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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2021

Masahiro Hosoda

This study aims to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected telework initiatives in Japanese companies and investigate the factors that affect telework based on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected telework initiatives in Japanese companies and investigate the factors that affect telework based on the technology, organization and environment (TOE) model, through the analysis of published documents.

Design/methodology/approach

Document analysis was adopted. Documents were collected from English news articles in the Nikkei Asian Review and Nikkei Asia which cover Japan's economy, industries and markets. The results of surveys by the Persol Research Institute and Tokyo Chamber of Commerce and Industry were also provided to discuss factors promoting and hindering telework. Content analysis was adopted to analyse the documents.

Findings

COVID-19 had an unavoidable impact on the implementation of telework that the government had previously failed to instigate. Japanese listed companies tend to implement telework, whereas small- and medium-sized companies are struggling. The ratio of telework has been low even after the declaration of the state of emergency because there exist organizational, technological and environmental barriers to telework in Japan.

Originality/value

This study contributes to discussions on work style reform by focusing on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on telework. This research also gives new insight into operationalization of telework in organizations not only in Japan but also in other countries known for low rates of telework and inflexible work styles such as Korea.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Elizabeth Christopher

Telework – the practice of allowing employees to work in locations other than traditional workplaces – has had a roller-coaster ride since the early 1970s, when it was…

Abstract

Telework – the practice of allowing employees to work in locations other than traditional workplaces – has had a roller-coaster ride since the early 1970s, when it was argued that home-based networked computers would enable employees to work remotely and, thus, outdate the old factory–style model of corporate life. It was assumed that telework, or telecommuting, would be widely accepted and indeed it was much sought after by employees, particularly by women; but management fears of, and resistance to the practice – for a variety of reasons – meant that by 2019 in the United Kingdom, for example, only 5% of the labor force worked mainly from home.

The chapter summarizes the history of telecommuting, discusses the reasons for employers' and managers' refusal to allow it, and how the crisis of Covid-19 may have persuaded managers worldwide – with government support – to implement and improve the entire practice of working from home as a permanent aspect of workplace diversity.

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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2016

Niels Hoornweg, Pascale Peters and Beatrice van der Heijden

This survey study among 111 teleworkers in a bank organization investigated the relationship between telework intensity and individual productivity, and whether this…

Abstract

This survey study among 111 teleworkers in a bank organization investigated the relationship between telework intensity and individual productivity, and whether this relationship was mediated by employees’ intrinsic motivation. Also the moderating role of office hours in the model’s associations was studied. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007) and the professional isolation literature (e.g., Golden, Vega, & Dino, 2008), we developed and tested a set of hypotheses. Partly in line with expectations, we found a direct curvilinear relationship between telework intensity and individual productivity, characterized by a slight, non-significant positive association at the low telework intensity end, and a significant negative association for the high telework intensity end. Strikingly, we neither found support for a mediating role of intrinsic motivation, nor for a moderation effect of the number of office hours in the relationship between telework intensity and intrinsic motivation. However, the direct relationship between telework intensity and individual productivity appeared to be moderated by the number of office hours. It was concluded that consequences for productivity are contingent on telework intensity, and that the number of office hours has an important impact on the consequences of different telework intensities. The study’s outcomes can inform management and HR practitioners to understand how to implement and appropriately make use of telework.

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2006

Anita Reed, James E. Hunton and Carolyn Strand Norman

Telework is becoming a viable and appealing work option in the accounting profession (Hunton, 2005). Many accounting firms have implemented telework arrangements to…

Abstract

Telework is becoming a viable and appealing work option in the accounting profession (Hunton, 2005). Many accounting firms have implemented telework arrangements to provide flexibility and support for employees who seek an acceptable balance between career and family. This form of work also supports business sustainability in the event of acts of terrorism or natural disasters. Increased reliance on various forms of telework gives rise to questions of appropriate ethical treatment of affected workers. The objectives of the present study are to examine the ethical implications of telework and identify policies for telework that might help organizations implement this type of work arrangement for their employees in an ethically informed manner. Our analysis draws upon a framework proposed by Yuthas and Dillard (1999) that combines postmodern ethics with stakeholder theory. Although this framework was developed to study the ethical design of information technology systems, we maintain that this structure is equally useful to study the ethical issues inherent with telework. Legislators, regulators, unions, and employers can use the telework policy considerations presented herein as guidelines as they deliberate, design, and implement ethical telework strategies.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-448-5

