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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2006

Lori L. Taylor

Charter schools have the potential to enhance competition in the public education sector. As such, they could have a particularly significant impact in the labor market

Abstract

Charter schools have the potential to enhance competition in the public education sector. As such, they could have a particularly significant impact in the labor market for teachers. This study uses data on more than 312,000 teachers from 483 urban Texas school districts to explore the impact of charter school competition on the compensation of teachers at traditional public schools. The analysis suggests that once charter enrollments reach critical mass, increasing competition from charter schools increases salaries for all but the most experienced teachers.

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Improving School Accountability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-446-1

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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Paula Razquin

This chapter reviews the empirical research on the supply of teachers in Latin America. The first part stresses the importance of teacher labor market perspectives for…

Abstract

This chapter reviews the empirical research on the supply of teachers in Latin America. The first part stresses the importance of teacher labor market perspectives for understanding the supply of high-quality teachers, one challenge that most countries in the region face. The second part introduces the teacher labor market framework that guides the search, while the third section describes the goal of the review and the methodology. It follows a mapping, description, and classification of the empirical research on the teacher supply and a discussion of the main findings. The chapter ends with a summary and a brief discussion of the implications for teacher policies.

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Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2018
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-416-8

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Book part
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Amita Chudgar

Purpose – This chapter discusses an education law recently enacted in India – The Right of Children to Free and Compulsary Education – its implementation plan and…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter discusses an education law recently enacted in India – The Right of Children to Free and Compulsary Education – its implementation plan and potential implications, focusing on the teacher labor force composition and the teacher education system. The Right to Education Act specifies acceptable pupil–teacher ratios, levels of teacher vacancy in the school, qualifications required for teacher appointments, and terms and conditions for teacher hiring, among other things.Methodology – This study draws on government documents and reports to conduct a systematic analysis of existing data and historical trends. It generates an understanding of how this policy shapes the demand for teachers, the quality of the existing system, and its ability to respond to these increased demands.Findings – These policy changes intended to increase equity in teacher distribution may in the near future exacerbate inequities in access to quality teachers and teaching across India. The policy creates important and urgent changes in the Indian teacher labor force, and by extension, it demands changes in the Indian teacher education system. But that system may be unprepared to meet these goals. Therefore, the chapter underscores the need for reform in India's teacher education system, if this policy's mandate to provide equal access to quality education to all Indian children is to be fulfilled.Value – This chapter explains and analyzes a recent, large-scale teacher policy reform in a regionally diverse, developing nation with an urgent need to improve the quality of education received by its children.

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Teacher Reforms Around the World: Implementations and Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-654-5

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

E. Holly Buttner and William Latimer Tullar

Workforce analytics is an evolving measurement approach in human resource (HR) planning and strategy implementation. Workforce analytics can help organizations manage one…

Abstract

Purpose

Workforce analytics is an evolving measurement approach in human resource (HR) planning and strategy implementation. Workforce analytics can help organizations manage one of their most important resources: their human capital. The purpose of this paper is to propose a diversity metric, called the D-Metric, as a new tool for HR planning. The D-Metric can be used to assess the demographic representativeness of employees across skill categories of an organization’s workforce compared to its relevant labor markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors present a real example and discuss possible applications of the D-Metric in HRM strategic planning and diversity research.

Findings

The D-Metric is a statistic useful in assessing demographic representativeness in the occupational categories of an organization’s workforce compared to the demographics of its relevant labor markets. The methodology could be implemented to assess an organization’s work force representativeness on dimensions such as race, sex, age and pay levels. When the labor market is unitary, without measurable variance, a substitute metric, the U-Metric also presented in this paper, can be used.

Research limitations/implications

Use of the D-Metric requires publicly available labor market data with variance across labor market segments.

Originality/value

There currently is no published metric that evaluates the representativeness of an organization’s work force relative to its relevant labor markets. Many organizations seek a demographically representative workforce to better understand their diverse customer segments. Monitoring the representativeness of an organization’s work force, as captured in Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO-1) forms in the USA, for example, is an important component of HR management strategy. From a legal perspective, the D-Metric or the alternative U-Metric, could be useful in showing progress toward a demographically representative work force.

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Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2015

Lori L. Taylor

Differences in the cost of living and the general attractiveness of communities lead to significant, regional differences in the prices school districts must pay for their…

Abstract

Differences in the cost of living and the general attractiveness of communities lead to significant, regional differences in the prices school districts must pay for their most important resource – people. According to the most recent data from the National Center for Education Statistics, labor costs differ by more than 50% from the lowest-cost district to the highest-cost district within California, Florida, New York, Texas, and West Virginia. Furthermore, all states but Hawaii and Rhode Island face at least a 7.7% internal differential in labor cost. Most states fail to account for such cost differences in their school finance formulas, leading to inequitable differences in school district purchasing power. This chapter compares and contrasts the various strategies states use to make geographic cost adjustments to their school funding formula, describes the implications of geographic adjustment for interstate and intrastate measures of school finance equity (and corresponding litigation), and discusses the impact that such adjustments could have on the distribution of federal aid for economically disadvantaged students under Title 1 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

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Legal Frontiers in Education: Complex Law Issues for Leaders, Policymakers and Policy Implementers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-577-2

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Seth B. Hunter and Luis A. Rodriguez

Recent teacher evaluation reforms around the globe substantially increased the number of teacher observations, consequently raising observers' (typically school…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent teacher evaluation reforms around the globe substantially increased the number of teacher observations, consequently raising observers' (typically school administrators') observational loads. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between observational loads and school administrator turnover, reported time use and strain.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses education administrative data from the state of Tennessee to examine the link between observational loads and school administrator outcomes of interest. The results present credible regression estimates that isolate variation in observational loads within schools over time and within observers over time.

