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Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2021

B. Guy Peters, Eduardo Grin and Fernando Luiz Abrucio

If intergovernmental relations are necessary in normal times, it should be even more required to face complex intergovernmental problem (CIP) as the COVID-19 pandemic…

Abstract

If intergovernmental relations are necessary in normal times, it should be even more required to face complex intergovernmental problem (CIP) as the COVID-19 pandemic. However, collaboration between governments depends on institutional rules as well as on political will. To discuss this issue, the analytical model is based on two dimensions: institutional design and political agency. As for the first dimension, since COVID-19 pandemic is considered as a CIP, three aspects are relevant when discussing how federations can organize the coordination between different levels of government: autonomy of subnational governments, mechanisms of coordination, and policy portfolio. As for political agency, the performance of political leadership (national presidents and governors) will be analyzed. The possibility of sharing collective goals across the federation is also a consequence of the political agency that takes place within the institutional systems of each federation. In short, it seeks to analyze the relationship between institutional design and political agency to deal with this CIP in five American federations.

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Rose Ricciardelli and Krystle Martin

The growing prison population and challenges related to recruiting and retaining suitable correctional officers (COs) in Canada provided the impetus for the current study…

Abstract

Purpose

The growing prison population and challenges related to recruiting and retaining suitable correctional officers (COs) in Canada provided the impetus for the current study. Recruitment efforts in provinces and territories often rely on a variety of diverse testing, ranging from physical fitness to in-person interviews. However, despite such efforts, turn-over rates remain high and insight into what motivates people to seek a career in correctional work continues to require elucidation. By investigating the career development of COs, the purpose of this paper is to understand why certain men seek employment in this field.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are derived from in-depth semi-structured interviews with male officers (n=41) who have employment experience in provincial correctional facilities.

Findings

Respondents discussed their initial motivations for entering the field and their career ambitions. Some entered corrections because they lacked alternative options for employment, others as a stepping stone for a different justice-oriented occupation such as policing or parole. Many were motivated by the income and benefits or had a specific vocational self-identity toward correctional work. However, nearly all respondents indicated that, over time, they no longer felt their rate of pay justly reflected the demands of the occupation, thus factors motivating field entry fail to materialize in ways that sustain long-term employee retention.

Practical implications

CO recruitment should target individuals with interest in the field of justice more broadly. Occupational demands of the CO occupation need to be addressed to reduce turnover. Recruitment should focus not only on new graduates but also be directed toward more mature individuals. The impact of resource intensive interview processes for candidates on turnover rates needs to be evaluated.

Originality/value

The authors’ focus on COs with employment experience in provincial and territorial correctional facilities, rather than federal, is justified by the lack of research on and the high rate of CO turnover in such facilities. After exploring the qualitative responses of officers, clear themes emerged that align well with natural socio-ecological systems: the self, family and community, and wider society.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 29 February 2008

Salvador Parrado

This paper aims to show that the Spanish central administration, as a representative of the Napoleonic tradition, has undergone considerable managerial changes in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to show that the Spanish central administration, as a representative of the Napoleonic tradition, has undergone considerable managerial changes in non‐autonomous and semi‐autonomous agencies characterised by their direct involvement in service delivery in spite of the failure of macro‐changes and radical reforms of public administration.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides case studies of “paths” of changes in three organisations.

Findings

Through “layering” and “diffusion” of institutions as social mechanisms included in the historical new institutionalism account for innovation, specific organisations like the tax agency, social security and property registry have become more managerial in a state dominated by public law.

Research limitations/implications

More in‐depth case studies would make possible generalisation of how small changes can produce similar impacts or results than reform efforts at the macro‐level.

Originality/value

The use of historical neo‐institutionalism and the exam of mechanisms as “layering” and “diffusion” for explaining change is presented.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Politics and Development in the North American Arctic
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-716-6

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Iris Rittenhofer

This paper is positioned at the intersection of the spatial and the practice turn in management research. The purpose of this paper is to address the phenomenon of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is positioned at the intersection of the spatial and the practice turn in management research. The purpose of this paper is to address the phenomenon of transgressive small to medium-sized enterprise (SME) formations and the limitations of SME globalisation research in capturing the connectivity of businesses in disjointed locations, and propose a qualitative case-study design to overcome these limitations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper critiques existing approaches to SME globalisation, which are informed by an interpretative community that conceives of territorial geography as the nodal point of SMEs and does not distinguish between internationalisation and globalisation. The paper thus addresses related methodological challenges. Based on a synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, the paper offers a reflexive method for case-study research, in the hope that such a method may increase the productiveness of analytical exploration of the multidimensional quality of SME organising and managing at the focal point of current transformations.

