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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Cipriano Forza and Andrea Vinelli

Underlines the importance of quick response strategy in the textile‐apparel industry chain and presents some considerations concerning the organizational, management and…

Abstract

Underlines the importance of quick response strategy in the textile‐apparel industry chain and presents some considerations concerning the organizational, management and technological conditions necessary for its achievement. Provides examples of the utilization of telecommunications in the textile‐apparel industry, and highlights what changes have been made and the advantages gained. Analyses the role played by information technology in the interaction between the actors in the chain. Examines the conditions and elements which make quick response possible in the chain. Concludes that quick response is a time‐based strategy which requires greater collaboration along the whole textile‐apparel chain.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Anthony Rutkowski

This paper aims to describe the history of cyber security public international law since 1850 that is found in treaty instruments developed by the signatory nations of

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the history of cyber security public international law since 1850 that is found in treaty instruments developed by the signatory nations of what is now known as the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Because of the esoteric nature of the subject and, until recently, the very difficult access to reference materials, knowledge of these provisions was confined to a handful of scholars.

Design/methodology/approach

To prepare this article, it was necessary to download the entire new ITU History Portal collection of treaty instruments, adding the US archive collection scans of missing documents, conversion to plain text, identification and linking of key provisions across time, detecting the differences, and then pursuing related material to find out why the text arose.

Findings

What the material reveals is a 150‐year history of cybersecurity law that is not only relevant to significant developments today, but also controlling as a set of obligations that virtually every nation has accepted.

Research limitations/implications

It is hoped that this article will not only be helpful going forward in dealing with the difficult challenges of evolving these provisions, but will also serve as a kind of template for a new generation that not only questions authority, but also appreciates the value of source materials, accessing them, and doing the necessary analysis rather than just visiting a search engine.

Originality/value

The history of the cyber security public international law in the international telecommunication treaty instruments has never been compiled before.

Details

info, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

Qinghua Zhu and Qing Liu

This paper aims to develop a framework for Chinese telecommunication network companies on how to implement eco‐design by benchmarking its parent foreign company.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a framework for Chinese telecommunication network companies on how to implement eco‐design by benchmarking its parent foreign company.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach is used to study key aspects for eco‐design planning in Alcatel Shanghai‐Bell Co. Ltd (ASB). Challenges and possible solutions are discussed.

Findings

It is reasonable and effective for Chinese joint ventures to develop their eco‐design planning by benchmarking their parent companies. Key aspects for such eco‐planning include top management commitments, awareness of employees, and training of eco‐design tools.

Research limitations/implications

Eco‐design is still an emerging environmental tool among Chinese telecommunication network companies. As a result, quantified data about eco‐design practices and performance improvements are not available. How to record such data still requires further study and data acquisition.

Practical implications

This paper provides ideas for Chinese (and other) telecommunication companies to develop their eco‐design planning. The proposed solutions can guide Chinese telecommunication network companies to overcome challenges for their eco‐design planning and implementation.

Originality/value

This paper puts forward a framework for Chinese telecommunication companies to initiate their eco‐design practices by benchmarking their leading parent companies. The framework can be applied to Chinese and other telecommunication network companies with few environmental experiences and practices.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

James A. Kitts

The research community currently employs four very different versions of the social network concept: A social network is seen as a set of socially constructed role

Abstract

Purpose

The research community currently employs four very different versions of the social network concept: A social network is seen as a set of socially constructed role relations (e.g., friends, business partners), a set of interpersonal sentiments (e.g., liking, trust), a pattern of behavioral social interaction (e.g., conversations, citations), or an opportunity structure for exchange. Researchers conventionally assume these conceptualizations are interchangeable as social ties, and some employ composite measures that aim to capture more than one dimension. Even so, important discrepancies often appear for non-ties (as dyads where a specific role relation or sentiment is not reported, a specific form of interaction is not observed, or exchange is not possible).

Methodology/Approach

Investigating the interplay across the four definitions is a step toward developing scope conditions for generalization and application of theory across these domains.

Research Implications

This step is timely because emerging tools of computational social science – wearable sensors, logs of telecommunication, online exchange, or other interaction – now allow us to observe the fine-grained dynamics of interaction over time. Combined with cutting-edge methods for analysis, these lenses allow us to move beyond reified notions of social ties (and non-ties) and instead directly observe and analyze the dynamic and structural interdependencies of social interaction behavior.

