionalism and catalysing axiomatic displacement of principled policy-making by promoting a national security immigration market.

Details

Privatisation of Migration Control: Power without Accountability?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-244-8

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Book part
Publication date: 29 February 2008

Scott G. White

Whenever America has fought wars, civil liberties are compromised. Led by Hoover, whose career began in the Library of Congress, the FBI has historically conducted…

Abstract

Whenever America has fought wars, civil liberties are compromised. Led by Hoover, whose career began in the Library of Congress, the FBI has historically conducted questionable surveillance, often spying illegally on American citizens. There is a history of FBI surveillance in the Academy, including surveillance in libraries. Researchers, students, and librarians have been the subjects of FBI surveillance efforts. Today, the Patriot Act has reignited concerns about FBI surveillance in academic institutions. Librarians have often led the fight against limits imposed on accessing information. This is a short history of the conflict between the Academia and FBI surveillance.

Details

Surveillance and Governance: Crime Control and Beyond
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1416-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Cynthia M. Gayton

The purpose of this paper is to examine privacy rights and the relationship between those rights and business and government interests in data collected from individuals.

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1612

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine privacy rights and the relationship between those rights and business and government interests in data collected from individuals.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper approaches legal issues from the perspective of the consumer or citizen.

Findings

While conducting research for this paper, it was found that the issues facing the citizenry on privacy protection have been addressed extensively in the not too distant past. The distinguishing characteristic is the speed with which data can be collected and disseminated and the infinitely more vast amount of personal data being collected not only by the government and businesses with whom consumers conduct transactions, but also by independent data brokers.

Originality/value

Privacy rights are ephemeral and difficult to measure. Businesses, therefore, appear to have difficulty determining the value of protecting consumers' privacy. Additionally, governments from which citizens derive many social services accumulate substantial personal information given in exchange for those services. Businesses and governments are increasingly negligent in protecting the data collected on individuals, which has been revealed by a series of reported data breaches, disclosures, thefts, and surveillance activities. This paper addresses the inherent value in protecting the privacy interests of individuals and proposes that more robust privacy laws, derived from established tort law, be developed and used by concerned persons.

Details

VINE, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Fabian Maximilian Teichmann

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how intelligent terrorist financiers avoid detection when acquiring and subsequently transferring financial assets to finance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how intelligent terrorist financiers avoid detection when acquiring and subsequently transferring financial assets to finance terrorism. Particular emphasis is placed on cryptocurrency.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative content analysis of 30 semi-standardised expert interviews with both criminals and prevention experts led to the identification of means for the circumvention of current combat the financing of terrorism (CFT) measures with a focus on cryptocurrency.

Findings

The findings illustrate, for the benefit of law enforcement agencies, investigators, regulating authorities and legislators, the specific low-risk methods that terrorist financiers use to generate and transfer assets. These findings help to develop more effective prevention methods.

Research limitations/implications

Qualitative findings from the analysis of semi-standardised interviews are limited to the 30 interviewees’ perspectives.

Practical implications

Identification of gaps in existing CFT mechanisms provides compliance officers, law enforcement agencies and legislators with valuable insights into how criminals operate.

Originality/value

The existing literature focuses on organisations that combat terrorist financing and the improvement of CFT measures. This article outlines how terrorist financiers avoid detection. Both preventative and criminal perspectives are considered.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

David Lyon

Airports are crucial channels of mobility for the global citizens of the twenty‐first century. They are points of entry and exit for tourists, business persons, workers…

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517

Abstract

Airports are crucial channels of mobility for the global citizens of the twenty‐first century. They are points of entry and exit for tourists, business persons, workers, students and of course, for some refugees as well. The scale of operations is huge ‐ international passenger travel increased twelve‐fold in the second half of the twentieth century (Urry, 2000: 50) and the vast majority of this is accounted for in air travel. In the USA alone there are two million daily airtravelers on 20,000 flights (Gottdiener,2001: 1). Airports are ‘placeless’ sites of temporary sojourn, air‐lock chambers for nomadic executives or sun‐seekers. But they have profound social and political significance, particularly in personal data handling.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

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