Findings

The paper makes the case for SME globalisation research to move beyond societist and individualist ontologies to embrace social-constructionist thinking, to make practice the unit of case-studies, and to appreciate process geographies of managing and organising.

Research limitations/implications

The paper contributes to business research on SMEs at the nexus of globalising flows. The theoretical, conceptual, and methodological implications are discussed and are substantiated by details and illustrative selected examples from an ongoing study.

Practical implications

The study of social SME landscapes, including from the perspective of the reflexive case-study method, is open to multilingual and international research collaboration.

Originality/value

The paper contributes a multidisciplinary research design that extends SME studies so as to embrace contemporary transformations, by offering a reflexive case-study method for the improvement of research practice. In the field of SMEs, the paper contributes a new concept social “SME landscapes” that could enrich and improve the understanding of contemporary business. In the fields of SME and entrepreneurship studies, the paper implements expressed demands for social constructionist, multidisciplinary approaches.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2018

Konstantinos Karanasios and Paul Parker

The purpose of this paper is to understand the issues related to the deployment of renewable electricity technologies (RETs) in remote indigenous communities by examining…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the issues related to the deployment of renewable electricity technologies (RETs) in remote indigenous communities by examining the views of key informants in a remote northern Ontario community through the lens of a wicked problem approach, with the goal to identify policy direction and strategies for the further development of renewable electricity projects.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses semi-structured interviews with community key informants, informed discussions with community members and energy conference participants and literature reviews of academic, policy and utility documents as complementary data sources for triangulation of results.

Findings

According to informants, the complexity surrounding the deployment of RETs in remote Canadian indigenous communities is the result of different stakeholder perspectives on the issues that RETs are expected to address. Furthermore, institutional complexity of the electricity generation system and uncertainty over both the choice of off-grid renewable technology and the future of electricity generation systems structure and governance add to this complexity.

Research limitations/implications

Given the governments’ legal obligation to consult with indigenous people for projects within their territories, community perspectives provide insights for policy design to support both the deployment of RETs and address indigenous communities sustainability goals.

Originality/value

This paper offers views and opinions of community members from an off-grid Canadian indigenous community. Community members describe how they envision their electricity systems and the desired contribution of community owned renewable electricity generation to increase local control and economic development.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Stefano Salata

The comparative study between urban regions gathered by the 2010 National Project of Relevant Interest financed by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and…

Abstract

Purpose

The comparative study between urban regions gathered by the 2010 National Project of Relevant Interest financed by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR – PRIN 2010) re-opened, in Italy, the debate on regional comparison of data, especially the ones of land use monitoring, which are difficult to collect, and to compare. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some results of comparative studies based on regional and national data sets of land use indicators. Further considerations of land use change (LUC) assessment and its effect on environmental policies extended to the whole metropolitan area of Milan are outlined.

Design/methodology/approach

The adopted methodology collects different types of information from the existent databases on land uses/land covers (national/regional) and presents an assessment between the selected case of studies (urban regions), leading a shift from a quantitative evaluation to a qualitative one. A comparative study was conducted applying a geographical and statistical difference of land uses among different time thresholds. Subsequently, a cross-tabulation analysis allows an in-depth LUC analysis for the Milan urban region.

Findings

The results of the study display an autonomous pattern for the Milan urban region, which is the most densely populated area in Italy and seems to be the only comparable to other international cases of studies due to its extension and characteristics. Nevertheless, it is not the urban region that is affected by the highest rate of land take, which takes place in the Italian context where densities of settlements are lower and sprawled. According to Soja’s (2011) interpretation, the post-metropolitan condition of Milan seems to be proved.

