This paper aims to measure the thermal comfort conditions and indoor air quality parameters, through on-site measurements taken in the areas mostly occupied by the…
This paper aims to measure the thermal comfort conditions and indoor air quality parameters, through on-site measurements taken in the areas mostly occupied by the passengers and airport staff. Terminal buildings consist of areas with various functions. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning requirements vary from area to area, thus leading to challenges in the management of indoor environment quality. Therefore, the study focuses on investigating the indoor environment conditions in various areas of the terminal buildings.
In this study, the thermal comfort and indoor air quality were evaluated based on the parameters [CO2 concentration, relative humidity, temperature, predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD)] collected for summer 2019 from different zones inside the International Dalaman Airport terminal building located in the southwest of Turkey. The measurements were performed in the areas mostly occupied by the airport staff and passengers (check-in area, security control areas, international departure lounge, domestic departure lounge and baggage claim hall).
As a result of the study, it was observed that the CO2 concentration was 480–965 ppm, the relative humidity was 51.9–75.8% and the temperature was in the range of 23.9°C–28.3°C inside the airport terminal. The PMV values were determined to be in the range of −0.23 to 0.67, and the PPD values 5–15%, which are used to measure the thermal comfort conditions.
There has been limited study on the determination of the indoor air quality in airport terminals and the investigation of the thermal comfort conditions. However, in this study, indoor air quality and thermal comfort conditions were determined by on-site measurements in the five mostly occupied areas by passengers and employees in the terminal building.
Social media, especially microblog, has become one of the most popular platforms for public opinion dissemination. However, so far few studies have been conducted to…
Social media, especially microblog, has become one of the most popular platforms for public opinion dissemination. However, so far few studies have been conducted to explore information dissemination under the mobile environment. This paper aims to introduce the approach to analyze the public opinion information dissemination in mobile social networks.
This paper chooses “network attack” as the research topic and extracts 23,567 relevant messages from Sina Microblogs to study the structure of nodes for public opinion dissemination and the characteristics of propagation paths on mobile internet. Public opinion dissemination is compared on both mobile and non-mobile terminals.
The results reveal the characteristics of public opinion dissemination in mobile environment and identify three patterns of information propagation path. This study concludes that public opinion on mobile internet propagates more widely and efficiently and generates more impact than that on the non-mobile internet.
The methods used in this study can be useful for the government and other organizations to analyze and identify problems in online information dissemination.
This paper explores the mechanism of public opinion dissemination on mobile internet in China and further investigates how to improve public opinion management through a case study related to “network attack.”
Ports are widely recognised as crucial nodes in international trade and transport. However, for various reasons, capacity does not always match demand: sometimes there is…
Ports are widely recognised as crucial nodes in international trade and transport. However, for various reasons, capacity does not always match demand: sometimes there is overcapacity, whereas in other cases, demand exceeds capacity and there is a shortage of the latter. This chapter therefore looks at where port congestion occurs, both globally and in the port-calling chain; it analyses actual responses by various chain actors, and it sheds some light on potential future evolution and reaction patterns.
Congestion, in general, can feature various forms of appearance: it can be more or less hidden, featuring congestion costs, or it can be visually present, featuring queues which are building up. The chapter discerns eight zones in the port-calling chain where congestion may emerge. As a result of a wide literature search, supplemented with a survey, it can first of all be observed that quite some congestion seems to occur, globally spread, and hitting larger as well as smaller ports. Most of the congestion is generated at the terminals, hinterland connection points and hinterland transport itself.
In terms of reaction patterns, one would assume that pricing throughout the system is adapted in such way that demand equals capacity. In practice, prices are hardly making any effort to make marginal revenue equal marginal cost. The reason is mainly that the power balance is quite strongly in favour of shipping companies, who impose on port and port operators the need to expand capacity at low fees. Port operators, in turn, apply various kinds of technical and procedural adaptations. The same is true for hinterland operators.
Looking towards the future, it seems that with the increase in world trade, the risk of port congestion will be even more outspoken, be it in some parts of the world more than in others. It is also very much likely that most problems will occur landside, as this is the part of the chain where solutions are least easy: who is going to take the initiative, how will co-ordination take place and where will the funding come from? Most actors seem to be aware of this trend, and seek for solutions like dedicated terminals and vertical integration or co-operation.
With the above observations, the chapter sheds some light on where the future needs and trends in the abatement of capacity will lie. It is therefore useful from a scientific point of view as well as with an eye on policy-making and operational port management.
There is significant amount of literature tackling different issues related to the port industry. The present chapter focuses on a single business unit of seaports aiming…
There is significant amount of literature tackling different issues related to the port industry. The present chapter focuses on a single business unit of seaports aiming at the documentation of works related to container terminals.
An effort to review, collect and present the majority of the works present in the last 30 years, between 1980 and 2010, has been made in order to picture the problems dealt and methods used by the authors in the specific research field. To facilitate the reader, studies have been grouped under five categories of addressed problems (productivity and competitiveness, yard and equipment utilization, equipment scheduling, berth planning, loading/unloading) and four modelling methodologies (mathematics and operations research, management and economics, simulation, stochastic modelling).
The analysis shows that most works focus on productivity and competitiveness issues followed by yard and equipment utilisation and equipment scheduling. In reference to the methodologies used managerial and economic approaches lead, followed by mathematics and operations research.
In reference to future research, two fields have been identified where there is scope of significant contribution by the academic community: container terminal security and container terminal supply chain integration.
The present chapter provides the framework for researchers in the field of port container terminals to picture the so far works in this research area and enables the identification of gaps at both research question and methodology level for further research.
Based on our experience related to the passenger terminal re-design at Sydney airport and its impact on belly-hold freight chains at the airport, this chapter takes a more…
Based on our experience related to the passenger terminal re-design at Sydney airport and its impact on belly-hold freight chains at the airport, this chapter takes a more general view on managing freight chains at large international airports. We aim to review literature and documents related to this area and also to undertake a fleet/traffic analysis of the 100 largest multi-function airports (when measured in terms of scheduled cargo traffic) to get a better understanding of current practice, particularly in the light of potential conflicts or benefits of the joint production of passenger and freight services. While most literature has focused on hub-and-spoke aspects of international hubs, relatively little has been done on economies of scale and scope of passenger and freight airline operations (including timing) at such hubs. This chapter explores to what extent terminal organisation of international airports impacts on the use of dedicated freighter of combination airlines and hence airline efficiency. A key finding in terms of airline efficiency is that economies of scale of air cargo operation appear to exist at the aircraft level as dedicated freighters are used more often if a sufficient threshold of air freight demand is observed at the airport level.