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Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Anja-Kristin Abendroth and Mareike Reimann

The aim of this chapter is to investigate the context dependence of the implications of telework for work–family conflict. It examines whether and how the implications of…

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to investigate the context dependence of the implications of telework for work–family conflict. It examines whether and how the implications of telework for strain-based and time-based work–family conflict depend on work–family-supportive and high-demand workplace cultures. Based on a sample of 4,898 employees derived from a unique linked employer–employee study involving large organizations in different industries in Germany, multilevel fixed-effects regressions were estimated.

The results show that telework is associated with perceived higher levels of both time-based and strain-based work–family conflict, and that this is partly related to overtime work involved in telework. However, teleworkers experience higher levels of work–family conflict if they perceive their workplace culture to be highly demanding, and lower levels if supervisor work–family support is readily available.

Future research is required to investigate how the conclusions from this research vary between heterogonous employees and how work–family-supportive and high-demand workplace cultures interrelate in their implications on the use of telework for work–family conflict.

The findings show how important it is to implement telework in a way that not only accommodates employers’ interest in flexibilization, but that it also makes it possible to reconcile work with a family life that involves high levels of responsibility.

This is the first study which examines whether telework is either a resource that reduces or a demand that promotes work–family conflict by focusing on whether this depends on perceived workplace culture.

Details

The Work-Family Interface: Spillover, Complications, and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-112-4

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2020

Andrea Ollo-López, Salomé Goñi-Legaz and Amaya Erro-Garcés

This article aims to analyze individual-, organizational- and country-level factors that determine the use of home-based telework across Europe according to the technology…

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Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to analyze individual-, organizational- and country-level factors that determine the use of home-based telework across Europe according to the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the technology–organization–environment model.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine the impact of individual-, organizational- and country-level factors on telework, multilevel models are estimated to prevent problems derived from biased standard errors when micro- and macro-level data are combined.

Findings

The main findings show that, according to the usefulness side of the TAM, employees with family responsibilities, those that live away from their work and highly qualified workers use more home-based telework. Additionally, and according to the ease of use side of the TAM, empowerment in firms facilitates home-based telework. At the country level, lower power distance, individualism and femininity, better telework regulations and technology developments are also facilitators of home-based telework.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited by the cross-sectional nature of the data. This prevents the estimation of causal effects. Additional research would benefit from the use of panel data and from a more detailed analysis of the effects of country dimensions.

Practical implications

From an applied perspective, politics related to cultural dimensions are suggested to stimulate home-based telework.

Originality/value

The research contributes to previous literature by: (1) considering a large sample to conduct an empirical analysis of the use of home-based telework across Europe, (2) including micro and macro factors, (3) providing a theoretical framework to explain home-based telework, (4) applying a rigorous definition of home-based telework and (5) focusing on employees who are able to adopt home-based telework.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Margarita Mayo, Luis Gomez-Mejia, Shainaz Firfiray, Pascual Berrone and Veronica H Villena

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of top leaders beliefs in the importance of work-family balance as a key determinant in explaining the adoption of…

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1796

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of top leaders beliefs in the importance of work-family balance as a key determinant in explaining the adoption of social practices oriented toward internal stakeholders, focussing on home telework as one of these practices.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 2,388 top executive officers reported the senior leaders belief favoring work-family balance by completing a new scale developed for this purpose asking how much key decision makers were convinced of the value to employees of supportive family-friendly HR practices, modeled how to balance work and family life, and felt a personal commitment to implement family-friendly practices. They also reported the firm’s provision of telework and organizational characteristics such as industry, multinational status, and firm size.