Findings

The evidence suggests individual school administrators allocate a set amount of time to observations that is insensitive to observational load and seemingly assign observations to colleagues strategically. School administrator reports do not suggest observational loads are associated with negative unintended consequences on administrator strain or observer turnover.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature on teacher evaluation by shedding light on how the constraints posed by an evaluation system may affect the work of school administrators. It also extends the job demands-resources theory that describes worker responses to new job demands.

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Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 59 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Eric A. Hanushek

The purpose of this paper is to consider how the level and structure of teacher salaries affect student outcomes and the possibility of improving student achievement in…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider how the level and structure of teacher salaries affect student outcomes and the possibility of improving student achievement in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis integrates an underlying economic model of the role of salaries in the teacher labor market with existing empirical results.

Findings

Much of the current policy discussion about teacher salaries is very unclear about how student outcomes will be affected by changing policies. The US is at a “bad equilibrium” where it cannot increase salaries for effective teachers without increasing salaries for ineffective teachers and thus it is stuck with a teaching corps that is harming both students and the future economic performance of the country. Dealing with problems of the productivity of schools must involve altering the structure of the single salary schedule for teachers.

Research limitations/implications

The discussion focusses exclusively on the US schooling system, although there are obvious parallels to systems in other countries.

Practical implications

The paper provides an overarching model of how the structure of salaries for teachers has broad implications of school outcomes.

Social implications

Improved long-run economic outcomes depend crucially on reforms that involve rewarding the most effective teachers but not the least effective.

Originality/value

The integrated approach to the consideration of teacher salaries provides a way of assessing the discordant policy discussions related to teacher salaries.

Details

Journal of Professional Capital and Community, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-9548

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Gulbakhyt Sultanova, Serik Svyatov and Nurzhan Ussenbayev

The purpose of this paper is to measure individual intellectual capital (IC) of academic staff as well as to test its impact on the employability readiness of future…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure individual intellectual capital (IC) of academic staff as well as to test its impact on the employability readiness of future graduates and the reduction of the discrepancy between competencies developed and grades obtained with the help of two indicators, i.e. intellectual capital indicator (ICI) and employability readiness indicator (ERI). While ICI measures the level of a teacher’s competencies to be transmitted in the education process, ERI measures the level of a student’s competencies developed after completing relevant courses.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an empirical research carried out in the form of a case study. Regression model is applied to find the influence of ICI on ERI. The minimisation problem is set with relevant constraints to decrease the discrepancy between ERI and traditional grade point average (GPA).

Findings

The data were collected at one Kazakh university and from experts from academia and industry by means of documentary analysis, specialised tests and structured interviews. The direct impact of ICI on ERI is confirmed and the optimal level of ICI that permits an effective decrease in the discrepancy between ERI and GPA is identified.

Research limitations/implications

A longitudinal study covering more programmes is necessary to draw conclusions concerning causality. The application of ICI as a university’s management tool is shown.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study lies in providing a consistent and simple approach for calculating a teacher’s IC and its impact on a student’s employability readiness.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2017

Mimi Engel, Marisa Cannata and F. Chris Curran

Over the past decade, policy researchers and advocates have called for the decentralization of teacher hiring decisions from district offices to school principals. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past decade, policy researchers and advocates have called for the decentralization of teacher hiring decisions from district offices to school principals. The purpose of this paper is to document the trends across two and a half decades in principals’ reported influence over teacher hiring decisions in the USA and explore how and whether principal influence varies systematically across contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

Regression analysis with secondary data using seven waves of nationally representative data from the Schools and Staffing Survey.

Findings

Principals report increased influence over the 25 years that the data span. While principals of urban schools were much more likely to report having less influence over teacher hiring compared to their non-urban counterparts in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their reported influence increased more than that of other principals.

Research limitations/implications

Empowering principals as primary decision-makers assumes that they have the best information on which to make hiring decisions. At the same time, other research suggests that local teacher labor market dynamics contribute to the inequitable sorting of teachers across schools. This study raises questions regarding the implications of the increased influence of principals in teacher hiring on equity of access to quality teachers across schools.

Originality/value

This is the first study to explore whether and how principal influence in teacher hiring decisions has changed over time.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 56 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Desiree Carver-Thomas and Linda Darling-Hammond

This study uses the most recent national data from the National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), 2011–2012 and Teacher Follow-up Survey…

Abstract

This study uses the most recent national data from the National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), 2011–2012 and Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS), 2012–2013 to investigate attrition trends among Black teachers, and Black female teachers in particular, to inform a qualitative analysis of proposed and adopted teacher retention policy interventions. This study asks: Why do Black teachers report leaving, and what would bring them back to the classroom? What working conditions are associated with Black teacher attrition? What policy interventions can meet the needs of Black teachers in having successful and supported teaching experiences? How have these interventions been successful, and what are the considerations for applying them more broadly? We find that Black teacher turnover rates are significantly higher than those of other teachers and that there are several substantive differences in their preparation, school characteristics, and reasons for leaving. We describe policy interventions that target these conditions, such as teacher residencies, loan forgiveness, mentoring and induction, and principal training programs. We include in that discussion the relative benefits and challenges of each implications for policymaking.

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Black Female Teachers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-462-0

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