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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2019

Jonas Tana, Emil Eirola and Kristina Eriksson-Backa

This paper brings focus and attention to the aspect of time within health information behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to critically assess and present strengths…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper brings focus and attention to the aspect of time within health information behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to critically assess and present strengths and weaknesses of utilising the infodemiology approach and metrics as a novel way to examine temporal variations and patterns of online health information behaviour. The approach is shortly exemplified by presenting empirical evidence for temporal patterns of health information behaviour on different time-scales.

Design/methodology/approach

A short review of online health information behaviour is presented and methodological barriers to studying the temporal nature of this behaviour are emphasised. To exemplify how the infodemiology approach and metrics can be utilised to examine temporal patterns, and to test the hypothesis of existing rhythmicity of health information behaviour, a brief analysis of longitudinal data from a large discussion forum is analysed.

Findings

Clear evidence of robust temporal patterns and variations of online health information behaviour are shown. The paper highlights that focussing on time and the question of when people engage in health information behaviour can have significant consequences.

Practical implications

Studying temporal patterns and trends for health information behaviour can help in creating optimal interventions and health promotion campaigns at optimal times. This can be highly beneficial for positive health outcomes.

Originality/value

A new methodological approach to study online health information behaviour from a temporal perspective, a phenomenon that has previously been neglected, is presented. Providing evidence for rhythmicity can complement existing epidemiological data for a more holistic picture of health and diseases, and their behavioural aspects.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 71 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

Ellen G. Cohn

Examines the effect of weather and temporal factors on the total calls for service (CFS) at the Minneapolis Police Department. Aims at the eventual development of an…

Abstract

Examines the effect of weather and temporal factors on the total calls for service (CFS) at the Minneapolis Police Department. Aims at the eventual development of an instrument to predict short‐term variations in CFS over time ‐ a goal which at present is unique. Finds that CFS increase at times when individuals have less habitual routine activities, e.g. after dark; during vacation months. Suggests that temporal factors have much more impact than the weather. Points out some practical implications for the criminal justice system, e.g., future schedules can be adjusted for temporal variations, thus helping in the deployment of officers. Shows that accurate prediction of the overall number of CFS is possible when temporal and weather factors are used.

Details

American Journal of Police, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0735-8547

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2019

Xingpeng Liu, Dandan Yan and Kama Huang

The purpose of this paper is to present the temporal reflection of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) in simple polar-molecule reactions whose polarization changes with the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the temporal reflection of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) in simple polar-molecule reactions whose polarization changes with the proceeding of the reactions.

Design/methodology/approach

At a temporal boundary, based on the continuity of the electric displacement and magnetic induction, the reflected condition of EMWs is obtained, and the expression of the transmission and reflection coefficients in the reactions is derived. Subsequently, a one-dimensional model is used to validate the reflected condition and expression.

Findings

If the time scale of the component concentration variation is greater than the wave period, the polarization of the reactions at a temporal boundary is continuous. The reflection does not happen. On the other hand, when the time scale of the component concentration variation is smaller than the wave period, the polarization is not continuous at a temporal boundary. The impedance of the reactions at the temporal boundary changes and the reflection occurs.

Originality/value

The results may be helpful in disclosing the non-uniform distribution of EMWs in chemical reactions.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2010

Lawrence Hazelrigg

One crucial but sometimes overlooked fact regarding the difference between observation in the cross-section and observation over time must be stated before proceeding…

Abstract

One crucial but sometimes overlooked fact regarding the difference between observation in the cross-section and observation over time must be stated before proceeding further. Tempting though it is to draw conclusions about the dynamics of a process from cross-sectional observations taken as a snapshot of that process, it is a fallacious practice except under a very precise condition that is highly unlikely to obtain in processes of interest to the social scientist. That condition is known as ergodicity.