Originality/value

The study was aimed at creating the first online National Atlas which has been used to overcome traditional problems of homogenization of LUC data in Italy. The quantification and qualification of LUC patterns allow us to understand if, and where, post-metropolis condition occurs. This research gives a clear indication of the kind of ongoing phenomena for policy orientation to planners and administrators, especially the one of the green infrastructure approach at the city-region level to solving the emerging environmental challenges.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1996

Maris G. Martinsons, Andy K.Y. Leung and Christine Loh

Proactive efforts are increasingly advocated to conserve scarce resources, prevent future deterioration of our natural environment and sustain economic development. The…

Abstract

Proactive efforts are increasingly advocated to conserve scarce resources, prevent future deterioration of our natural environment and sustain economic development. The progress towards, and prospects for, such sustainable development in Hong Kong were recently investigated. The long‐standing role of the territory as an international gateway and a development model for the People’s Republic of China magnifies the significance of this research. Although business activities and consumer attitudes in Hong Kong indicate that economic issues still dominate ecological concerns, support was found for a technology transfer theory of environmentalism. The socio‐economic psychology of Hong Kong favours market incentives rather than command‐and‐ control policies. Entrepreneurial incentives, information to raise public awareness and effective environmental technology transfer can be the foundation of a strategic environmental management effort across Greater China.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 23 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Elona Guga

An attempt will be made to shed light on the course and pattern of the decentralization process by analyzing the historical development of local government and the…

Abstract

Purpose

An attempt will be made to shed light on the course and pattern of the decentralization process by analyzing the historical development of local government and the territorial-administrative reform of 2015-2020 in Albania and the factors that have been shaping it. The scope is to understand the impact of the reform elements on the subnational governments and in general their overall impact on the government. The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the existing literature for Albania and at offering some insights on the administrative-territorial reform. Furthermore, it will contribute to the current debate on fiscal decentralization in South Eastern European (SEE) countries and the public management model implemented after the last reforms.

Design/methodology/approach

The first section analyzes the historical development of local government reforms from the 1990s to today and will help to identify if there is instrumentalism advocacy. The second section explains the determinants of the local government’s fiscal autonomy in Albania of the period from 2003 to 2016. Three indicators are used as proxies for fiscal decentralization: the proportion of subnational expenditure over national expenditure, of total subnational revenues over total revenues of central government and the indicator of own subnational revenues over total revenues of the central government. The data from the budget and the revised budgets are then compared.

Findings

Despite Albania’s commitment to decentralize its government functions, there is still work to do. The territorial and administrative reform has not generated the expected results. Almost 90 percent of the revenues still come from the central government’s unconditional transfers. Therefore, the Albanian Government should build capacities and skills, and train the employees of each level of government that currently benefit from international assistance.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis represents a single case study on the territorial-administrative reform in Albania. Its implementation started in 2015 and it is probably too early to discuss outcomes. However, it might be useful to analyze the first results after a two-and-a-half-year period of implementation of reforms. Despite contributing to the existing gap in the literature, additional research will be necessary to better understand the decentralization process not only in Albania, but in all SEE countries.

Practical implications

It is necessary to first understand the lack of initial output, as well as the various challenges faced, in order to take the corrective measures on time.

Originality/value

This paper discusses in detail the reform adopted and the progress made by the Albanian local government units. The reform attempts to develop better relationships between the central and local governments and hence improve their service delivery, transparency and accountability. This paper is the first one that is attempting to analyze the initial output of the territorial-administrative reform of 2015-2020.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2006

Charles R. Venator Santiago

Giorgio Agamben has used the notion of the state of exception to describe the United States’ detention camps in Cuba. Agamben argues that the use of the state of exception…

Abstract

Giorgio Agamben has used the notion of the state of exception to describe the United States’ detention camps in Cuba. Agamben argues that the use of the state of exception in the U.S. can be traced back to President Lincoln's suspension of the right of habeas corpus during the Civil War. This paper suggests that this argument obscures more relevant legal and political precedents that can be found in U.S. territorial legal history. Moreover, while Agamben's argument obscures conceptual distinctions between a state of emergency and a state of exception, his argument also provides resources that can expose the limits of liberal interpretations of the relationship between the State, the citizen, and the law.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-323-5

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