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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

W. Kyle Ingle, Namok Choi and Marco A. Munoz

We surveyed educational leaders in a large, urban school district in the southeastern United States, examining: (1) the factor structure of scores from a new measure of…

Abstract

Purpose

We surveyed educational leaders in a large, urban school district in the southeastern United States, examining: (1) the factor structure of scores from a new measure of administrators' preferred teacher applicant characteristics, and (2) the relationships between administrator demographics and their preferences.

Design/methodology/approach

We implemented a non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design using the Preferred Teacher Applicant Characteristics Survey (PTACS). We undertook descriptive and exploratory factor analyses in order to examine dimensions and underlying patterns among the 31 survey items. The retained factors served as the dependent variables in our multiple regression analyses.

Findings

We identified a four-factor structure: (1) personal, (2) professional, (3) student outcomes, and (4) demographics. Our analyses suggest that there was not meaningful variability in administrators' preferred characteristics of applicants across racial and gender variables, but revealed a significant difference between principals and assistant principals for applicant demographics.

Research limitations/implications

Our findings are limited in their generalizability to the respondents from a single urban district who completed our survey in spring 2018. Although we cannot establish causation, the significant difference between principals and assistant principals for demographics may result from principals feeling greater pressure from district targets to hire diverse staff than their assistant principal counterparts. It is important to note that preferences for teacher applicant characteristics are different from actual hiring decisions and the availability of preferred characteristics.

Originality/value

Our study is the first large-scale use of the instrument in a large US urban school district, a context, which poses significant challenges to the education of youth as well as the hiring and retention of educators.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 59 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Kyle Ingle, Cynthia T. Thompson and Zipporah W. Abla

The purpose of this paper is to answer the following research questions: what characteristics do key Belizean educational leaders value in teacher applicants and why? What…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to answer the following research questions: what characteristics do key Belizean educational leaders value in teacher applicants and why? What hiring tools do they use to ascertain whether teacher applicants have the characteristics they prefer?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors utilized a mixed-methods approach drawing upon three data sources – face-to-face interviews with Belizean educational leaders, field notes, and government documents. A card sorting activity of applicant characteristics and tools was embedded into the interview.

Findings

Informants preferred motivation, caring, subject matter knowledge, and teaching skills. Intelligence was perceived as a potentially negative characteristic unless coupled with other characteristics, such as strong teaching skills, motivation, and caring or the umbrella of other characteristics, such as content knowledge or university training/credentialing. Professional characteristics, such as where one went for teacher training and academic performance, were perceived as having less relative importance than personal characteristics. Least important were applicant demographics. Consistent with the extant literature, Belizean informants perceived the interview, evidence of prior experience, and certification as the most important tools in vetting and hiring applicants.

Research limitations/implications

The exploratory study is limited by the small sample of informants, but provides insights into preferences for applicant characteristics and hiring tools in an understudied international context. This study informs future research that may seek to survey representative samples of various stakeholder groups (i.e. general managers and principals) for their preferences in applicant characteristics and hiring tools from across Belizean schools and educational providers.

Originality/value

The study adds to limited research on preferred teacher characteristics among educational leaders responsible for hiring and/or working with teachers and to the limited international educational leadership research.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 56 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2012

Thuwayba Ahmad Al Barwani, Wajeha Thabit Al‐Ani and Ismail Hussein Amzat

The purpose of this paper is to investigate what is the most important characteristic that leads to effective teaching in the general education schools in Oman, as…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate what is the most important characteristic that leads to effective teaching in the general education schools in Oman, as perceived by the students.

Design/methodology/approach

Methodologically, this research is a survey in nature, using questionnaires for data collection. The sample size consists of 2,628 students from the General Education Schools in most of the regions in Oman. To ensure the reliability and construct validity, this research has applied the principal component analysis (PCA) to determine whether the relevant items have been accordingly loaded on their respective construct. For data analysis, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) or the measurement model was employed to determine the indictors and factors as well as the predictor that can positively lead to effective teaching and teachers.

Findings

In terms of the findings, this research discovered that, the “community relationships” factor is the most important factor that leads to effective teaching and that it predicts an effective teacher in Oman. This indicates that to have effective teaching in Oman from the students' perspectives, the school must involve the society to participate and support the educational process, while an effective teacher should align his/her teaching service with society needs. Teaching strategies were found to be the second factor and predictor for teaching effectiveness.

