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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Teresa Proenca and Helena Rodrigues

Call center is a large and growing sector worldwide and is facing important human resource management (HRM) and service challenges. The purpose of this study is to analyze…

Abstract

Purpose

Call center is a large and growing sector worldwide and is facing important human resource management (HRM) and service challenges. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of structural empowerment (SE) and psychological empowerment (PE) on customer satisfaction (CS) through employee job satisfaction (JS) at a call center in Portugal.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected by means of a survey handed over personally to 267 employees at the call center of a telecommunication company. This was then linked to their respective net promoter score (CS) provided by the call center. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used as analytical tools.

Findings

SE affects PE, and both have a positive impact on JS. Empowerment impacts CS: SE positively affects CS mediated by PE; and PE affects CS mediated by JS.

Practical implications

This study emphasizes the importance of the use of organizational practices of SE in call centers to achieve two important organizational outcomes: employee JS and CS.

Originality/value

This study tests a process model involving two domains, HRM (employee side) and service delivery (customer side), which are traditionally dealt with separately in the context of call centers. This helps to understand how HRM polices are connected to CS. Although some of these relationships have been studied separately in different contexts, the research offers a strong methodological design by linking employee perceptions of empowerment with data provided by the firm on CS.

Objetivo

O setor dos call centers é grande e está em crescimento em todo o mundo, enfrentando importantes desafios de Gestão de Recursos Humanos (GRH) e de Serviços. O objetivo principal deste estudo é analisar o impacto do empoderamento estrutural (EE) e do empoderamento psicológico (EP) na satisfação do cliente (SC) através da satisfação no trabalho (ST) dos colaboradores de um call center em Portugal.

Desenho/Metodologia

Os dados foram recolhidos por meio de um questionário entregue pessoalmente a 267 funcionários do call center de uma empresa de telecomunicações. Esses dados foram ligados aos dados fornecidos pela empresa em relação à satisfação do cliente para cada colaborador, utilizando o net promoter score. A análise fatorial confirmatória e a modelagem de equações estruturais foram utilizadas como ferramentas analíticas.

Resultados

O EE afeta o EP e ambos têm um impacto positivo na ST. O empoderamento impacta a SC: i) o EE afeta positivamente a SC mediada por o EP; ii) o EP afeta a SC mediado pela ST.

Implicações práticas

Este estudo enfatiza a importância do uso de práticas organizacionais de EE em call centers para atingir dois resultados organizacionais importantes: a ST do funcionário e a SC.

Originalidade/Valor

Este estudo testa um modelo processual envolvendo dois domínios, a gestão de recursos humanos (lado do funcionário) e a entrega de serviços (lado do cliente) no contexto de call centers, que tradicionalmente são tratados separadamente. O estudo ajuda a entender como as políticas de GRH estão conectadas à SC. Embora algumas dessas relações tenham sido estudadas separadamente em diferentes contextos, a pesquisa oferece um forte desenho metodológico ao vincular as perceções dos funcionários sobre o empoderamento com os dados fornecidos pela empresa sobre a satisfação do cliente.

Objetivo

El sector de los centros de llamadas es grande y está creciendo en todo el mundo, y se enfrenta a importantes desafíos de gestión de recursos humanos y servicios. El objetivo principal de este estudio es analizar el impacto del empoderamiento estructural (EE) y el empoderamiento psicológico (EP) en la satisfacción del cliente (SC) a través de la satisfacción laboral (SL) de los empleados de un centro de llamadas en Portugal.

Diseño/Metodología

Los datos fueron recolectados mediante una encuesta entregada personalmente a 267 empleados en el centro de llamadas de una empresa de telecomunicaciones. Estos datos se vincularon a los datos proporcionados por la empresa en relación con la satisfacción del cliente de cada empleado, utilizando el net promotor score. El análisis factorial confirmatoria y el modelado de ecuaciones estructurales se utilizaron como herramientas analíticas.

Resultados

El EE afecta el EP y ambas tienen un impacto positivo en la SL. El empoderamiento impacta el SC: i) EE afecta positivamente el SC mediado por el EP; ii) El EP afecta a la SC mediada por la SL.

Implicaciones practices

Este estudio enfatiza la importancia de utilizar prácticas organizacionales de EE en los centros de llamadas para lograr dos importantes resultados organizacionales: la SL del empleado y la SC.

