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Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2008

Teresa Lightner, Robert Ricketts and Brett R. Wilkinson

We analyze cumulative abnormal returns (CARs) around key events leading up to the passage of JGTRRA to determine whether a reduction in the individual tax rate on dividend…

Abstract

We analyze cumulative abnormal returns (CARs) around key events leading up to the passage of JGTRRA to determine whether a reduction in the individual tax rate on dividend income affects stock prices, and if so, whether that effect differs for different groups of firms. In general, we find that dividend yield is positive and significantly related to CARs around both the December and January announcements that legislation might be enacted to reduce or eliminate the dividend tax. Consistent with this observation, when Congress subsequently passed the final Senate vote to reduce but not eliminate dividend taxes, we observe positive and statistically significant returns for high-yield dividend firms, but not for other firms. Additionally, we analyze the role of institutional ownership in the relation between firm yield and price reaction. The incentive to buy dividend-paying stocks should not be influenced by the degree to which a firm's stock is held by institutional investors but rather by the firm's dividend yield. Our results suggest that this distinction is important – institutional ownership appears to be significant for tax changes that induce seller-initiated market reactions, but not for changes that increase buyer-initiated reactions.

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Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-912-8

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Book part
Publication date: 18 December 2017

Kimberly Key, Teresa Lightner and Bing Luo

This study investigates the relation between residential property values and both property taxes and public services in Georgia’s counties. Capitalization theory predicts…

Abstract

This study investigates the relation between residential property values and both property taxes and public services in Georgia’s counties. Capitalization theory predicts that property values relate negatively to property taxes, and positively to public services. Palmon and Smith (1998) state that errors in public service measures create a capitalization coefficient bias that makes it difficult to isolate tax effects from public service effects. This paper is a first step in defining and quantifying public services and their marginal effect on housing values. It develops public service measures in four quality-of-life areas – economy, education, health, and public safety. The models suggest a strong negative relation between effective tax rates and property values, and a significant positive association between the public service measures and property values. Analyses indicate that property taxes are capitalized into housing prices at greater than 100%, suggesting prior underestimations based on measurement errors in public service variables.

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Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-001-5

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Book part
Publication date: 18 December 2016

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Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-001-5

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Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2008

Teresa Lightner

This study investigates whether corporations consider shareholder-level taxes when setting corporate distribution policy. I investigate the relation between the tax-rate…

Abstract

This study investigates whether corporations consider shareholder-level taxes when setting corporate distribution policy. I investigate the relation between the tax-rate differential on dividend and capital gains income and its effect on firms’ distribution policies. I find that firms consider shareholder-level taxes and that this association varies with the percentage of the firm owned by individual shareholders. Hence, firms increase share repurchases and decrease the percentage of total corporate payout in the form of a dividend as the tax-rate differential increases. Thus, an increased substitution effect occurs as capital gains become relatively more tax-advantaged compared to dividends. Furthermore, I find a positive association between the percentage of the firm owned by individual investors and the percentage of total corporate payout distributed as a repurchase. These findings are consistent with personal income taxes influencing managerial decisions regarding the payout of excess corporate funds.

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Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-912-8

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2008

Abstract

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Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-912-8

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2017

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Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-524-5

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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2013

Ricardo Castro-Salazar

Social entrepreneurs are leaders who aspire to build more just societies through the mechanisms of the market. The concept of social enterprise has grown increasingly…

Abstract

Social entrepreneurs are leaders who aspire to build more just societies through the mechanisms of the market. The concept of social enterprise has grown increasingly popular, but it continues to be a nebulous notion. This chapter explores the meaning of social enterprise and the attributes and characteristics of social entrepreneurial leaders whose enterprises have become the vehicles of social, economic, and even political transformations. The transformative potential of social entrepreneurial leaders is illustrated with brief, but prominent, examples that are aimed to inspire further research. It is shown that social entrepreneurship is not confined to an exclusive arena, but actually flourishes in diverse sectors. It is also posited that educational institutions and organizations can promote greater interest and investment in social entrepreneurship as a progressive model for a positive social change.

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Collective Efficacy: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-680-4

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