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Teaching performance assessments (TPAs) have developed in the USA and Australia as a “bar exam” for the profession and are used means to assure that graduates are…
Teaching performance assessments (TPAs) have developed in the USA and Australia as a “bar exam” for the profession and are used means to assure that graduates are classroom ready. The purpose of this paper is to outline how these assessments have been implemented in teacher education in the USA and Australian contexts. The edTPA is embroiled in controversy in the USA and there are important lessons from the related research literature that could inform the how other countries engage with TPAs in pre-service teacher education.
This conceptual paper outlines how Australia has introduced TPAs in initial teacher education (ITE) through policy borrowing from the USA. The paper synthesises critiques of the edTPA (USA) from research literature and considers the implications of TPAs in the Australian context.
The TPA impacts the focus of pre-service teacher practicum teaching, and pedagogy and curriculum in ITE education. The TPA could be used to mobilise detrimental accountability mechanisms. With the outsourcing of assessment to edu-business, Pearson Education, teacher education institutions in the USA have a sense that they have lost control over determining which students are credentialed to teach. Although pre-service teacher assessment is still administered and assessed by ITE institutions in Australia, there is a concern that could change. It is argued that educators, administrators and policy makers should avoid moves to outsource TPAs in Australia.
Because it is in its infancy, there is a little robust research into the implication of introducing teacher performance assessments into the Australian teacher education context.
In this paper, the author extends the current research on standardized performance assessments in preservice education by moving with novice teachers from their student teaching experiences into their first years as fully certified classroom teachers. Here, the author draws on scholarship that conceptualizes literacies as performative (Alexander, 2005; Youdell, 2010) to examine how engaging in a standardized performance assessment process shaped the teaching identities that participants carried into their first years of teaching in the field.
Through a qualitative case study, the author investigates the experiences of a group of six novice elementary educators in their first years in the classroom after completing the standardized performance assessment Educative Performance Assessment as a major component of their certification program. Data, which included focus group and individual interviews and artifacts (instructional handouts, teaching videos, lesson plans, written reflective commentaries), were analyzed through a performance lens.
Findings highlight how engaging with a standardized performance assessment shaped the meanings that participants made of their teaching practices, including lesson planning and implementation for and with students from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds.
This paper offers insights that can support teacher educators working toward preparing teachers for work with diverse students in public school classrooms that might produce more equitable policies, practices and transformative reforms, particularly for historically marginalized groups.
By 2006, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards had offered advanced certification to 50,000 accomplished teachers using performance-based assessments of…
By 2006, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards had offered advanced certification to 50,000 accomplished teachers using performance-based assessments of their teaching knowledge and practice (about 2% of the US teaching force). However, the Board has had much greater impact than the initial numbers of certified teachers suggested. As the first professional effort to define accomplished teaching, it has also had an enormous influence on standard-setting for beginning teacher licensing, teacher education programs, teacher assessment, on-the-job evaluation, and professional development for teachers throughout the United States. This chapter describes some of the results of the Board's work, evaluates its impact, and discusses issues that it raises for the future of teaching and the nature of the teaching career.
The scoring system for the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) assessments was a groundbreaking undertaking that brought with it a host of…
The scoring system for the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) assessments was a groundbreaking undertaking that brought with it a host of unanticipated challenges. These, in turn, generated a complete revision of the approach to scoring and the design underwent a number of changes during the first decade. Beginning with an analytical model which was so ambitious that it was entirely too cumbersome and complex to be undertaken within a reasonable timeframe, assessment developers had to systematically redesign a scoring system that would be at once reliable, valid, and operationally feasible.
To appreciate the distance the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) certification program has come, and the speed with which it has traveled that…
To appreciate the distance the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) certification program has come, and the speed with which it has traveled that distance, a glance at its first decade from the perspective of assessment development is essential. The particulars of the history of the NBPTS's assessment strategies and designs have determined in many ways the current assessment architecture: the evolution of the assessment's design reveals the growth in our knowledge of innovative assessment strategies and formats and their uses. In this chapter, I will briefly summarize the history of the NBPTS assessment program, then describe and analyze the earliest assessment designs, some intermediate approaches, and then the current iteration (commonly referred to as the next generation certificates). I will finally detail the current assessment architecture, connecting that architecture to both the history and the lessons learned from the initial assessments.
The purpose of this paper is to compare two years of results for one state’s performance-based assessments for principal licensure Performance Assessment for Leaders…
The purpose of this paper is to compare two years of results for one state’s performance-based assessments for principal licensure Performance Assessment for Leaders (PAL). This includes the field trial (2014–2015) and first year of statewide implementation (2015–2016) when passing score requirements and fees were added. Survey results on candidates’ career aspirations provide concurrent validation.
Two years of PAL submissions (n=569 candidates) were scored by trained, certified scorers. Task and total score results were compared by year, preparation pathway and gender. Online feedback survey results on career aspirations for (n=146 candidates) were compared by year.
The results show that PAL assessments measure independent dimensions of leadership, differentiate candidates on leadership knowledge and skills, and confirm PAL’s internal validity. Implementation year scores were higher than field trial scores, and preparation program candidates scored better than non-program candidates did. Candidate career aspirations were stronger in the implementation year than during the field trial.
The study is limited to one state’s candidates, but findings are generalizable based on the wide range among candidates’ districts (demographically and economically).
The results are promising for the leadership preparation and assessment field, demonstrating the effectiveness of performance assessment for authentic evaluation of leadership candidates’ knowledge and skill and overall readiness for initial leadership work.
This is the first large scale performance assessment for aspiring leaders designed for state licensure decisions. It is being replicated in another state and shown promise for both formative and summative leadership assessment.
