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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Biao Sun and Yi-Ju Lo

The purpose of this paper is to define co-exploitation, co-exploration, and alliance ambidexterity from the perspective of organizational learning; to analyze how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to define co-exploitation, co-exploration, and alliance ambidexterity from the perspective of organizational learning; to analyze how knowledge bases, structural arrangements, and control mechanisms of R&D alliances influence co-exploitation and co-exploration; and to discuss how to achieve alliance ambidexterity by managing paradoxes around knowledge bases, structural arrangements, and control mechanisms.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper focussing on how to balance exploitation and exploration at the alliance level through managing three paradoxes of cooperation: similarity vs complementarity, integration vs modularity, and contracts vs trust.

Findings

While technological similarity, structural integration, and contracts are more likely to promote co-exploitation, technological complementarity, structural modularity, and trust are more likely to facilitate co-exploration. Alliance ambidexterity, which is beneficial for alliance performance, derives from either the combination of technological complementarity, structural integration, and contracts, or the combination of technological similarity, structural modularity, and trust temporally.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers should analyze the possibility of building alliance ambidexterity in other types of interorganizational relationships, and find other possible antecedents of interorganizational learning.

Practical implications

Managers should not simply treat R&D alliances as one of exploratory interorganizational relationships, but pay equal attention to co-exploitation and co-exploration. To achieve this balance, practitioners should combine technological complementarity with structural integration and contracts, or integrate technological similarity with structural modularity and trust.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first contributions that analyze how an R&D alliance could gain its ambidexterity through the management of nested cooperation paradoxes.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2013

Nina Preschitschek, Helen Niemann, Jens Leker and Martin G. Moehrle

The convergence of industries exposes the involved firms to various challenges. In such a setting, a firm's response time becomes key to its future success. Hence

Abstract

Purpose

The convergence of industries exposes the involved firms to various challenges. In such a setting, a firm's response time becomes key to its future success. Hence, different approaches to anticipating convergence have been developed in the recent past. So far, especially IPC co-classification patent analyses have been successfully applied in different industry settings to anticipate convergence on a broader industry/technology level. Here, the aim is to develop a concept to anticipate convergence even in small samples, simultaneously providing more detailed information on its origin and direction.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors assigned 326 US-patents on phytosterols to four different technological fields and measured the semantic similarity of the patents from the different technological fields. Finally, they compared these results to those of an IPC co-classification analysis of the same patent sample.

Findings

An increasing semantic similarity of food and pharmaceutical patents and personal care and pharmaceutical patents over time could be regarded as an indicator of convergence. The IPC co-classification analyses proved to be unsuitable for finding evidence for convergence here.

Originality/value

Semantic analyses provide the opportunity to analyze convergence processes in greater detail, even if only limited data are available. However, IPC co-classification analyses are still relevant in analyzing large amounts of data. The appropriateness of the semantic similarity approach requires verification, e.g. by applying it to other convergence settings.

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2019

Francesco Galati and Barbara Bigliardi

Starting from the model of the initiation and evolution of inter-firm knowledge transfer in R&D relationships developed by Faems et al. (2007), the purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Starting from the model of the initiation and evolution of inter-firm knowledge transfer in R&D relationships developed by Faems et al. (2007), the purpose of this paper is to refine and improve this model, assessing its reliability in a different and wider context and extending it according to the outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case-study approach was implemented, examining 34 dyadic inter-firm R&D relationships. This methodology suited the research goal of exploring the validity of a model in an area where little data or theory exists.

Findings

The theoretical model proposed by Faems et al. (2007) was improved, confirming the adequacy of the overall structure of their intuition and highlighting several differences in terms of factors that lead to the dissolution of R&D relationships. These differences mainly refer to partners’ similarities before starting R&D relationships, co-opetition situations, knowledge leakage/opportunistic behavior and reputation issues.

Originality/value

This work is the first to investigate two open research gaps related to the model of the initiation and evolution of inter-firm knowledge transfer in R&D relationships: the need for additional case studies in other contexts to develop a more general theory and the lack of research incorporating issues such as relational capital between partners, governance form and alliance scope in an integrated analysis.

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Xiaoxiao Shi, Zuolong Zheng, Qingpu Zhang and Huakang Liang

This paper aims to analyze the extent to which the influence of external knowledge search activities on firms’ incremental innovation capability, and the moderating roles…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the extent to which the influence of external knowledge search activities on firms’ incremental innovation capability, and the moderating roles of the relatedness between the partners’ technological bases and a firm’s network embeddedness in the innovation network.

