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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Ibrahim Duyar and Anthony H. Normore

The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting teachers’ work performance (i.e., task performance and discretionary performance) and career aspirations (i.e.…

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting teachers’ work performance (i.e., task performance and discretionary performance) and career aspirations (i.e., remaining a teacher, seeking promotion to a principalship, and career change). Applying an inclusive social-cognitive perspective, the study integrated the personal, organizational, and leadership domains to explain teachers’ task performance, discretionary performance, and career aspirations. The three domains, represented by the independent variables of self-efficacy, collective efficacy, perceived organizational support, and principal leadership styles, predicted teachers’ work performance and career aspirations. Participants included 897 public school teachers in a southern state in the United States. The data gathering instrument incorporated several previously validated scales on study constructs. The analyses indicated that teacher self-efficacy, collective efficacy, POS, and principal transformational leadership all significantly predicted the teachers’ task performance, discretionary performance, and career aspirations. Study findings suggest directions for future research on factors influencing teachers’ work performance and career aspirations.

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Discretionary Behavior and Performance in Educational Organizations: The Missing Link in Educational Leadership and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-643-0

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Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Susan L. Hillman and Neha Chheda

The quality of teaching across the world is often defined by students’ academic achievement. Yet, teaching and learning is a complex phenomenon. Standards and policy…

Abstract

The quality of teaching across the world is often defined by students’ academic achievement. Yet, teaching and learning is a complex phenomenon. Standards and policy documents, internationally and within India, specify knowledge and skills for teachers. A variety of evaluation tools exist to measure teaching performance. The authors describe a Teacher Performance Review Process (TPRP) using a diagnostic tool internationally benchmarked and contextualized for India. Initially, 408 teachers from 10 schools completed the TPRP, with 95 teachers from 3 schools completing two cycles of TPRP. The TPRP incorporated multiple sources of evidence for rating each teacher on 27 performance indicators using a four-point scale. Rating frequencies were analyzed and results reported for an initial and second cycle of TPRP. Feedback from teachers and school leaders indicated this process supported improving the quality of teaching. TPRP, implemented as a cyclical process capturing evidence from multiple sources over time, potentially provides comprehensive documentation of the complex phenomenon of teaching performance, and supports teachers in continuous improvement.

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Building Teacher Quality in India: Examining Policy Frameworks and Implementation Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-903-3

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Reelika Irs and Kulno Türk

The article aims to provide an insight into the perspectives and possibilities of implementing the performance‐related pay in the Estonian general educational schools. It…

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2194

Abstract

Purpose

The article aims to provide an insight into the perspectives and possibilities of implementing the performance‐related pay in the Estonian general educational schools. It also aims to test two propositions regarding factors that influence school performance and teachers' and school managers' opinions about performance management.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 298 school managers and 2,165 teachers from general educational schools in Estonia participated in the study. The factor, regression and correlation analysis, independent samples t‐test and one‐way ANOVA analysis were used to study claims related to school management and performance and educational processes.

Findings

The results of the analysis show that besides teachers' activities and effectiveness factors, various school management factors play an important role in the shaping of the school performance and the opinions towards the implementation of performance appraisal and performance‐related pay.

Research limitations and implications

The main limitation to the research is that it is difficult to measure the schools' outcome. Second, the study was mainly quantitative, with only a few open questions and thus, the respondents were neither able to give full answers nor provide explanations. Therefore, further case studies are needed to obtain a more precise overview.

Originality/value

Although performance‐related pay is seen as an important management tool for increasing schools' outcome, there is no clear overview as to how the school managers and teachers in Estonia look at the issue and which factors should be considered in implementing performance‐related pay.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2009

Elvia Shauki, Ratnam Alagiah, Brenton Fiedler and Krystyna Sawon

This study aims to determine whether different perceptions based on a learner’s characteristics of age, gender, ethnicity, and duration of stay in Australia provide an…

Abstract

This study aims to determine whether different perceptions based on a learner’s characteristics of age, gender, ethnicity, and duration of stay in Australia provide an explanation of teaching performance evaluations. Perceptions determine interpersonal behaviour (including communication and motivation)and the way a learner believes that they are going to be assessed by the teacher. Thereby, this will impact on a student’s formal evaluation of teaching performance through a student survey of teaching (SST). This study considers the existence of ethnic and gender bias in postgraduate students undertaking accounting‐related courses. The study applies a combination of quantitative online and offline surveys which include SST data and additional questions identifying demographic data to demonstrate that a learner’s evaluation of teaching performance is influenced by the learner’s perceptions. Whilst there were no significant findings related to gender, we identified that students from certain ethnic backgrounds and citizenship, had different perceptions of a teacher’s performance. In addition we identified age and duration of stay in Australia as two demographic elements which were also statistically significant.