“Certification”, in the context of this book, is an endorsement by a professional body that a member of that profession has attained a specified set of advanced performance standards. Application for NBPTS advanced certification is usually voluntary and available to all members of the profession (who have had to have at least three years experience in the profession). It is based on assessment of performance; it is not an academic qualification, or a record of professional development courses attended. It is portable – it belongs to the person (it is not a job or position or classification specific to a school or employer). A professional certification system is not in itself a performance pay scheme, but it does aim to provide a service to the profession, to the public and to employing authorities seeking a credible basis on which to provide incentives for professional development and recognition to teachers who reach high standards. Most important, it acknowledges that the individual who gains this certification is demonstrably teaching at the highest levels in our profession.
The purpose of this paper is to identify the nature and factors that influence student evaluation of the teaching performance of university teachers by integrating two…
The purpose of this paper is to identify the nature and factors that influence student evaluation of the teaching performance of university teachers by integrating two areas of research: services marketing and higher education.
A set of hypotheses were developed taking into consideration customer (student), employee (teacher) and service (course) characteristics. They were then tested using data from 952 courses for a three‐year period and employing different multivariate techniques.
Students basically evaluate the expertise, attitude and behavior of teachers. The results also indicate that this evaluation is a complex phenomenon that depends on factors related to teacher, student and course profiles.
Given the nature of the data used here, future studies should extend the scope of research to other institutions, examine quality from an objective standpoint and include teachers’ perceptions and the outcomes of their research activity.
Based on the results of this paper, the authors recommend the following: to permit teachers to teach the same courses repeatedly, allowing them to consolidate their practice; to provide training in teaching techniques and ethics; to pay particular attention to those students who move to another degree program; and to maintain an appropriate class size.
This study integrates two areas of research and proposes a wide range of service quality determinants in the context of higher education, including several factors that had not been previously considered.
Este trabajo identifica la naturaleza y los factores que influyen en las valoraciones que realizan los alumnos sobre el desempeño docente del profesorado universitario, integrando para ello dos áreas de investigación: marketing de servicios y educación superior.
Se desarrolla un conjunto de hipótesis considerando las características del cliente (alumno), el empleado (profesor) y el servicio (curso). Se contrastan con los datos de 952 cursos durante un período de tres años utilizando distintas técnicas multivariantes.
Los alumnos evalúan principalmente la pericia así como la actitud y comportamiento del profesorado. Los resultados también indican que esta evaluación es un fenómeno complejo que depende de factores relacionados con el perfil del profesor, del alumno y del curso.
de la investigación/ImplicacionesConsiderando la naturaleza de los datos utilizados, futuras investigaciones deberían ampliar el ámbito de estudio a otras instituciones, analizar la calidad objetiva e incorporar las percepciones del profesor y los resultados de su actividad investigadora.
Se recomienda facilitar la consolidación del profesor en sus cursos; proporcionar capacitación en técnicas didácticas y ética; prestar especial atención a los alumnos que realizan cambios de carrera; y mantener un tamaño adecuado de los grupos.
Este estudio integra dos áreas de investigación y propone un amplio rango de factores determinantes de la calidad en la actividad docente del profesorado universitario, incluyendo algunos que hasta el momento no habían sido contemplados.
Aims to present a framework for licensing school principals in theUnited States, specifically the state of Connecticut. Contains threeelements that depart substantially…
Aims to present a framework for licensing school principals in the United States, specifically the state of Connecticut. Contains three elements that depart substantially from other initiatives to reform preparation and licensure. (1) Pre‐service preparation of principals will focus on the knowledge base for teaching and learning. As currently conceived, it is possible for a candidate to qualify for initial certification without taking formal coursework in educational administration. (2) Study of educational administration will occur during the beginning years of administrative service. (3) Licensure will be performance‐based. Candidates for initial certification will need to demonstrate their knowledge of teaching and learning and their ability to evaluate and supervise teaching. Prior to professional certification, principals will be required to show that they fostered a school culture that focused on teaching and learning and where all students achieved. Begins with discussion of the role of licensing and recent calls for reform of principal preparation and licensure. Following a review of the literature that supports Connecticut′s reform strategy, presents five postulates it is believed will advance the revision of preparation and licensure. Follows a hypothetical candidate from pre‐service through to professional certification to explain how Connecticut′s proposal is implemented. Includes a consideration of licensing in countries other than the United States in the summary.
Purpose – To provide educators with an overview of issues and strategies important for preparing preservice teachers to plan instruction, engage students, and assess…
Purpose – To provide educators with an overview of issues and strategies important for preparing preservice teachers to plan instruction, engage students, and assess learning in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms.
Design/methodology/approach – The chapter reviews sociocultural, sociolinguistic, and cognitive literature that informs differentiated instruction for linguistic diversity. It then offers a case study example of a preservice student teaching seminar where this knowledge was put into practice.
Findings – Content provides detailed information about the design of a preservice seminar that included the role of a nationally piloted performance assessment. It demonstrates how preparing the assessment portfolio provided a vehicle for a structured and useful focus on diversity within the seminar.
Research limitations/implications – The chapter highlights literature that is specifically useful for preservice teachers and their instructors who are seeking to address the specific needs of English Language Learners and the culturally diverse population of students found in U.S. classrooms. This is important to those who seek to expand this attention to diversity within general teacher education practices.
Practical implications – This chapter serves as a resource for all clinical instructors, providing ideas for incorporation into their clinics and classrooms.
Originality/value of paper – Culturally responsive teaching and a specific focus on teaching English Language Arts for linguistically diverse students are infused in clinical teacher education practices rather than as “add-on” practices.