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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Karen Landay and Rachel E. Frieder

Stress and the military go hand-in-hand, particularly in combat environments. While some personality traits or types weaken relationships between stress and performance…

Abstract

Stress and the military go hand-in-hand, particularly in combat environments. While some personality traits or types weaken relationships between stress and performance, others, such as psychopathy, may strengthen them. In the present chapter, we consider the ramifications of individuals with high levels of psychopathy or psychopathic tendencies in the military with regard to both their own stress and performance and that of those around them. We discuss different reactions to psychological and physical stress, as well as the implications of psychopathic tendencies as they relate to current military issues, including gender, leadership, teamwork, turnover, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicide. By juxtaposing relevant research findings on stress and psychopathy, we conclude that psychopathic tendencies should have neither uniformly negative nor positive effects on stress and performance in the military. Rather, effects on such individuals and the peripheral others with whom they interact will likely vary greatly depending on numerous factors.

Details

Occupational Stress and Well-Being in Military Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-184-7

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Cagri Hamurcu and Hayriye Dilek Hamurcu

In this study, it is investigated whether narcissistic tendencies can predict financial literacy overconfidence.

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, it is investigated whether narcissistic tendencies can predict financial literacy overconfidence.

Design/methodology/approach

Financial literacy overconfidence is analyzed under these three subcategories: overestimation, overplacement and overprecision, according to individual's self-perception of his/her own financial literacy. In order to evaluate narcissistic tendencies, the Turkish version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis II (SCID II) Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) is used. To measure the financial literacy overestimation, overplacement and overprecision biases, a multistaged measurement process designed specially on basic and advanced financial literacy is implemented.

Findings

The current study provides strong evidence that narcissistic tendencies are predictors of financial literacy overestimation, overplacement and overprecision biases. These tendencies in men are greater than in women. Evaluated risk factors of being exposed to these biases among people who have narcissistic tendencies are found to be greater than among people who do not have those tendencies. Due to a particular exposure of narcissistic tendencies, the probability of financial literacy overprecision bias has the highest rate among the others, and it is followed by overestimation and overplacement bias.

Originality/value

This is the first study that measures overconfidence under three subcategories of overestimation, overplacement and overprecision, according to financial literacy. For this reason, it is believed that these results provide valuable evidence in favor of the relation between overconfidence in finance and narcissistic tendencies.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Amit Datta

This study aims to identify the underlying dimensions of hospitality organizational climate and then measure the influence of it on employee turnover tendency.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the underlying dimensions of hospitality organizational climate and then measure the influence of it on employee turnover tendency.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained from 504 employees across 18 upscale hotels in India. Factor analysis was adopted to identify the organizational climate dimensions and its influence on turnover tendency was measured by SEM. One-way ANOVA tested the hypothesis related to the perceived differences among the employees regarding turnover intention.

Findings

Result supports the hypothesized relationship between the constructs that the identified organizational climate structure have strong inverse relationship with employee turnover tendency and its dimension “leaders facilitation and support” was found to influence turnover intention the most, followed by “cohesion, clarity and objectivity of system,” “esprit of profession, organization and workgroup” and “job challenge, variety and feedback.” Results also determined differences among the hotel employees of different job levels and gender regarding turnover tendency.

Practical implications

Study reveals that employee turnover tendency is predominantly influenced by the identified factors of organizational climate and more among the male frontline employees and attrition reduces with age and position. This knowledge will help the hotel's management in designing strategic HRM to control attrition.

Originality/value

This study is the first to establish an organizational climate measure of hotel industry in India and opens scope for future research. It also draws attention to the relationship of organizational climate with turnover tendency.

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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2020

Tiantian Liu, Keith Walley, Geoff Pugh and Paul Adkins

The purpose of this study is to generate insight into the effects of entrepreneurship education in China by conducting a preliminary scoping study of the enterprising…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to generate insight into the effects of entrepreneurship education in China by conducting a preliminary scoping study of the enterprising tendency of university students studying business.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a self-administered questionnaire based on the General Measure of Enterprising Tendency v2 (GET2) test to measure the enterprising tendency of a group of Chinese university students. Decision trees, using the Chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID) approach, and multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the enterprising tendency of respondents.

