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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Tendai Chikweche and Richard Fletcher

This article investigates the relationship between entrepreneurship and ethics under extreme poverty conditions to unearth context-specific nuances faced by entrepreneurs…

Abstract

Purpose

This article investigates the relationship between entrepreneurship and ethics under extreme poverty conditions to unearth context-specific nuances faced by entrepreneurs in these conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study, research method approach was used to collect data from established firms engaged in some form of entrepreneurship and new entrepreneurs.

Findings

Findings from the study indicate that a different mindset is required for entrepreneurs to conduct business in conditions of extreme poverty, and therefore a different approach is needed to evaluate business ethics instead of a wholesale adaptation of Western-based ethical values and practices. The study identifies and provides evidence of imitative entrepreneurship undertaken by both new entrepreneurs and established firms to address basic human needs such as for food and personal hygiene.

Research limitations/implications

The emic focus on Zimbabwe, which has its own inherent circumstances, has the potential to minimise the generalisability of findings from the study. However, this does not detract from the findings of the study but actually provides a basis for further research in other markets that have extreme poverty conditions.

Practical implications

Coping strategies are outlined for managing constraints faced by entrepreneurs and opportunities for interacting with consumers. A conceptual framework is developed for use in understanding and managing the relationship between entrepreneurship and ethics in markets where there are conditions of extreme poverty.

Originality/value

Previous studies have largely focused on Western developed markets. This article extends the debate to markets under conditions of extreme poverty.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 April 2019

James Lappeman, Caitlin Ferreira, Jeandri Robertson and Tendai Chikweche

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the nature of variations among established and emerging middle class consumers in South Africa in response to the institution…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the nature of variations among established and emerging middle class consumers in South Africa in response to the institution context factors associated with emerging markets that are established in international business studies.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory research approach using semi-structured expert interviews was used to collect data.

Findings

Key findings indicate distinct approaches in dealing with factors such as different fallback positions, asset ownership, education, language, family responsibility, career aspirations and risk protection in the middle class process of attaining and sustaining middle class status.

Research limitations/implications

The focus on one country has the potential to minimize the generalizability of findings from the study, however, South Africa has a significantly high proportion of sub-Saharan middle class consumers. This provides a basis for further a basis for further research into other sub-Saharan African countries.

Practical implications

Findings from the study provide practical insights on risk profiling of middle-class consumers for marketing practitioners.

Social implications

The study provides insights into the distinct variations between emerging and established middle class consumers in areas such as language and education. These insights have potential implications on the implementation of government policies such as the Empowerment Policy and consumer protection.

Originality/value

The paper expands the research agenda in the area of middle class consumer behavior in emerging markets. By concentrating on South Africa, the research expands existing knowledge beyond emerging giants like China and India, which are often a focus in literature.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Samrand Toufani, John Philip Stanton and Tendai Chikweche

The purpose of this paper is to examine how potential purchasers of a personal information, communication and entertainment device such as a smartphone, perceive the…

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4335

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how potential purchasers of a personal information, communication and entertainment device such as a smartphone, perceive the aesthetics of such a product. It then examines whether appreciation of the product’s aesthetics influences their purchase intention through different dimensions of perceived value drawn from perceptions of the product’s aesthetics, or whether there is a direct relationship from aesthetics to purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixed methods consisting of two focus groups, a pilot and large online surveys were used for instrument confirmation and data collection. Data were analysed and hypotheses were tested using partial least squares structural equation modelling techniques.

Findings

Aesthetics’ primary effect on purchase intention is not direct, but rather indirect through perceived social and to a lesser extent, perceived emotional value while the importance of aesthetics on perceived functional value is far less. There was also support for a formative approach in the construction of an aesthetics scale with the identification of four different latent factors of aesthetics.

Research limitations/implications

This study is product specific but should be extendable to the product category. The possibility of other variables affecting the aesthetic appreciation of a product also needs consideration.

Practical implications

The study provides managers with insights on how aesthetics can be used to strengthen purchase intention in terms of both product development and promotional strategies. Aesthetics’ appeal to social and emotional perceived values, rather than functional value, provides guidance on how to use aesthetics in promotional campaigns.