Originality/value

This research is timely, as the Omani Ministry of Education is striving to achieve quality education. The study described in the paper is aligned with the Ministry's aims and objectives and will be of benefit to the Omani Ministry of education, educational policy‐makers and planners in terms of setting a standard for effective teaching and has provided a model to follow in becoming an effective teacher, according to General Education students in Oman. This paper has bridged gaps in the existing literature on providing characteristics for effective teaching and teachers in Oman. No other paper or research, based on researchers' best knowledge, has dealt with the issue of teaching effectiveness in Oman and presented criteria to follow in determining an effective teacher. Therefore, this research is unique and has taken a bold step to design a model which the Omani government can use as a standard for effective teaching and teachers in Oman.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Kyle Ingle, Stacey Rutledge and Jennifer Bishop

School principals make sense of multiple messages, policies, and contexts within their school environments. The purpose of this paper is to examine specifically how school…

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2482

Abstract

Purpose

School principals make sense of multiple messages, policies, and contexts within their school environments. The purpose of this paper is to examine specifically how school leaders make sense of hiring and subjective evaluation of on‐the‐job teacher performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study drew from 42 interviews with 21 principals from a mid‐sized Florida school district. Two rounds of semi‐structured interviews (one to two hours each) were conducted with the informants over two summers (2005‐2006). The multi‐year study allows the authors to assess the consistency across principal participants.

Findings

Principals' personal beliefs, background, and experiences were found to shape their conceptions and preferences for teacher characteristics. School type (e.g. elementary, secondary, levels of poverty) also influenced principals' perceptions of and preferences for specific applicant and teacher characteristics. Principals in the sample, however, showed surprising consistency towards certain characteristics (caring, subject matter knowledge, strong teaching skills) and job fit (person‐job). Sampled principals reported that each vacancy is different and is highly dependent on the position, team, and individuals. Regardless of the position or school setting, federal, state, and district mandates strongly influenced how principals made sense of the hiring process and on‐the‐job performance.

Practical implications

The findings underscore the complexity of the human resource functions in education and raise important questions of how school leaders reconcile personal preferences and building‐level needs with demands from the district, state, and federal levels.

Originality/value

The authors' findings offer important insight into the complex conceptualizations that principals hold and the balances that must be struck in the face of policy and hiring constraints. How principals make sense of teacher quality, however, has not been examined. This study contributes to the extant research and makes a theoretical contribution to studies using a cognitive frame to understand school leadership.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Melissa Tuytens and Geert Devos

Performance appraisal is used internationally to improve employee performance, also in the educational field. However, doubts exist about the effectiveness of performance…

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9410

Abstract

Purpose

Performance appraisal is used internationally to improve employee performance, also in the educational field. However, doubts exist about the effectiveness of performance appraisal. This study aims to contribute by expanding the knowledge about important context variables of performance appraisal in secondary education. In particular, the study aims to examine the role of both characteristics of the teacher performance appraisal system and the school leader for procedural justice and perceived feedback utility by teachers.

Design/methodology/approach

Both interviews with school leaders and a questionnaire for teachers were used to collect data in 32 schools. Path analyses (n=298) were used to test the research model.

Findings

The results indicate that teacher participation in the teacher performance appraisal system significantly influences the perceived procedural justice by teachers, which in its turn significantly influences the perceived feedback utility. The role of the school leaders is found to be extremely important. Charismatic leadership influences both directly and indirectly (through procedural justice) the perceived feedback utility by teachers.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the research field of (teacher) performance appraisal by studying empirically appraisal system characteristics and leadership characteristics that effect appraisal reactions. In this regard, this study responds to the need for more empirical research to uncover the social context of performance appraisal, especially in the field of education where there is a general skepticism towards teacher appraisal and its possible positive outcomes.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1997

Hian Chye Koh and Teck Meng Tan

Investigates the factors affecting student evaluation of teaching (SET). A total of 170 teaching evaluations conducted at the Nanyang Business School (Singapore) were…

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780

Abstract

Investigates the factors affecting student evaluation of teaching (SET). A total of 170 teaching evaluations conducted at the Nanyang Business School (Singapore) were analysed by regressing the overall teaching index on the following variables: subject characteristics (stream, year and type), class characteristics (format, size, time and day), evaluation characteristics (response, time and day), and teacher characteristics (age, gender and rank). Indicates that better teaching evaluation is associated with a smaller class size and a larger number of evaluation responses. Also, teachers of middle‐level subjects receive relatively poorer SET results. Further, SET administered in the later part of the week attract better student evaluation. Finds that teacher characteristics have no significant impact on SET results. Confirms the existence of potential biasing factors, hence, SET should be used with caution and not be the only method of evaluating teachers.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Victoria Handford and Kenneth Leithwood

Trust among teachers in schools is significantly related to student achievement and trust in school leaders is an important influence on such trust. The purpose of this…

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4503

Abstract

Purpose

Trust among teachers in schools is significantly related to student achievement and trust in school leaders is an important influence on such trust. The purpose of this study is to identify leadership practices which teachers interpret as signs of trustworthiness on the part of their principals.

Design/methodology/approach

Evidence for the study was provided by post‐observation interviews with 24 randomly selected teachers in three “high trust” and three “low trust” schools selected from a much larger sample of schools included in a national study. Coding of interview data was guided by a framework of trust antecedents identified through a wide‐ranging review of empirical research.