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Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2012

Reelika Irs

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the situation of performance management, to be more precise, the usage and attitudes towards pay‐for‐performance on the example of…

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1336

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the situation of performance management, to be more precise, the usage and attitudes towards pay‐for‐performance on the example of Estonian schools and brings out practical implications for implementing pay‐for‐performance in Estonian general educational schools.

Design/methodology/approach

Altogether 298 headmasters and 2,165 teachers participated in this research. The goal of the research was to map the situation of the usage of pay‐for‐performance in Estonian schools and to find out teachers' and headmasters' opinions about the most effective pay‐for‐performance system.

Findings

Despite the great expectations of performance management and pay‐for‐performance, it is not being used in many Estonian general educational schools. However, the findings of this research show that both headmasters and teachers have quite positive attitudes towards pay‐for‐performance that gives a favourable platform for implementing pay‐for‐performance in the Estonian educational sector.

Research limitations/implications

The study was mainly quantitative with only a few open questions, which raises limitations for finding complete answers and explanations to questions raised. Therefore, case studies need to be done to find answers to some interesting research questions.

Originality/value

With the view to raising the performance of the Estonian educational system and to guarantee its sustainability, a new course concerning schools' and pupils' individual development must be taken. It can be achieved through performance management and pay‐for‐performance, which also helps to raise teachers' motivation. A central feature of the pay‐for‐performance is that pay must be in accord with performance and must provide an incentive to promote the success of the organisation.

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Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Moni Trad, Mona Omar Alayoubi, Rasha Abdul Khalek and Nada Khaddage-Soboh

The main purpose of this study is to demonstrate and verify the influence of emotional intelligence skills on the performance of teachers in private higher educational…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to demonstrate and verify the influence of emotional intelligence skills on the performance of teachers in private higher educational institutions.

Design/methodology/approach

This quantitative study is based on the positivism research philosophy and the deductive research. Data are collected form Lebanese educational institutions; 304 teachers are surveyed using the convenience sampling technique. Hypotheses are verified through the one-way ANOVA and the multiple linear regression (step-wise) technique with a Sig. value of 0.000 < 0.05.

Findings

The study verified that teachers' demographics have a direct impact on their performance. It also proved that emotions have an impact on teachers' behaviors; emotions are important energy re-sources that help them cope with difficult situations. Teachers with a high level of emotional intelligence are in tune with their own emotions. It is demonstrated that self-awareness, self-management, self-motivation and social skill have a positive statistical influence on the teacher's performance. Lebanese Private Educational Institutions system should be endowed with emotional intelligence to provide teachers with more effective abilities which would eventually reflect on the student's cognitive abilities especially attention and memory.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by studying the emotional intelligence in Lebanese educational institutions which was studied in different countries except Lebanon. It is verified that integrating the emotional intelligence into Lebanese educational systems would play a decisive role in optimum academic performance; institutions should establish as a benchmark the skills related to emotional intelligence.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Nicky Rogge

This paper proposes a benefit of the doubt (BoD) approach to construct and analyse teacher effectiveness scores (i.e. SET scores).

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1223

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes a benefit of the doubt (BoD) approach to construct and analyse teacher effectiveness scores (i.e. SET scores).

Design/methodology/approach

The BoD approach is related to data envelopment analysis (DEA), a linear programming tool for evaluating the relative efficiency performance of a set of similar units (e.g. firms, departments, individuals, etc.) who use (possibly multiple) inputs to produce (possibly multiple) outputs in operation environments typically characterised by no reliable information on the prices of inputs and/or no (exact) knowledge about the “functional form” of the production or cost function.

Findings

A major appeal of BoD is the flexibility in the construction of the SET scores. In particular, BoD puts teacher performances into a relative perspective to be evaluated optimally, thereby accounting for different values and interpretations that teachers attach to “good teaching”. Furthermore, if available, stakeholder opinion can be easily incorporated into the evaluation. The swift identification of teachers' relative strengths and weaknesses is another advantage. The advantages show in the application.

Originality/value

Several issues specific to the construction and analysis of SET scores have remained largely untouched, and hence unresolved, in the literature. One particular blank area is the weighting and aggregation of SETs into teacher performance scores. This paper contributes to the literature in that it presents a methodology that addresses this issue. To illustrate the usefulness of BoD for teacher evaluations with summative intentions and/or formative purposes, the methodology is applied to SET data collected at a university college in Brussels (Belgium).

