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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Mohamed A. Nassar and Abdulaziz Al Zien

The purpose of this paper is to describe exploratory work which investigated the negative effects of television commercials on children in the Middle East.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe exploratory work which investigated the negative effects of television commercials on children in the Middle East.

Design/methodology/approach

The extant literature on issues relating to the effects of television advertising on children was critically reviewed. Data were collected by conducting a series of 15 projective techniques and a series of semi‐structured interviews with a sample of 12 parents and six psychology and marketing experts from the Middle East.

Findings

The results indicate that negative impacts of advertising lead to major social and behavioral problems in children such as physical and verbal violence, materialism and other “values issues” identified by parents, and health problems such as low nutrition and obesity. The results also indicate that although many forms of advertisement affect children negatively, the effects of television commercials are particularly noticeable.

Practical implications

The study provides a list of practical recommendations for marketers and policymakers to help mitigate the negative effects of television advertising on children in the Middle East.

Originality/value

This research is one of very few studies to consider the effects of television advertising on children in the Middle East.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1986

Philip J. Kitchen and David A. Yorke

Explores UK audience reception data provided by the Broadcasting Audience Research Board (BARB) and questions it with regard to new technology. Discusses technological…

Abstract

Explores UK audience reception data provided by the Broadcasting Audience Research Board (BARB) and questions it with regard to new technology. Discusses technological innovations with reference to changing from passive to interactive television viewing, and notes developments to remote control television, teletext, video recorders, computers, cable television and micro‐TVs. Puts forward the development of new technology and spotlights its possible growth areas but does warn that, at present, new technology is still at the innovation stage. States also that video recorders and remote control equipped televisions are presently in an early stage of development and use. Assesses types of households and selects four for questionnaire use. Gives tabular typology for types and illustrates these in depth. Concludes that technology is affecting audience receptivity to commercial breaks on television, and that media planners and commercial advertisers must regard current audience data as inconclusive.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1987

A. H. Walle

Wherever television is a commercial venture which earns a significant percentage of revenues from advertising, it tends to be transformed to better serve the needs of ad…

Abstract

Wherever television is a commercial venture which earns a significant percentage of revenues from advertising, it tends to be transformed to better serve the needs of ad agencies and their clients. One oft raised complaint is that in an attempt to raise ratings and viewership, advertisers insist that shows cater to the “lowest common denominator” of society; as a result, quality programming is often compromised, eliminated, or banished to time periods when viewing is inconvenient. Programme diversity is also undermined. This paper suggests that the strategies of commercial television often restrict high quality programming even if the actual sponsors are committed to quality and diversity. This is done to create an environment which will best serve the majority of sponsors, and thus attract maximum advertising revenues. A history of Voice of Firestone (a long‐lived programme on U.S. Radio and TV) will be used as an example of this tendency. In an era when Europe is becoming more involved with commercial television, the lesson of such examples is especially significant.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 21 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Iris Jennes and Wendy Van den Broeck

This paper aims to focus on how innovative strategies take users into account. On the one hand, it will look at how the different stakeholders in the TV value network…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on how innovative strategies take users into account. On the one hand, it will look at how the different stakeholders in the TV value network implement user behaviour. On the other hand, it will focus on how users perceive traditional advertising and new advertising formats (e.g. personalised advertising, interactive advertising).

Design/methodology/approach

The applied research method is a combination of expert interviews with different actors in the TV sector and qualitative user research on viewers’ expectations towards advertising and new advertising formats in a digital era.

Findings

This paper looks at customer ownership, (inter-media) audience fragmentation and audience autonomy as important concepts in understanding innovation and strategies within the Flemish commercial TV sector and how user behaviour is implemented.

Originality/value

More specifically, ad skipping (zipping) and second-screen applications are studied. To conclude, the findings of the research are linked to relevant policy questions and challenges for audience members and actors within the television industry.

Details

info, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1987

Dave Berkman

Television became a possible medium for advertising in the late 1930s but its emergence as a major medium dates from 1947. Arguments about the likely effectiveness of…

Abstract

Television became a possible medium for advertising in the late 1930s but its emergence as a major medium dates from 1947. Arguments about the likely effectiveness of television as a source of entertainment attracting large numbers of viewers were coloured by fears of responses to ill‐devised uses by advertisers of the presentation of products or services. The profitability of television selling was forshadowed in 1947.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 21 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Kara Chuen and James U. McNeal

Explores the attitudes to TV advertising of Chinese children, the “little emperors/empresses“ who now have enormous influence on the market, largely as a result of the…

Abstract

Explores the attitudes to TV advertising of Chinese children, the “little emperors/empresses“ who now have enormous influence on the market, largely as a result of the one‐child policy that China adopted in 1979; like children elsewhere, they appear to pay less attention to commercials as they get older and become more sceptical about their truthfulness. Outlines the methodology used in the research, differences between Hong Kong and mainland children, children’s favourite commercials, and their views of advertised versus non‐advertised brands. Moves on to regulation of children’s advertising: unlike many Western countries, there is a lack of specific regulation of TV advertising to children, and the rapid though uneven growth of TV advertising in China has led to irresponsible practices.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Gregg Bennett, Mauricio Ferreira, Yosuke Tsuji, Ron Siders and Beth Cianfrone