Findings

Results demonstrated that teacher trust in principals is most influenced by leadership practices which teachers interpret as indicators of competence, consistency and reliability, openness, respect and integrity.

Originality/value

These results, generally consistent with previous research, specify, in much greater detail than has been reported to date, leadership trust‐building practices.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Anna Saiti and Yiannis Papadopoulos

The purpose of this paper (based on the relevant literature) is to: investigate, through empirical analysis, primary school teachers’ perceptions regarding their job…

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3697

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper (based on the relevant literature) is to: investigate, through empirical analysis, primary school teachers’ perceptions regarding their job satisfaction, and examine whether or not the personal characteristics of primary school educators (such as gender, age, family status, educational level, and the total years of service in public primary education) have any impact on their job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 360 questionnaires were administered to primary school teachers in the metropolitan area of Athens (region of Attiki). The sample was randomly selected. The questionnaire was based on 41 closed and was divided into two sections. The Job Satisfaction Survey developed by Spector (1985) was implemented.

Findings

Greek school teachers are generally satisfied with their profession. There is no statistical correlation between personal characteristics and the overall satisfaction while indicated that teachers are more satisfied with three aspects (subscales) of job satisfaction, namely, “administration,” “colleagues” and “nature of work” and less satisfied with “salary,” “benefits” and “potential rewards.” Age correlates with the levels of satisfaction with reference to administration, potential rewards, colleagues and the nature of work. The overall satisfaction positively correlates with all nine aspects of job satisfaction (subscales) and gender affects the aspects of “promotion” and “colleagues.”

Research limitations/implications

This study only analyzes a small sample from the Athens region and hence the results cannot be used to generalize about the whole of Greece. Since other Greek regions operate in different socio-economic environments, an analysis of additional data from other regions (rural and urban areas) would be necessary to compare and confirm the results.

Originality/value

The findings of this study a valuable extension of other relevant research as it provides the first empirical study of the Greek school system, investigating the relationship between certain aspects of job satisfaction and the personal characteristics of school educators as well as the relationship between these aspects of job satisfaction and total satisfaction. In the context of efficient educational policy, a greater understanding of educators’ job satisfaction could facilitate the development of more effective policy practice that would increase not only the level of educators’ satisfaction, commitment and morale but also improve the performance of the school system.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2012

Saadia Tayyaba

Recent educational research has demonstrated rural‐urban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study seeks…

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3104

Abstract

Purpose

Recent educational research has demonstrated rural‐urban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study seeks to report rural‐urban disparities in achievement, student, teacher, and school characteristics based on a nationally representative sample of grade four students from four provinces of Pakistan. The study aims to take into account the limitations of previous research, mainly the issues of non‐representative samples and inadequate sampling techniques, by using proportionally adequate sample to address the potential differences in achievement of rural and urban students and how schooling, students and teacher‐related factors account for gap in achievement.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary data source for the study was the 2006 national assessment survey of year four students in government school across four provinces in four core subjects. The sample design included a two‐stage stratified random sample, where the major strata of national interest were student and school gender, geographical location and region. First stage involved selecting schools and in the second stage students were selected from schools. The procedure of estimation involved computing the average of each group's achievement scores and attached standard errors, the gap of standard errors and statistical significance of standard errors at 0.05 level.

Findings

The results show that rural and urban students had comparable levels of achievement in some of the tested learning areas. In Balochistan province, rural students outperformed their urban counterparts in three out of the four tested subjects. In Punjab and Sindh, urban students performed significantly better in social studies and language tests; scores on social studies and language did not differ significantly across location in the North West. The differences appeared to be partly explained by variation in schooling conditions, students' home background, and teachers' characteristics. Teachers' training turned out to be decisive in determining students' achievement, whereas availability of resources and multi‐grade teaching was less important.

Originality/value

Recent educational research from around the world has demonstrated rural‐urban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study is the first attempt to report rural‐urban disparities in academic achievement, student, teacher, and school characteristics based on a nationally representative sample. The study has employed an appropriate sampling strategy and proportionally adequate sample to address the potential differences in achievement of rural and urban students in four provinces. The findings could therefore be used to guide policy interventions in areas of curriculum differences, schooling conditions, teachers' training and multi‐grade teaching across provinces.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Dan Cooperman

Collaborative decision making and site‐based management have been proposed as essential foundations for reform of classroom instruction. Using data from the…

Abstract

Collaborative decision making and site‐based management have been proposed as essential foundations for reform of classroom instruction. Using data from the nationally‐compiled PROSPECTS Data Survey, this study analyzes the data for key variables pertaining to school organization, teacher characteristics, and classroom instruction. The purpose is to determine the degree to which innovative practice relates to collaborative decision‐making process, individual teacher background characteristics, or another combination of factors. The results surprisingly downplay the impact of collaborative management on instructional practice, identifying instead sustained inservice programs and teacher belief in student ability to learn as potentially more promising directions for future research and practice aimed at the question of instructional reform.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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