Originality/value

Despite the richness of the literature on aesthetics, only a limited number of studies have researched the factors influencing aesthetic appreciation of a product and the effect on purchase intention. This research expands knowledge in the area thereby providing new insights on the influence of aesthetics on marketing.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Tendai Chikweche

The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for firms’ continued presence in a difficult bottom of pyramid (BOP) environment, outlining the challenges of…

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5694

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for firms’ continued presence in a difficult bottom of pyramid (BOP) environment, outlining the challenges of establishing a market orientation and required key strategic marketing requirements for effective engagement of this segment.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed research method approach comprising, qualitative research methods approach consisting of case studies and ethnographic observations was used to collect data from two local firms and two MNC subsidiaries that manufacture food and personal hygiene products in Zimbabwe.

Findings

Key findings include identification of presence of new and previously cited diverse macro-environmental challenges cited by BOP researchers, confirmation of attraction and viability of the BOP, identification of multiple motivators for continued presence and a strategic framework for effectively serving the market is then proposed.

Research limitations/implications

The sample used is small but representative of a majority of the sales of food and personal hygiene products in a developing country and confining the focus to the food and personal hygiene sector may limit generalisation of findings to a broader population.

Practical implications

The paper provides managers with insights on identifying key strategic marketing requirements that enhance their engagement of the BOP.

Originality/value

Research into the BOP is a relatively new area of study in international business. The majority of studies have focused on Latin America and Asia ignoring the 800 million BOP consumers in Africa. The paper expands knowledge in the area thereby providing new insights on marketing to the BOP. The paper extends the discussion on potential marketing strategies for the BOP beyond the marketing mix discussion, which has been the focal point of previous studies.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2013

Tendai Chikweche and Richard Fletcher

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of customer relationship management (CRM) at the bottom of the pyramid (BOP).

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4429

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of customer relationship management (CRM) at the bottom of the pyramid (BOP).

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative interaction research methodology using case studies was used to conduct the research on the application of CRM at the BOP.

Findings

The key findings show that at the BOP, CRM is a key strategic tool that can be used by firms and can be facilitated by firms' relationships and connections to consumers' social networks.

Research limitations/implications

Replication of the study might be required in other BOP markets, to improve generalizability using larger samples.

Practical implications

The study provides managers with insights into the importance of CRM at the BOP and the need for proper planning and management in order for the concept to be effective.

Originality/value

This research expands knowledge in the area by extending the research context of the BOP to include Africa, and it proposes a framework that can be used for implementing CRM at the BOP.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Tendai Chikweche and Richard Fletcher

The purpose of this paper is to argue that firms need to reconsider application of the conventional marketing mix at the bottom of pyramid (BOP) because variables exist…

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10092

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that firms need to reconsider application of the conventional marketing mix at the bottom of pyramid (BOP) because variables exist that impact differently on the interaction between firms and consumers at the BOP.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixture of qualitative data collection methods was used comprising multiple case studies using in‐depth, one‐to‐one interviews and ethnographic observations.

Findings

Key findings include the identification of social networks as an intervening variable for firms to consider when implementing the marketing mix at the BOP and the need for continuous consultative interaction between firms and customers which is facilitated by social networks.

Research limitations/implications

Firms in the sample used for research were confined to those in the fast‐moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. The research was also restricted to Zimbabwe. Generalisation could be enhanced by using a larger sample of firms drawn from different product and service categories that catered for the BOP in a number of different countries.

Practical implications

Findings from the study provide practical insights for marketing managers to consider when developing a marketing mix to serve the BOP. Primarily, managers could implement a variety of strategies to enhance the way they engage with customers in the BOP market.

Social implications

The study provides insights into how firms can improve livelihoods of those at the BOP by providing employment and business opportunities through their partnerships with social networks.

Originality/value

The paper expands research agenda of the relatively new area of the BOP. By focusing on a BOP market in Africa, the research expands existing knowledge beyond previous areas of focus in Asia and Latin America.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Tendai Chikweche and Richard Fletcher

The purpose of this paper is to examine base of pyramid (BOP) customer perceptions on the importance of branding as a purchase driver and to investigate firms' marketing…

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2591

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine base of pyramid (BOP) customer perceptions on the importance of branding as a purchase driver and to investigate firms' marketing programs used to manage brands at the BOP.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data collection methods comprising in‐depth one‐to‐one consumer interviews, focus groups, ethnographic observations and case studies were used to conduct the research.

Findings

Key findings include the identification of importance of brands to BOP consumers, evolution of brand communities, and impact of social networks on the marketing programs used by firms to build brand equity.

Research limitations/implications

The sample used for consumer interviews is small and confining the focus to the food and personal hygiene sector may limit generalization of findings to a broader population.