This paper examines the effects of advertising type and antecedents of attitude towards advertising in general (AG) on individuals' responses to advertising in a sports…

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of advertising type and antecedents of attitude towards advertising in general (AG) on individuals' responses to advertising in a sports broadcast setting. Both AG antecedents and advertising type were assessed using Brackett and Carr's (2001) model. Our results indicate that individual responses to advertising vary according to the type of advertising (television commercials, virtual ads by location).

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 8 August 2021

Suzanna Opree, Moniek Buijzen and Eva van Reijmersdal

The aim of this study is to determine which of previously used survey measures can be considered the most appropriate to assess children’s advertising exposure. First…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to determine which of previously used survey measures can be considered the most appropriate to assess children’s advertising exposure. First, three levels of content specificity for assessing children’s exposure to advertising were distinguished as follows: exposure to the medium, exposure to broad content and exposure to specific (i.e. commercial) content. Second, using longitudinal data from 165 children between 8 and 11 years old, the test-retest reliability and content validity of survey measures from all three levels were examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to societal concerns about the effects of advertising on children’s well-being, research into this topic is expanding. To enhance knowledge accumulation and bring uniformity to the field, a validated standard survey measure of advertising exposure is needed. The aim of this study is to provide such measures for television and internet advertising.

Findings

The findings suggest that all measures provided solid estimates for children’s television and internet advertising exposure. Yet, due to minor differences in reliability and validity, it may be concluded that television advertising exposure can best be measured by asking children how often they watch certain popular (commercial) television networks, either weighting or not weighting for advertising density. Internet advertising exposure can best be measured by asking children how often they use the internet or how often they visit certain popular websites, weighting for advertising density.

Originality/value

The current measures for children’s advertising exposure through traditional media can easily be adapted to fit new media.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2008

Margaret‐Anne Lawlor and Andrea Prothero

The aim of this article is to explore children's understanding of television advertising intent.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this article is to explore children's understanding of television advertising intent.

Design/methodology/approach

A different perspective on advertising intent is offered in this paper, as evidenced in an interpretive study of Irish children, aged between seven and nine years. A qualitative approach was employed, involving a series of focus group discussions and in‐depth interviews with 52 children.

Findings

The findings indicate that the participating children view advertising as serving interests including, but not limited to, the advertiser. The existence of other interested parties is suggested by the children, namely the agendas of viewers and television channels. The authors assert that these children view advertising as being larger and more complex than the advertiser's perspective, which has been the traditional focus in the extant research.

Originality/value

Adopting an advertising literacy perspective, the authors seek to explore children's “reading” and understanding of advertising. Advertising literacy is an approach to understanding advertising that has not received substantial attention in the child‐advertising literature. The literature to date has tended to focus on the following question – do children understand the persuasive intent of advertising? This question is suggestive of a “yes/no” answer. In contrast, the authors view the concept of understanding as being more complex and multi‐faceted, and accordingly, seek to develop this concept by way of a classification that suggests four different levels of understanding that children may exhibit towards advertising

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Amalie Roberts

The purpose of this paper is to examine the facets of copyright licensing for commercial composers. As traditional business models within the music industry wane, there…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the facets of copyright licensing for commercial composers. As traditional business models within the music industry wane, there emerges a tacit opportunity for composers to exploit copyright through partnerships with third‐party entrepreneurs, across sectors such as television, video games and film.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study is utilised to identify opportunities within the television sector for commercial composers who own both publishing and mechanical copyright. Despite the economic crisis facing the entertainment industries, the paper identifies facets for commercial composers through licensing their intellectual property (IP) to third‐party entrepreneurs.

Findings

Composers who own both publishing and mechanical rights arguably hold a market advantage, resulting in an emergence of “one‐stop” licensing agreements – and less administrative fees – for major publishers.

Research limitations/implications

The implications asserted within this paper relate specifically to the television sector and further research could be undertaken in order to examine the utilisation of similar practice across different sectors, such as video games, and film, within which different opportunities and limitations will undoubtedly exist.

Practical implications

The implications for composers and managers is clear. A basic understanding of key legal terms, contract structure and the administrative functions of societies such as the MCPS‐PRS Alliance, are essential. This paper offers a valuable insight into very current changes across both the music and television sectors, identifying tangible opportunities for commercial composers.

Originality/value

This paper explores the facets of copyright licensing for commercial composers within new sectors including television. The author believes that sectors such as television, film and videogames can and do provide lucrative opportunities for independent musicians, composers and record labels. It is essential to explore such opportunities.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 48 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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