Details

Theorizing the Dynamics of Social Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-223-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

John Goodman and David C. Wyld

Documents a case study in the use of Shainin Design of Experiments in an industrial honing operation. Provides an overview of the process which attempts to reduce process…

Abstract

Documents a case study in the use of Shainin Design of Experiments in an industrial honing operation. Provides an overview of the process which attempts to reduce process variability by isolating the most influential factor (Red X). Shows the details of the week‐long experiment and gives some analysis of the data. Uses multiple statistical techniques to identify Red X and discusses corrective action. Suggests that this methodology is very practical and easily executable in many settings, making it one of the most approachable quality techniques available.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 24 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

Pradeep K. Jha and Sukanta K. Dash

The Navier‐Stokes equation and the species continuity equation have been solved numerically in a boundary fitted coordinate system comprising the geometry of a large scale…

Abstract

The Navier‐Stokes equation and the species continuity equation have been solved numerically in a boundary fitted coordinate system comprising the geometry of a large scale industrial size tundish. The solution of the species continuity equation predicts the time evolution of the concentration of a tracer at the outlet of a single strand bare tundish. The numerical prediction of the tracer concentration has been made with three different turbulence models; (a standard kε, a kε RNG and a Low Re number Lam‐Bremhorst model) which favorably compares with that of the experimental observation for a single strand bare tundish. It has been found that the overall comparison of kε model with that of the experiment is better than the other two turbulence models as far as gross quantities like mean residence time and ratio of mixed to dead volume are concerned. However, it has been found that the initial transient development of the tracer concentration is best predicted by the Lam‐Bremhorst model and then by the RNG model. The kε model predicts the tracer concentration much better than the other two models after the initial transience (t>40 per cent of mean residence time) and the RNG model lies in between the kε and the Lam‐Bremhorst one. The numerical study has been extended to a multi strand tundish (having 6 outlets) where the effect of outlet positions on the ratio of mix to dead volume has been studied with the help of the above three turbulence models. It has been found that all the three turbulence models show a peak value for the ratio of mix to dead volume (a mixing parameter) when the outlets are placed 200 mm away from the wall (position‐2) thus signifying an optimum location for the outlets to get highest mixing in a given multi strand tundish.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Pradeep K. Jha and Sukanta K. Dash

The Navier‐Stokes equation and the species continuity equation have been solved numerically in a boundary fitted coordinate system comprising the geometry of a large scale…

Abstract

The Navier‐Stokes equation and the species continuity equation have been solved numerically in a boundary fitted coordinate system comprising the geometry of a large scale industrial size tundish. The solution of the species continuity equation predicts the time evolution of the concentration of a tracer at the outlets of a six strand billet caster tundish. The numerical prediction of the tracer concentration has been made with six different turbulence models (the standard k‐ε, the k‐ε RNG, the Low Re number Lam‐Bremhorst model, the Chen‐Kim high Re number model (CK), the Chen‐Kim low Re number model (CKL) and the simplest constant effective viscosity model (CEV)) which favorably compares with that of the experimental observation for a single strand bare tundish. It has been found that the overall comparison of the k‐ε model, the RNG, the Lam‐Bremhorst and the CK model is much better than the CKL model and the CEV model as far as gross quantities like the mean residence time and the ratio of mixed to dead volume are concerned. However, the k‐ε model predicts the closest value to the experimental observation compared to all other models. The prediction of the transient behavior of the tracer is best done by the Lam‐Bremhorst model and then by the RNG model, but these models do not predict the gross quantities that accurately like the k‐ε model for a single strand bare tundish. With the help of the above six turbulence models mixing parameters such as the ratio of mix to dead volume and the mean residence time were computed for the six strand tundish for different outlet positions, height of advanced pouring box (APB) and shroud immersion depth. It was found that three turbulence models show a peak value in the ratio of mix to dead volume when the outlets were placed at 200 mm away from the wall. An APB was put on the bottom of the tundish surrounding the inlet jet when the outlets were kept at 200 mm away from the wall. It was also found that there exists an optimum height of the APB where the ratio of mix to dead volume and the mean residence time attain further peak values signifying better mixing in the tundish. At this optimum height of the APB, the shroud immersion depth was made to change from 0 to 400 mm. It was also observed that there exists an optimum immersion depth of the shroud where the ratio of mix to dead volume still attains another peak signifying still better mixing. However, all the turbulence models do not predict the same optimum height of the APB and the same shroud immersion depth as the optimum depth. The optimum height of the APB and the shroud immersion depth were decided when two or more turbulence models predict the same values.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 14 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2019