Findings

Regression analyses revealed that firm’s provision of telework is more pervasive when its top leaders believe in the importance of work-family balance, even after controlling for firm context (industry, geographical dispersion, and size). More importantly, the authors also find that managerial beliefs augment the positive effect of instrumental factors on the provision of home telework.

Practical implications

For practitioners, the most important message is that, while contextual and organizational features are important in the choice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices for employees, the conviction of senior leaders is absolutely essential.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the leadership and CSR literature by suggesting that top leaders play a catalyst role in contexts where telework is instrumentally valued. If we conceive CSR for employees as not driven solely by utilitarian logic, it requires a different paradigm that includes leadership motives.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Evan H. Offstein, Jason M. Morwick and Larry Koskinen

Teleworking is often indicated as a flexible working arrangement. This paper seeks to highlight that flexibility is just one positive characteristic of telework and to…

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2799

Abstract

Purpose

Teleworking is often indicated as a flexible working arrangement. This paper seeks to highlight that flexibility is just one positive characteristic of telework and to demonstrate both the strategic and practical implications of adopting telework. In addition, it aims to highlight best practices and specific activities that enable telework to achieve its full potential.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on a series of interviews, personal experiences and observations encompassing a wide range of organizations to include profit and non‐profit/government across a variety of industry sectors that include retail, high technology, manufacturing and hospitality and service, the paper provides an overview on how to make telework work effectively and smoothly within profit and non‐profit organizations. Moreover, it confronts the leadership literature to examine how leadership – not technology – is the critical variable in telework success.

Findings

In the most successful cases of telework, organizations and individuals were seen to fuse technology and leadership to do work without the limitations of geography, time or physical presence. Thus, while many may embrace telecommuting or telework almost exclusively for its flexibility benefits, the most successful organizations and individuals welcomed telework, first and foremost, as a source of competitive advantage.

Originality/value

The paper departs from traditional management thought on two fronts. First, it is contended that the essence behind successful telework arrangements is more of a function of leadership than of technology. Second, and related to the previous point, the paper suggests that a creative, innovative and progressive leadership mentality is necessary in the design and implementation of telework programmes. As a result, many managers must be willing to depart from long‐held and conventional notions of leadership.

Details

Strategic HR Review, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-4398

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

David Wicks

Technological change has permitted organizations to design jobs in different ways and control work performed in remote locations. This article examines how telework can be…

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3412

Abstract

Technological change has permitted organizations to design jobs in different ways and control work performed in remote locations. This article examines how telework can be used to provide benefits to organizations and their members. In it I present the findings of a study of a large Canadian financial services organization preparing to introduce telework into its sales and customer service operations. These findings highlight the role of expectancy in forming attitudes toward telework, most importantly: the extent to which face‐to‐face communication prevents important social needs from being satisfied and prevents workers from developing a sense of belonging and commitment to the organization; and the belief that telework will bring improved performance results by creating a work environment with fewer distractions and new, more objective performance measures based on output. This exploration of individuals’ willingness to telework is apt because it points to potential sources of resistance to the implementation of new technologies of production and control in the workplace.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Pasi Pyöriä

The purpose of this paper is to serve as a reminder that all work arrangements, including the present case of distributed work, have their costs and benefits.

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6443

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to serve as a reminder that all work arrangements, including the present case of distributed work, have their costs and benefits.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to a literature review, the paper presents concrete recommendations and guidelines for practicing managers about how to avoid pitfalls in distributed work arrangements and how to manage teleworkers.

Findings

The diffusion of telework has been a slower process than anticipated, among other reasons because the most vital businesses are largely concentrated in the biggest growth centres. Growth centres can offer a diverse range of both jobs and amenities that outweigh the quiet and safety of rural areas. Apart from geographical realities and regional policy issues, another factor that has decisively contributed to the slow diffusion of telework is the absence of an established contractual framework and “culture” of teleworking.

Originality/value

Telework has the best prospects of success if from the outset all the people involved know what to expect and are prepared to deal with any problems and fears associated with the new work culture. It is also important that distributed work arrangements are designed in compliance with national labour legislation. To avoid potential risks, a part‐time telework arrangement is advisable for most organizations.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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