Design/methodology/approach

In this empirical research, the authors collected a sample of patents in the UAV industry over the period of 2004–2018. Then the authors examined the direct role of external knowledge search on firms’ incremental innovation capability and the joint moderating effects of technological proximity and network embeddedness.

Findings

We found that external knowledge search in innovation networks positively affects firms’ incremental innovation capability. Moreover, we discovered that high technological proximity to other peers positively strengthens the impact of firms’ external knowledge search on their incremental innovation capability. Finally, the findings suggested that the relationship between a firm’s external knowledge search activities and its incremental innovation capability is stronger for high technological proximity coupled with high network centrality or poor structural holes in innovation networks.

Originality/value

This study adds value to open innovation literature by pointing out a positive relationship between external knowledge search and firm incremental innovation capability. Furthermore, this study reinforces the key joint contingent roles of technological proximity and network embeddedness. This study provides a valuable theoretical framework of incremental innovation capability determinants by connecting the different perspectives.

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2018

Sara Fernández, Ángela Triguero and Esteban Alfaro-Cortés

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on innovation and profitability in large European firms.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on innovation and profitability in large European firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Using information from a unique micro-longitudinal database of top European R&D investors and information from the European Commission (EC) Merger Control Authority, dynamic panel estimations with firm-level fixed effects are performed. Moreover, the paper presents a qualitative case study of a merger in the European electronic and electrical equipment industry.

Findings

The analysis of a sample of 562 M&As authorized by the EC Merger Control Authority shows that mergers positively influence the R&D intensity and profitability of top companies in the European Union over the period 2004–2012. Furthermore, empirical evidence shows that the timing and magnitude of these effects differs. In particular, the positive effect of mergers on R&D intensity is found for the short and large term while they influence profitability only in the large term.

Originality/value

This paper makes several contributions. First, unlike other studies on this topic, it investigates the effects of M&As using firm-level panel data on the top 1,000 European R&D companies instead of only examining a case study. Second, a unique data set has been used, which collects information on large European firms from the European Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard and the EC antitrust authority. Finally, the paper accounts for the casual link between innovation effort and profitability when evaluating the potential effect of M&As on the R&D intensity and profitability of large European firms.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Irene Kilubi

Strategic technology partnering (STP) is considered to be significant for the access to novel technologies that are unknown to organisations. However, the performance…

Abstract

Purpose

Strategic technology partnering (STP) is considered to be significant for the access to novel technologies that are unknown to organisations. However, the performance heterogeneities within organisations can be explained by STP capabilities. Hence, the purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to provide a classificatory framework by categorising the various STP capabilities; second, to draw conclusions from the analysis of the empirical findings; and third, to guide further publications and identify future research needs.

Design/methodology/approach

The present paper adopts a systematic literature review (SLR) methodology. In this research, the extant empirical research on STP capabilities will first be classified and integrated within a classificatory framework. Lastly, the review insights will provide methodological suggestions along with theoretical themes for future research that have not been yet explored.

Findings

The study findings show that there is a strong need for a clear and unified terminology for the distinctive capabilities of STP and research has mainly highlighted certain common capabilities while other essential ones lack analysis. The SLR further reveals that most research has been quantitative in nature relying on secondary database research.

Originality/value

This SLR provides a thorough overview of prior research on STP capabilities investigating 65 articles published in highly ranked peer-reviewed journals, spanning a 22-year period from 1992 to 2014. In sum, his review structures extant STP capabilities literature into a proposed classificatory framework referred to as “CLONT-framework” and highlights its critical importance in strategic management and innovation research from a theoretical, empirical, and practical point of view.

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2018

Luca Dezi, Enrico Battisti, Alberto Ferraris and Armando Papa

The link between mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and innovation has been analysed in both corporate finance studies and the innovation literature. Despite this attention…

Abstract

Purpose

The link between mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and innovation has been analysed in both corporate finance studies and the innovation literature. Despite this attention and the practical evidence that highlights different connections between these two terms, there is a need to investigate the latest trends with regard to these important topics, and to put a particular focus on the emerging paradigm of open innovation. Thus, this paper aims to provide a systematic literature review (SLR) about the relationship between M&As and the concept of innovation in the current scenario.