Gouri Mohan and Yih-teen Lee

Collective global leadership requires team members to attempt to influence as well as accept influence from each other across multiple cultural, linguistic, and national…

Abstract

Collective global leadership requires team members to attempt to influence as well as accept influence from each other across multiple cultural, linguistic, and national boundaries, which is affected by the extent to which team members perceive the team as being safe for interpersonal risk-taking or the level of psychological safety in the team. The higher levels of collective leadership can, in turn, enhance the perceived psychological safety, and thereby create more positive outcomes for the team. This reciprocal relationship may be influenced by changes in team dynamics across the different stages of a team lifecycle. Using an inductive longitudinal study of 76 teams for nine months, we uncover the time-variant mutually reinforcing relationship between collective global leadership and team psychological safety. Our results show that the strength of this reciprocal relationship varies such that it is absent in the initial stage, becomes prominent in the middle stage, and then remains present, yet somewhat weakened, in the final stage of the team lifecycle. Our results also show that the initial collective leadership patterns in the team positively affect final leadership patterns, and this relationship is mediated by the team’s psychological safety in the middle stage of the team lifecycle. We discuss implications of this study on the theory and practice of global leadership and multinational teams.

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Behzad Bahraminejad, Shahnor Basri, Maryam Isa and Zarida Hambali

The purpose of this paper is to explore the ability of capillary‐attached gas sensor (CGS) in detecting components of gas mixtures, including a volatile organic gas and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the ability of capillary‐attached gas sensor (CGS) in detecting components of gas mixtures, including a volatile organic gas and hydrogen in a wide range of concentrations.

Design/methodology/approach

Diverse feature extraction and classification techniques were employed to analyze the response of CGS when applied to different mixtures.

Findings

It was observed that the response of CGS to the above gas mixtures could be distinguishable. While evaluating the results of the classification technique, it was implied that hydrogen, in the presence of the volatile organic gases, could be detected perfectly by analyzing the response of the CGS. Separating techniques, which yielded a high rate of classification, were used to separate mixtures containing hydrogen and organic gases from other organic gas mixtures without hydrogen.

Originality/value

The results presented in this paper prove the ability of CGS in fabricating an olfactory machine for analyzing the components of gas mixtures.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Abhijit Mitra, Sufia Zaman and Subhra Bikash Bhattacharyya

The Gangetic delta, sustaining the Sundarbans mangrove forest at the apex of the Bay of Bengal is recognized as one of the most diversified and productive ecosystems in…

Abstract

The Gangetic delta, sustaining the Sundarbans mangrove forest at the apex of the Bay of Bengal is recognized as one of the most diversified and productive ecosystems in the Indian subcontinent. The deltaic lobe is unique for its wilderness, mangrove gene pool and tiger habitat. However, due to intense industrial activities in the upstream zone, and several anthropogenic factors, the aquatic phase in the western part of the deltaic complex is exposed to pollution from domestic sewage and industrial effluents leading to serious impacts on biota. The presence of Haldia port-cum-industrial complex in the upstream region of the lower Gangetic delta (adjacent to western sector of Indian Sundarbans) has accelerated the pollution problem to a much greater dimension. The organic and inorganic wastes released from industries and urban units contain substantial concentrations of heavy metals. The present article aims to highlight the level of selective heavy metals (zinc, copper, and lead) in the water and muscle of a commercially important shellfish species (Penaeus monodon, commonly known as tiger prawn) collected from two sectors (western and central) in the Indian Sundarbans. Heavy metals are accumulated in the prawn muscle in the following order – zinc > copper > lead – which is similar to the order in the ambient estuarine water. Significant spatial variations of heavy metal concentrations in estuarine water and prawn muscle were observed between the selected sectors, which reflect the adverse impact of intense industrialization, unplanned tourism, and rapid urbanization on the mangrove ecosystem and its biotic community, particularly in the western Indian Sundarbans.

Details

Water Insecurity: A Social Dilemma
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-882-2

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