Originality/Value of the Paper

This unprecedented opportunity invites us to refashion dynamic structural theories of exchange that advance “beyond networks” to unify previously disjoint research streams on relationships, interaction, and opportunity structures.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Noel D. Uri and Paul R. Zimmerman

In 1999 the Federal Communications Commission adopted an order granting complete deregulation of the rates for special access service for specific metropolitan statistical…

Abstract

In 1999 the Federal Communications Commission adopted an order granting complete deregulation of the rates for special access service for specific metropolitan statistical areas based on an objective showing that there was potential competition in that market. This was done in an environment where the local exchange carriers (LECs) subject to price caps were earning a rate of return in excess of 22 percent, with the rate of return on an upward trend. By 2002, the average rate of return across all price cap LECs topped 35 percent. The question that is investigated in this paper is whether the price cap LECs have market power in supplying special access service and whether they have taken advantage of this. The data clearly show that this is the case. Given the prevailing situation, there is a clear need to revisit the pricing flexibility order. First, the product market for special access service needs to be more carefully examined. Second, the metrics used to define the potential for competition need to be revamped.

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Lisa V. Wood, William P. Zarakas and David E.M. Sappington

Examines recent trends in local exchange competition in the US telecommunications industry. Shows that the predominant modes of operation by competitive local exchange

Abstract

Examines recent trends in local exchange competition in the US telecommunications industry. Shows that the predominant modes of operation by competitive local exchange carriers (CLECs) have been changing over time. These operating modes also vary substantially in different regions of the country. Provides a preliminary exploration of the role of potential profit in explaining the extent of overall CLEC activity. Also considers the role of prices in explaining variation in CLEC operating mode, and discuss possible additional determinants of CLEC activity that merit further investigation.

Details

info, vol. 6 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2019

Ewan Sutherland

The purpose of this paper is to review the prosecution by US authorities of Zhongxing Telecommunication Equipment (ZTE) Corporation for its violation of sanctions against…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the prosecution by US authorities of Zhongxing Telecommunication Equipment (ZTE) Corporation for its violation of sanctions against the sale of systems to Iran and North Korea; the violation of the plea agreement; and, following presidential intervention, the imposition of a further fine and restructuring of its management.

Design/methodology/approach

An analysis of the materials used in court proceedings and speeches by officials in the case against ZTE

Findings

The US president intervened in a quasi-judicial matter in which a foreign firm had violated US sanctions that he had supported to lessen the penalties it faced. The firm had also violated its plea agreement. This personal intervention weakened enforcement of US sanctions on human rights and weapons of mass destruction (WMD). However, it revealed the excessive reliance of Chinese manufacturers on US-domiciled suppliers of semiconductors and software.

Research limitations/implications

Neither was access to Chinese documents possible nor would it have been practicable to interview managers at ZTE.

Practical implications

Enforcement of US sanctions on the sale of telecommunications equipment have now been moved from strict enforcement on matters of human rights and WMD into political, trade and even personal negotiations with the US president.

Originality/value

A first analysis of a telecommunications sanctions case.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Damien Hutchinson and Matthew Warren

As a continually growing financial service of electronic commerce, Internet banking requires the development and implementation of a sound security procedure. This…

Abstract

As a continually growing financial service of electronic commerce, Internet banking requires the development and implementation of a sound security procedure. This involves designing effective methods via which users can be authenticated in a remote environment. Specifically for Internet banking there is a real need for a way uniquely to identify and authenticate users without the possibility of their authenticity being cloned. Some technologies in use have been presented for meeting the security requirements for national, regional and global Internet banking assurance. However, there has been little research conducted particularly on the creation of secure and trusted pathways. Concentrates on presenting a security framework for Internet banking based on discovering and defining these pathways in terms of adequate authentication mechanisms. Proposes a framework concerning how to identify security requirements for Internet banking such that the transactions being conducted are secured within their respective environments.

Details

Logistics Information Management, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2016

Liliana Rodriguez-Arango and Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez

This chapter aims to provide a descriptive analysis and a theoretical interpretation of the challenges for international expansion of four large multinationals of each of…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter aims to provide a descriptive analysis and a theoretical interpretation of the challenges for international expansion of four large multinationals of each of the BRIC countries (JBS from Brazil, VimpelCom from Russia, Tata Motors from India, and Lenovo from China).

Methodology/approach

This study employs a qualitative approach, following a multiple-case study methodology, by analyzing four prominent cases of the internationalization of BRIC multinationals.

Findings

The internationalization process of the studied BRIC multinationals was influenced by the type of inputs and resources that each company had in their home country and the search for needed resources in other firms abroad that may have helped them to complement their business assets. The international expansion of these firms have been characterized by overcoming of several obstacles through the possession of firm-specific advantages, mainly composed of managerial capabilities, expertise, and knowledge about the markets and their companies.

Details

The Challenge of Bric Multinationals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-350-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

A.E. Cawkell

As explained in Part 1, digitisation brings with it numerous benefits although digitised speech of good quality requires a bit rate of 64 kbps, which implies that a…

Abstract

As explained in Part 1, digitisation brings with it numerous benefits although digitised speech of good quality requires a bit rate of 64 kbps, which implies that a channel of 32 kHz will be required (see Part 1, page 61). The same speech in analogue form could be accommodated within a frequency band of 5 kHz, so digitisation requires more bandwidth.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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