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International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

Yin Cheong Cheng

Based on the traditional conception of teacher effectiveness, proposes three strategies for improving it: short‐term, long‐term and dynamic strategies. Argues that the…

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3441

Abstract

Based on the traditional conception of teacher effectiveness, proposes three strategies for improving it: short‐term, long‐term and dynamic strategies. Argues that the dynamic strategy is preferable, but that all of them have strong limitations because they ignore the complexity of teacher effectiveness and narrow the concept to the individual teacher, particularly in a classroom context. Proposes a new conceptual framework of total teacher effectiveness, whereby the total quality of the teacher competence layer contributes to the total quality of the teacher performance layer and the latter contributes to the total quality of the student learning experience layer and then to the quality of the student learning outcomes layer. Explains that the framework suggests a holistic approach to improving teacher effectiveness with the emphasis on the improvement of whole layers of teacher competence and performance instead of fragmentary improvement of teaching behaviour. Advises that in order to ensure total layer quality and maximize teacher effectiveness, a congruence development cycle should be established within the teacher layers to ensure congruence and pursue total teacher effectiveness. Suggests that the proposed conceptual framework can provide a new direction for studying and improving teacher effectiveness in particular and school effectiveness in general.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Melissa Tuytens and Geert Devos

Performance appraisal is used internationally to improve employee performance, also in the educational field. However, doubts exist about the effectiveness of performance

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9410

Abstract

Purpose

Performance appraisal is used internationally to improve employee performance, also in the educational field. However, doubts exist about the effectiveness of performance appraisal. This study aims to contribute by expanding the knowledge about important context variables of performance appraisal in secondary education. In particular, the study aims to examine the role of both characteristics of the teacher performance appraisal system and the school leader for procedural justice and perceived feedback utility by teachers.

Design/methodology/approach

Both interviews with school leaders and a questionnaire for teachers were used to collect data in 32 schools. Path analyses (n=298) were used to test the research model.

Findings

The results indicate that teacher participation in the teacher performance appraisal system significantly influences the perceived procedural justice by teachers, which in its turn significantly influences the perceived feedback utility. The role of the school leaders is found to be extremely important. Charismatic leadership influences both directly and indirectly (through procedural justice) the perceived feedback utility by teachers.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the research field of (teacher) performance appraisal by studying empirically appraisal system characteristics and leadership characteristics that effect appraisal reactions. In this regard, this study responds to the need for more empirical research to uncover the social context of performance appraisal, especially in the field of education where there is a general skepticism towards teacher appraisal and its possible positive outcomes.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Shujie Liu, Decheng Zhao and Wei Xie

The purpose of this paper is to investigate Chinese teachers’ attitudes toward performance pay. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which Chinese teachers

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate Chinese teachers’ attitudes toward performance pay. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which Chinese teachers supported performance-pay programs. The study also examined the effects of these programs on teachers, particularly on their levels of collaboration, work motivation, and job stress.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was conducted in a northeastern city of China. Criteria sampling and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to select three schools, representing different characteristics of teacher performance pay (TPP) programs. In all, 150 questionnaires were administered to each of the three schools. The questionnaire contained three parts. Part 1 asked about respondents’ overall attitude toward pay-for-performance in general. Part 2 was composed of 20 closed-ended items asking respondents to rate their levels of agreement with various aspects of implementation of performance pay. Part 3 of the questionnaire comprised open-ended items.

Findings

Approximately 48.5 percent of the teachers supported the teacher-performance-pay programs. This indicated a low support of Chinese teachers in comparison to that in some countries. Regarding how teachers’ attitudes toward performance pay are related to teacher characteristics (e.g. teaching experience, professional ranking), the ANOVAs results showed no significant differences in any of the factors. This quantitative result was different from the qualitative result of this study (e.g. veteran teachers complained about the implementation of performance pay). In spite of the differences between quantitative and qualitative findings, some findings from the current study are consistent with those found in western countries.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this study was the small sample size for quantitative analyses. Future research should consider a larger sample size to conduct more advanced statistical analyses such as structural equation modeling to examine further the relations among, for example, how much the incentive pay should be, and what proportion of teachers should receive it, the level of teacher stress, their work enthusiasm, and peer relationships. Another limitation of this study was that the qualitative data were collected through open-ended questions of the questionnaire. Future research should interview teachers and principals to obtain richer voices from the teachers.

Originality/value

Very few articles published in Chinese journals surveyed the implementation of TPP. In addition, these few articles were not well-designed from an empirical sense. So far research of teacher opinions about performance pay was a missing area in China’s educational discourse. The present study provides information to non-Chinese readers who are interested in Chinese teachers’ attitudes toward TPP. It is hoped the present study adds knowledge to the literature of TPP from the perspective of Chinese teachers.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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