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Lot‐splitting involves the possibility of lot sizes at intermediateprocessing steps being less than the production release of the finishedgood. However, the limited…
Lot‐splitting involves the possibility of lot sizes at intermediate processing steps being less than the production release of the finished good. However, the limited research in this area has not been sufficient to counter the conventional wisdom that lot‐splitting (1) is appropriate only where there are sophisticated control mechanisms, and (2) may actually create a log jam on machines where there is already a bottleneck because of the additional set‐ups required. This article includes a lot‐splitting provision as an extension of a published study of alternate routing strategies in a job shop environment. The lot‐splitting rule is very simple and tractable in any job shop; its performance is compared with the situation where, under identical conditions, the lot‐splitting provision is removed.
In a small‐lot manufacturing facility, process planning is the task of specifying a machine series that will produce a certain part from a given raw material…
In a small‐lot manufacturing facility, process planning is the task of specifying a machine series that will produce a certain part from a given raw material. Traditionally, the same machine path or routing is followed each time the part is released for manufacture. A prototype system is developed which adapts routings according to job specification (process quantity and due date), as well as shop conditions (the relative cost and availability of alternative resources). The performance of this system is then compared against the traditional fixed method, as well as two single‐focus, adaptive strategies (least‐cost and least‐load), drawn from research.
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to analyze traditional duties of academic administrators in light of fundamental changes in the ways universities operate…
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to analyze traditional duties of academic administrators in light of fundamental changes in the ways universities operate, increasing demands in teaching, research and costs management, and a looming shortage of qualified faculty, to determine need and opportunity for a better administrative design. Design/methodology/approach – Survey, interview and budget data are collected across a major public university. Findings – Across seven categories of chair duties, 71.3 percent of time demands, more than 3.5 of 5 days in a typical week, involve general managerial tasks that require no discipline‐specific academic credentials. Costs of performing these tasks, both in the way of lost productivity and extra pay, are compiled. Research limitations/implications – While the personal and institutional costs of placing senior faculty in managerial roles has been well‐discussed, prior research has not been directed toward quantifying those costs to suggest remedy. Practical implications – Delegating appropriate duties to committee and non‐academic staff could free senior faculty in leadership roles to remain fully active in teaching and research, the productive work of colleges they're highly trained and most needed to do. Originality/value – This paper builds foundations for restructuring academic leadership more in tune with current realities within higher education so senior faculty are not consumed with duties more efficiently done other ways.
This paper presents the development of personal thermal comfort models for older adults and assesses the models’ performance compared to aggregate approaches. This is…
This paper presents the development of personal thermal comfort models for older adults and assesses the models’ performance compared to aggregate approaches. This is necessary as individual thermal preferences can vary widely between older adults, and the use of aggregate thermal comfort models can result in thermal dissatisfaction for a significant number of older occupants. Personalised thermal comfort models hold the promise of a more targeted and accurate approach.
Twenty-eight personal comfort models have been developed, using deep learning and environmental and personal parameters. The data were collected through a nine-month monitoring study of people aged 65 and over in South Australia, who lived independently. Modelling comprised dataset balancing and normalisation, followed by model tuning to test and select the best hyperparameters’ sets. Finally, models were evaluated with an unseen dataset. Accuracy, Cohen’s Kappa Coefficient and Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC) were used to measure models’ performance.
On average, the individualised models present an accuracy of 74%, a Cohen’s Kappa Coefficient of 0.61 and an AUC of 0.83, representing a significant improvement in predictive performance when compared to similar studies and the “Converted” Predicted Mean Vote (PMVc) model.
While current literature on personal comfort models have focussed solely on younger adults and offices, this study explored a methodology for older people and their dwellings. Additionally, it introduced health perception as a predictor of thermal preference – a variable often overseen by architectural sciences and building engineering. The study also provided insights on the use of deep learning for future studies.
Research on employee mobility has proliferated in the past four decades across four research traditions: Economics, sociology, management, and organizational…
Research on employee mobility has proliferated in the past four decades across four research traditions: Economics, sociology, management, and organizational behavior/human resource management. Despite significant overlap in interest and focus, these four streams of research have evolved independent from each other, resulting in a structural divide. We provide a detailed account of the research on employee mobility and the structural divide across disciplines. We document that the payoff from this profusion of research and increasing interest has been disappointing, as reflected in the limited number of cross-disciplinary citations, even among common topics of interest. However, our analysis also provides some encouraging signs in the form of specific journals and individuals who provide a bridge for cross-disciplinary fertilization.
LIBRARIANS in Britain stand at the threshold of great possibilities. Having passed through the ages of the ecclesiastical library, the rich collector's private library, the academic institutional library, and the rate‐supported public library—all general libraries —they have reached the age of the special library. The next will be that of the co‐ordinated, co‐operative library service.
The statement of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, coming so quickly after the ban on the use of cyclamates in food and drink in the United States, indicates that the new evidence of carcinogenesis in animals, placed at the disposal of the authorities by the U.S. F.D.A., has been accepted; at least, until the results of investigations being carried out in this country are available. The evidence was as new to the U.S. authorities as to our own and in the light of it, they could no longer regard the substances as in the GRAS class of food additives. It is, of course, right that any substance of which there is the slightest doubt should be removed from use; not as the result of food neuroses and health scares, but only on the basis of scientific evidence, however remote the connection. It is also right that there should always be power of selection by consumers avoidance is usually possible with other things known to be harmful, such as smoking and alcohol; in other cases, especially with chemical additives to food and drink, there must be pre‐knowledge, so that those who do not wish to consume food or drink containing such additives can ascertain from labelling those commodities which contain them.
Diversified trading networks have recently drawn a great deal of attention. In the process, the importance of diversity has perhaps been overemphasized. Using the trade in…
Diversified trading networks have recently drawn a great deal of attention. In the process, the importance of diversity has perhaps been overemphasized. Using the trade in port wine from Portugal to Britain as an example, this essay attempts to show how a market once dominated by general, diversified traders was taken over by dedicated specialists whose success might almost be measured by the degree to which they rejected diversification to form a dedicated “commodity chain.” The essay suggests that this strategy was better able to handle matters of quality and the specialized knowledge that port wine required. The essay also highlights the question of power in such a chain. Endemic commodity-chain struggles are clearest in the vertical brand war that broke out in the nineteenth century, which, by concentrating power, marked the final stage in the transformation of the trade from network to vertical integration.
THIS title, abbreviated in current fashion to the initials M.S.T., is given to what Personnel Administration Ltd. describe as a new management technique which has been developed by their research and development division under its director, Mr. B. P. Smith. Its aim is to increase the productivity of workers, particularly semi‐skilled ones engaged on repetitive tasks. Since the company claim that M.S.T. is as significant an advance on work study as work study originally was on rate fixing, it plainly calls for examination by experts.