Practical implications

The study provides managers with insights on the importance of brands in the purchase decision at BOP and on the different nature and focus of marketing programs which can be effective at the BOP, specifically the need to align programs to social networks.

Social implications

The study provides insights on how firms can improve livelihoods at the BOP by provision of employment and business opportunities through their brand equity building activities.

Originality/value

Research into the BOP is a relatively new area of study in international business. This expands knowledge in the area by employing empirical mixed research methods to study consumers and firms, since the two have a dyadic relationship – thereby providing new insights on branding at the BOP.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2014

Tendai Chikweche and Richard Fletcher

– The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence the growing African middle class (middle of pyramid; MOP) consumers' purchase decision making.

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2909

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence the growing African middle class (middle of pyramid; MOP) consumers' purchase decision making.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed qualitative research method approach comprising in-depth interviews was used to collect data from middle of pyramid consumers in four countries. Secondary data analysis was used to complement the interviews.

Findings

Key findings include the identification of three key intertwined influencers of branding, peer and social networks and aesthetics and product performance. Other influencers include technology and new products, distribution channels and family.

Research limitations/implications

The focus on four countries has the potential to minimize the generalizability of findings from the study although the four countries used have a significant amount of middle class consumers in Africa. However, this does not detract from the findings of the study but actually provides a basis for further research into other emerging markets.

Practical implications

Findings from the study provide practical insights for marketing managers who intend to serve this market, key of which are branding, use of social networks, online distribution and maximising technology.

Originality/value

The paper expands the research agenda of the relatively new area of the MOP. By focusing on the MOP in Africa, the research expands existing knowledge beyond previous areas of focus of middle class studies that focus on China and India.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2012

Tendai Chikweche, John Stanton and Richard Fletcher

This paper seeks to argue that family purchase decision making at the bottom of the pyramid (BOP) is dynamic, heterogeneous and an evolving process that can be influenced…

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6523

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to argue that family purchase decision making at the bottom of the pyramid (BOP) is dynamic, heterogeneous and an evolving process that can be influenced by contextual macro‐environmental constraints. Because established perceptions of family purchase decision making are primarily drawn from western markets, this Zimbabwean study aims to provide a contrasting perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data collection methods comprising in‐depth, one‐to‐one consumer interviews, focus groups, ethnographic observations and cases studies were used to conduct the research.

Findings

Key findings include the identification of changing and multiple family buying models, which are influenced by the constraints consumers face at the BOP, as well as the distinct roles of children, which differ from those common in developed western countries.

Research limitations/implications

The sample used for consumer interviews is small and confining the focus to the food and personal hygiene sector may limit generalization of findings to a broader population.

Practical implications

The study provides managers with insights on the importance of understanding family purchase decision making at the BOP and the importance of adapting the marketing mix elements such as promotion strategies to suit the challenges faced by these consumers.

Social implications

The study provides insights into how firms can improve livelihoods at the BOP by provision of employment and business opportunities through their partnerships with social networks.

Originality/value

Research into the BOP is a relatively new area of study in international business. The majority of studies have focused on Latin America and Asia, ignoring the 800 million BOP consumers in Africa. Hence this research expands knowledge in the area by employing empirical mixed research methods to study consumers in their real world setting thereby providing new insights on marketing to the BOP.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2014

Tendai Chikweche and Richard Fletcher

The purpose of this paper is to expand knowledge about how middle class consumers in Sub-Saharan African markets behave, focusing on the potential role of social networks…

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1175

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to expand knowledge about how middle class consumers in Sub-Saharan African markets behave, focusing on the potential role of social networks and the subsequent interactions that take place between these consumers and firms.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research method approach comprising personal interviews and observations targeted at consumers and business executives was used covering all four countries.

Findings

Key findings include identification of middle of the pyramid (MOP) social networks, their impact on consumer behaviour and nature of consumer and firm interactions that take place as a result of the impact of social networks.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size was restricted to 80 consumers in each of the four countries. This might limit generalisability.

Practical implications

The study provides managers with insights on the potential role of social networks on marketing to the MOP in Africa.

Social implications

The study provides managers with insights on the potential opportunities for corporate social responsibility solutions at the MOP.

Originality/value

Research into the middle class in markets other than western advanced economies is a relatively new area of study. The majority of studies on the middle class have focused on North America and Europe ignoring the merging middle class in Africa. Hence, this research expands knowledge by providing basis for exploring new insights on the emerging marketing opportunity within the middle class in Africa.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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