Findings

The findings from this study indicate that the students have an overall medium level of enterprising tendency and strengths in some enterprising characteristics. The findings reveal that gender, family business, hometown and entrepreneurship education are significantly related to enterprising tendency but that age, household income, parents’ education and occupation are not.

Research limitations/implications

Although the study is based on a relatively small sample taken from just one university in Beijing, the findings suggest that the enterprising tendency of students can be encouraged by entrepreneurship education. Combined with evidence that entrepreneurship education is at a relatively early stage of development in China, this finding suggests considerable scope to increase student’s enterprising tendency by extending, creating a more favourable environment for and improving the methods used to deliver entrepreneurship education. Enterprising tendency can be argued to naturally result in entrepreneurial intention; however, this extension is beyond the scope of this study, which is restricted to the analysis of enterprising tendency.

Originality/value

This study makes an original contribution to knowledge as it is one of the first studies to explore enterprising tendency among university students in China. It has value for government, policymakers and university program designers in that it provides direction for entrepreneurship education in China.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Anders H. Wien

Previous research suggests that self-presentation causes people to have a reflective tendency to produce electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM). Drawing on the theory of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research suggests that self-presentation causes people to have a reflective tendency to produce electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM). Drawing on the theory of the reflective-impulsive model (RIM), this paper aims to examine whether self-presentation also could motivate an impulsive tendency to produce eWOM. Self-monitoring is suggested as a possible moderator in the relationship between self-presentation and impulsive eWOM production.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected based on an online survey of members from a consumer panel. The effective sample size was 574 respondents. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the data.

Findings

The findings show that self-presentation may drive both impulsive and reflective eWOM tendencies; however, that the relationship between self-presentation and impulsive eWOM tendency is contingent on high levels of self-monitoring.

Originality/value

By including self-monitoring as a moderator, this study is the first to show a relationship between self-presentation and impulsive eWOM production. Moreover, the findings show that both impulsive and reflective eWOM tendencies are associated with an enhanced tendency to produce eWOM, thereby demonstrating the usefulness of the RIM theory in understanding eWOM behavior. Overall, the findings shed light on how companies may stimulate eWOM production, and consequently provide insight into creating more effective eWOM campaigns.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

Shahid N. Bhuian and Ibrahim M. Al‐Jabri

The authors explore turnover tendencies among expatriate employees in Saudi Arabia They: (1) discuss the novelty of expatriates in Saudi Arabia; (2) review the literature…

Abstract

The authors explore turnover tendencies among expatriate employees in Saudi Arabia They: (1) discuss the novelty of expatriates in Saudi Arabia; (2) review the literature on employee turnover tendency and its correlates—job satisfaction and employee characteristics; (3) hypothesize a negative relationship between extrinsic job satisfaction and expatriate turnover tendencies, a negative relationship between general job satisfaction and expatriate turnover tendencies, no relationship between intrinsic job satisfaction and expatriate turnover tendencies, and no relationship between expatriate characteristics and expatriate turnover tendencies, and (4) empirically lest the hypotheses with a sample of expatriate employees. Results provide strong support for most of the hypotheses except “pay,” one of the extrinsic job satisfaction variables, and “job feedback,” one of the intrinsic job satisfaction variables.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Xiaofang Yao, Xiyue Wu and Dan Long

This paper aims to explore the impact mechanism of Chinese university students’ perceived entrepreneurial environment on their entrepreneurial tendency in the context of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the impact mechanism of Chinese university students’ perceived entrepreneurial environment on their entrepreneurial tendency in the context of Chinese economic transition. In particular, the paper provides a reference for relevant departments to make policies and entrepreneurship educators to perfect the pedagogical design and curriculum development in entrepreneurship education programs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used questionnaires to collect data in Chinese universities via random sampling, and gained 729 valid questionnaires. Results from principal component analysis indicate that the scales have a good reliability. In particular, entrepreneurial attitude had three components. The hypotheses are tested by using Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression; the level of statistical significance of F-test was less than 0.05. Hence, multiple linear regression can be used in the analyses.