Originalidad/Valor

Este estudio prueba un modelo de proceso que involucra dos dominios, la gestión de recursos humanos (lado del empleado) y la prestación de servicios (lado del cliente) en el contexto de los centros de llamadas, que tradicionalmente se tratan por separado. El estudio ayuda a comprender cómo las políticas de recursos humanos están conectadas a SC. Aunque algunas de estas relaciones se han estudiado por separado en diferentes contextos, la investigación ofrece un sólido diseño metodológico al vincular las percepciones de empoderamiento de los empleados con los datos proporcionados por la empresa sobre la satisfacción del cliente.

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Teresa Proenca, Ana Torres and Ana Sofia Sampaio

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of structural empowerment, psychological empowerment and intrinsic motivation on perceived customer satisfaction in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of structural empowerment, psychological empowerment and intrinsic motivation on perceived customer satisfaction in contact centers.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was conducted among 703 employees of a contact center. Data analysis was based on structural equation modeling.

Findings

Structural empowerment results in higher levels of perceived customer satisfaction through psychological empowerment and intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, structural empowerment effect on psychological empowerment is mediated by intrinsic motivation.

Practical implications

Previous predictions regarding counterproductive impact of empowerment in a low-service heterogeneity sector, such as contact center are challenged and a transformative message is disclosed in what concerns human resource management (HRM) in contact centers.

Originality/value

The research provides valuable insights for both scholars and practitioners regarding the process through which employees’ psychological empowerment and intrinsic motivation improves customer satisfaction in the context of contact centers.

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2009

Maria Teresa Vieira Campos Proença and Eva Teresa Valente Dias de Oliveira

This study aims to investigate decision‐making processes and to identify factors which influence managers in the selection of job applicants' CVs and how these factors…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate decision‐making processes and to identify factors which influence managers in the selection of job applicants' CVs and how these factors differ from the firm's recruitment and selection policy.

Design/methodology/approach

Twenty‐four semi‐structured interviews were conducted among HR managers or similar staff members responsible for recruiting and selection in small, medium, and large‐sized Portuguese firms. The interview comprised two parts: description of the selection policies that they used followed by a CV assessment game to understand decisions regarding the acceptance of a specific candidate.

Findings

Interviewees' narratives are similar, describing a step‐by‐step process based on the firm's explicit policy and the model of a prediction of the job candidates' future performance based on subjective criteria.

Research limitations/implications

Possibly, the results described are related to the research methodology – more specifically the use of a fictional set of CVs where the decisions made do not have any consequences. At the same time, managers are more relaxed when playing the “CV game” and tend to adopt more genuine and usual behaviours.

Practical implications

The paper calls for an integrative practice in CV analysis combining both the structured and rational dimension and the informal dimension (tacit knowledge, emotion and intuition).

Originality/value

The paper stresses the paradoxical behaviour of practitioners. On the one hand, the “good” of rational procedures is part of their rhetoric; on the other hand, the use of emotion and intuition is revealed in their practices.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2018

Teresa Fernandes, Marta Morgado and Maria Antónia Rodrigues

Employees’ emotional competencies (EEC) are skills, based on emotional intelligence, used to perceive, understand and regulate customer emotions during a service…

Abstract

Purpose

Employees’ emotional competencies (EEC) are skills, based on emotional intelligence, used to perceive, understand and regulate customer emotions during a service encounter. In the context of service recovery, these skills are especially important and allow employees to influence consumers’ attitude and behaviours. The purpose of this study is to assess the direct and indirect impacts of EEC in post-recovery satisfaction, trust, word-of-mouth and repurchase intention, considering the moderating role of service (level of employee-customer contact) types.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 355 customers who experienced a service failure and subsequent recovery were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. EEC was specified as a formative construct, determined by its perceiving, understanding and regulating dimensions. To measure EEC and its impact on selected outcomes, PLS-SEM was used. A multi-group analysis was performed to analyse the moderating role of service type.

Findings

Results confirm EEC as a formative construct, with a positive direct impact on post-recovery satisfaction, particularly in high-contact customized services. Findings also reveal the mediating role of satisfaction on selected outcomes, and the significant direct impact of EEC on trust, even when controlling for satisfaction.