Design/methodology/approach

Through an SLR from 2012 to June 2017, 55 papers have been identified and analysed to give a better understanding of the motivations and the methodologies adopted in past studies.

Findings

This paper identifies various conceptual and research methodological characteristics of studies that have connected, directly or indirectly, M&As and innovation in recent years. In addition, the results highlight a scarcity of studies that explicitly or implicitly refer to the open innovation paradigm, marking only a partial understanding of this emerging phenomenon.

Originality/value

This paper improves the knowledge on the link between extraordinary corporate transactions and innovation, and it highlights that a clear consensus, particularly regarding the open innovation paradigm, is lacking. Thus the authors propose that future studies should carefully evaluate M&As by following the open innovation approach.

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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2014

George Chondrakis and Tomas Farchi

This article explores the effect of technological similarity in acquisitions on invention quantity and quality. In doing so, we confirm previous findings in the literature…

Abstract

This article explores the effect of technological similarity in acquisitions on invention quantity and quality. In doing so, we confirm previous findings in the literature suggesting that technological similarity exhibits an inverted U-shaped relationship with innovative output and a negative relationship with average invention quality. However, we identify the nature of the technology as an important moderating factor for both relationships. We distinguish between two types of technologies, complex and discrete, and suggest that at high levels of technological similarity, invention quantity and average quality increase more in complex technology industries as compared to discrete technology industries. These effects are attributed to innovation cumulativeness and the interdependencies developed between patent rights in complex technology settings. A study of acquisition and patenting activity in two industries over a sixteen-year period provides empirical support to our claims.

Details

Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-970-6

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Seungryul Ryan Shin, John Han, Klaus Marhold and Jina Kang

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of open innovation, especially focusing on technological M&A, on subsequent innovation and changes to the firm’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of open innovation, especially focusing on technological M&A, on subsequent innovation and changes to the firm’s core technological portfolio.

Design/methodology/approach

The study suggests three types of core technological areas, based on prior focus and experience in technological categories. These are 1) the existing core area, in which the acquirer firm retains its knowledge and expertise, 2) the enhanced core area, where knowledge and expertise in the acquirer firm’s insufficient areas are strengthened, and 3) the new core area, i.e. new knowledge fields in which the acquirer firm ventures into. The study then analyzes the effects of two key knowledge characteristics of the target firm, similarity and complementarity, on post-M&A innovation outcomes in each of the three core technological areas.

Findings

The results confirm that while none of the investigated knowledge characteristics of the target firm is advantageous for post-M&A innovation outcomes in existing core areas, similarity of the target firm does facilitate post-M&A innovation outcomes in enhanced core areas. Moreover, the results confirm that complementarity of the target firm is beneficial for post-M&A innovation outcomes in new core areas.

Originality/value

The study explains the reconfiguration mechanism of a firm’s core technological portfolio. It also suggests an extended framework to analyze innovation outcomes in more detail. Moreover, the study helps to explain why most M&As result in failure.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Andrea Ganzaroli, Ivan De Noni, Luigi Orsi and Fiorenza Belussi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the combined effect of Mergers and Acquisitions (M & A) partners’ technological relatedness and the acquirer’s effective…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the combined effect of Mergers and Acquisitions (M & A) partners’ technological relatedness and the acquirer’s effective utilization of the target’s knowledge on explorative and exploitative invention performance post-M & A.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the knowledge perspective of an M & A, this study measures how much of the target’s knowledge acquired in an M & A has been effectively transformed into new knowledge. A negative binomial regression on a cross-sectional data set of 152 bio-pharmaceutical firms (59 European firms and 93 North American firms) completing at least one M & A in the period between 2001 and 2005 is conducted. The effect of knowledge utilization is assessed by comparing performance six years before the M & A and six years after.

Findings

The effective assimilation and utilization of acquired knowledge positively affects both acquirers’ explorative and exploitative performance post-M & As. The combined effect with technological relatedness, measured as similarity and complementarity, further enhances the acquirer’s technological performance. However, while the utilization of similar knowledge significantly affects only exploitative invention performance, the utilization of complementary knowledge influences both, although explorative more than exploitative performance.

Originality/value

The acquirer’s ability to effectively use the target’s knowledge is crucial in order to support the transformation of the inventive potential, such as is embodied in the interaction between an internal and an external base of knowledge, into new explorative and exploitative performance.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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