Findings

The study found that university students’ perceived social environment and economic environment have a positive influence on their entrepreneurial tendency, and entrepreneurial attitude is partially playing a mediating role between students’ perceived entrepreneurial environment and entrepreneurial tendency. However, students’ perceived policy environment has no significant impact on entrepreneurial tendency.

Originality/value

Environmental factors are often viewed as“gap fillers” in related studies, and mostly concentrated in the Western developed countries. This study attempts to fill the gaps in the context of Chinese economic transition.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Chu‐Hua Kuei, Christian N. Madu, Chinho Lin and Min H. Lu

Assesses the relationship between quality management practices and organizational climate. This study uses two well‐developed instruments to assess the relationship. A…

Abstract

Assesses the relationship between quality management practices and organizational climate. This study uses two well‐developed instruments to assess the relationship. A total of 386 questionnaires were mailed to managers drawn from a list of Taiwan’s top 500 manufacturing corporations. A total of 86 middle line managers returned the questionnaires for this study. Discriminant analysis was used to examine the relationship between quality management practices and organizational climate. The result indicates that high quality‐tendency groups perceive a loose organizational structure, while medium quality‐tendency groups perceive a more bureaucratic organizational structure. Regarding people orientation, finds that medium quality‐tendency groups tend to emphasize that more, followed by high quality‐tendency groups and then low quality‐tendency groups. Also identifies the organizational climate indicators that separate high, medium, and low quality‐tendency organizations.

Details

International Journal of Quality Science, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8538

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2018

Wen Wu, Jingli Liu and Xiaopu Shang

Building on social informational processing theory, the purpose of this paper is to develop and test a theoretical model of moderated mediation in which social loafing…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on social informational processing theory, the purpose of this paper is to develop and test a theoretical model of moderated mediation in which social loafing tendency serves as an intervening mechanism that explains associations among two dimensions of leader–member relationships (formal and informal relationships, namely, leader–member exchange and leader–member guanxi) and customer service performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors designed a field study to test the hypotheses presented in this paper. A survey of 304 supervisor–employee pairs and matched customers generally provide support for this model.

Findings

The authors found that social loafing tendency played a mediating role between leader–member relationships and customer service performance. Co-worker service-oriented OCB moderated the positive relationship between leader–member guanxi and loafing tendency.

Research limitations/implications

More samples should be collected from both private and state-owned company. Both the informal and formal leader–member relationships should be unanimously included in examining how the leader–member relationships influence focal employee’s attitude and behavior, particularly in societies where the informal relationship plays noticeable role.

Practical implications

Managers should properly deal with formal and informal relationship with subordinates.

Originality/value

The influence of leader–member guanxi on employees and organization is controversial in extant literature. In some sense, this finding contributes to extant literature by further clarifying the influence of guanxi on the focal employee’s performance.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Kate Letheren, Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn, Ian Lings and Nigel K. Ll. Pope

This paper aims to addresses an important gap in anthropomorphism research by examining the individual-level factors that correlate with anthropomorphic tendency.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to addresses an important gap in anthropomorphism research by examining the individual-level factors that correlate with anthropomorphic tendency.

Design/methodology/approach

The extant psychology, marketing and consumer psychology literature is reviewed, and eight hypotheses devised. Data from 509 online survey respondents are analysed to identify individual characteristics associated with anthropomorphic tendency.

Findings

The results reveal that anthropomorphic tendency varies by individual and is significantly related to personality, age, relationship status, personal connection to animals and experiential thinking.

Research limitations/implications

This paper extends on recent research into the individual nature of anthropomorphic tendency, once thought to be a universal trait. Given that this paper is the first of its kind, testing of further traits is merited. It is suggested that future research further examine personality, as well as other elements of individual difference, and test the role of anthropomorphic tendency in the development of processing abilities with age.

Practical implications

Findings show that anthropomorphic tendency may prove to be a key variable in the segmentation of markets and the design of marketing communications, and that younger, single, more creative, conscientious consumers are an appropriate target for anthropomorphic messages. The importance of personal connection to animals, as well as experiential thinking, is also highlighted.

Originality/value

Given the importance of anthropomorphic tendency for the processing of messages involving non-human endorsers, as well as the formation of relevant attitudes and behaviours, this paper fulfils an identified need to further understand the characteristics of those high on this tendency.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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