Originality/value

EEC remains unexplored in the service recovery literature, and most research fails to understand how EEC role may vary given contextual differences. This study adopts a consumer perspective of EEC in the emotionally charged situation of service recovery, considering the moderating role of service type. The authors further contribute to both literature streams while examining the impact of EEC on post-recovery evaluations. Companies should consider these findings in the recruitment and training of front-line employees to develop better service recovery strategies.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2020

Teresa Fernandes and Inês Inverneiro

Exerting a peculiar fascination on both managers and academics, Millennials can be distinguished from other cohorts by their intense exposure to the internet and heavy use…

Abstract

Purpose

Exerting a peculiar fascination on both managers and academics, Millennials can be distinguished from other cohorts by their intense exposure to the internet and heavy use of social media, which, in turn, affect their identity formation, brand engagement, loyalty and purchase behaviour. Yet, uncertainties regarding online engagement and the real benefits brands can reap from Millennials’ avid use of social media remain. Therefore, by developing a holistic model of drivers and outcomes, this study aims to understand how Millennials engage with their most loved, self-expressive brands across social media platforms and its impact on loyalty-related intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was gathered using a self-administered survey, answered by 343 millennial generation social media users and based on self-selected self-expressive, loved brands. Considering brand loyalty as a key outcome, a holistic model was developed and tested using partial least squares-structural equation modelling, emphasizing not only the role of social media engagement but also including brand love, experience and identification as direct and indirect antecedents.

Findings

Findings suggest a disconnection between online and offline brand relationships: though Millennials love and are very loyal to their favourite brands, they are not actively engaged in social media, which helps to explain the non-significant effect of engagement on brand loyalty. Moreover, together with brand identification, brand experience was found to play a major role in developing brand love, which, in turn, is positively related to engagement and loyalty.

Originality/value

Theoretically, this study contributes to bridging a gap in the literature, as research on engagement, its drivers and outcomes is scant and there is no robust evidence about its impact on brand loyalty, particularly among Millennials. Moreover, research on disengaged consumers who exhibit limited willingness to engage is still scant. Managerially, this study provides insights for brand managers wishing to successfully engage and build relationships with Millennials and to identify key routes to Millennials’ loyalty.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

Ying Zhu, Valerie Lynette Wang, Yong Jian Wang and Jim Nastos

Based on theories related to coopetition, the purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of business-to-business digital referrals inscribed in businesses’ digital content.

Abstract

Purpose

Based on theories related to coopetition, the purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of business-to-business digital referrals inscribed in businesses’ digital content.

Design/methodology/approach

A complete industry-wise digital data set is formed by extracting digital referrals in all the content pages. The authors outline how digital referrals are strategically used among peer businesses in the peer-to-peer digital network and in the augmented digital network, taking into consideration geographical framing and physical distance.

Findings

The authors reveal how geographical framing and physical distance influence peer-to-peer referral patterns in the digital space. Quite counter-intuitively, businesses are more likely to give digital referrals for peers residing in the same region, as well as for peers located in closer proximity. Further, results from the augmented digital network show that peer businesses in closer proximity exhibit greater strategic similarity in their digital referring strategy.

Research limitations/implications

The findings extend the understanding of business-to-business coopetition to the digital space and suggest that geographical framing and physical distance can induce reciprocated relationships between peers by offering each other digital referrals.

Practical implications

The findings shed light on the formation of a business-to-business digital coopetition strategy using digital referral marketing.

Originality/value

This study highlights the impact of digital referrals in business-to-business relationship management, especially in the digital coopetition context.

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2019

Patrícia Ianelli Rocha, Jorge Henrique Caldeira de Oliveira and Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi

The purpose of this paper is to perform an integrative analysis, mapping the main areas of the celebrity endorsement literature of the last 20 years, offering a taxonomy…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to perform an integrative analysis, mapping the main areas of the celebrity endorsement literature of the last 20 years, offering a taxonomy of subject subareas and a research agenda for the topic.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was divided into two stages: the first was a systematic review of literature, and the second consisted on complementary information based on the generation and analysis of the maps elaborated by the VOSviewer software based on the data collected. The searches for the data occurred between the months of January and March of 2017.

Findings

The paper provides a decentralization framework in terms of authors regarding the celebrity endorsement. The country with the largest number of research works in the area is the USA; also, the paper reveals the most cited document, also the main journals about the theme, the main keywords, the main authors and their discussions. Thereafter, the paper presents tables containing the main author’s and respective theme inside celebrity endorsement.

Research limitations/implications

One possible limitation of the research is that it was performed only in the Scopus database, and it may be suggested as future searches that other databases are included as well.

Practical implications

The results of this paper can serve as a facilitating guide for researchers and for managers that want to know more about the topic.

Originality/value

A categorization table was proposed containing the subthemes of celebrity endorsement that were discussed in the last 20 years and a list of their respective authors, including the following subjects: cultural comparison, congruence, adverse effects, efficacy and intention to purchase, marketing destinations, social media, models and reviews, multiple endorsements, social policy, values of brand/economic.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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