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Article
Publication date: 21 April 2020

Khaoula Ftouhi and Wafa Ghardallou

This paper aims to understand the international practices of tax planning. International companies choose their capital structure according to differences in international…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the international practices of tax planning. International companies choose their capital structure according to differences in international taxation, in order to minimize the tax burden of the whole company group. This paper reviews the literature that deals with international tax avoidance techniques by highlighting tax planning measurements in the empirical literature. The methodology used is the narrative approach of literature review, which consists on assembling and synthesizing previously published research. The paper concludes that there are several approaches of international tax planning including transfers of revenues by geographical area, redevelopment of the company, haven and loopholes in tax legislation. Moreover, finding more precise measures of tax planning techniques would be of great value to studies in this respect.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors follow the guideline provided by Templier and Pare (2015) in order to select the type of the literature review to use in this paper. Accordingly, this paper employs the narrative approach of literature review, which consists on assembling and synthesizing previously published research on international tax planning. This narrative review will serve as a starting point for future investigations and research developments. The authors rely on a logic of configuration in order to analyze data. This logic consists on addressing then organizing various aspects of international practices of tax planning.

Findings

The paper concludes that there are many aspects of international tax planning that need to be covered by future researchers, especially finding more precise measures of tax planning techniques would be of great value to studies in this respect.

Research limitations/implications

The literature survey reveals the following issues. First, few studies have been conducted to date. Second, several approaches remain unexplored, and studies rely only on surveys' results collected from the annual report of companies (microeconomics variables), while macroeconomic variables can better explain the phenomenon of international tax planning. In this context, studies containing proposals to estimate more accurate international companies' tax planning techniques would also be welcome. Previous literature supposes premises on this issue th:at limit the accurateness of the analysis. Particularly, empirical literature is short of the proper measurement to evaluate corporate tax avoidance. This would explain the various interpretations of research findings. Hence, finding more precise measures of tax planning techniques would be of great value to studies in this respect.

Practical implications

This literature survey highlights recent studies dealing with tax planning theories within the framework of corporate governance. This theoretical framework particularly specifies which key variables are the most suitable for measuring tax planning methods and highlights the need to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances. In addition, it underlines limits on tax planning measurements by addressing the comparison of the empirical measurements.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature on internal tax planning in several ways. First, this study is unique in that it constitutes the only literature review that provides a comprehensive overview of research on international tax planning. Especially, it extends previous studies by considering the specific new trend of empirical literature dealing with the techniques of international tax planning. This literature review identifies two categories of tax planning approaches including techniques related to company internal management practices and international tax planning techniques. In addition, the literature survey helps to determine various strategies used by multinationals for tax planning, through an in-depth review of the existing studies. Finally, it provides researchers with a starting point to further explore issues related to tax avoidance techniques.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Alan K. Kirkpatrick and Dragana Radicic

The purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of tax planning activities on the firm value of FTSE 100 firms. We employ static and dynamic panel regression…

Abstract

The purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of tax planning activities on the firm value of FTSE 100 firms. We employ static and dynamic panel regression analyses on a sample of 70 companies drawn from the UK FTSE 100 over a five-year period (2006–2010). Empirical evidence suggests that tax planning activity as measured by the proxies based on reported accounting information has a negative impact on firm value. Moreover, the results from the Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) models suggest significant dynamics in firm value, i.e., the current firm value is positively affected by the past firm value. The findings imply the need for a full review of the adequacy and relevance of tax accounting disclosure and therefore have policy implications for accounting standard setters.

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Rodrigo Fernandes Malaquias and Dermeval Martins Borges Junior

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the interaction between liquidity constraints and tax planning on the performance of Brazilian investment funds…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the interaction between liquidity constraints and tax planning on the performance of Brazilian investment funds, since liquidity constraints reduce precipitated withdrawals, allowing tax planning operationalization.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of this study is comprised of 8,008 Brazilian multimarket funds, considering the period from January 2004 to September 2017. The authors considered tax planning, lockup periods and minimum balance of investment as independent variables, and the authors used the Sharpe ratio as a proxy for performance. To test the study hypothesis, the authors employed regression models with panel data.

Findings

The main findings indicate some evidences that investment funds which implement, at the same time, liquidity constraints with tax planning have an extra risk-adjusted return index. This result can represent a premium registered by investment funds with have enough resources to achieve competitive advantage. Nevertheless, the result for the main hypothesis was not robust to different forms of performance measurement.

Originality/value

This study promotes an interaction between finance and organizational strategy, since it employs aspects of strategy theories to support the implications that the internal resources of investment funds, such as their liquidity constraints and tax planning, may exert on their performance. In addition, this study advances by providing new evidences about liquidity constraints in investments funds, which have the potential to contribute with the operationalization of strategy and tax planning of funds’ managers.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2019

Hua Feng, Ahsan Habib and Gao liang Tian

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between aggressive tax planning and stock price synchronicity.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between aggressive tax planning and stock price synchronicity.

Design/methodology/approach

Employing the special institutional background of China, this study constructs tax aggressiveness and stock price synchronicity measures for a large sample of Chinese stocks spanning the period 2003–2015. The authors employ OLS regression as the baseline methodology, and a fixed effect model, the Fama–Macbeth method and GMM as sensitivity checks. Matched samples and difference-in-difference analyses are used to control for endogeneity.

Findings

The authors find a significant and positive association between aggressive tax planning and stock price synchronicity. Because material information about risky tax transactions tends to be hidden in various tax accruals accounts, aggressive tax strategies make financial statements less transparent, thereby, increasing information asymmetry and decreasing stock price informativeness. The authors also find that the firms engaging in aggressive tax planning exhibit relatively high corporate opacity. In addition, the authors find that improvements in the tax enforcement regime, ownership status and high-quality auditors all constrain the adverse effects of tax aggressiveness.

Practical implications

This study has important practical implications for China’s regulators, who are striving to reduce the tax burden of enterprises. It also helps investors to consider investment decisions more appropriately from a taxation perspective.

Originality/value

First, this paper contributes to the stock price efficiency literature by identifying the effect of a hitherto unexamined factor, namely, firm-level aggressive tax planning, on the efficiency of stock prices. Second, this study provides further empirical evidence to support the agency view of tax aggressiveness, and the informational interpretation of stock price synchronicity. Third, this study helps us better understand the effects of firm-level tax policy on firm-specific information capitalization in an environment where overall country-level investor protection is relatively weak.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Chunwei Xian, Fang Sun and Yinghong Zhang

This study aims to investigate the moderating effect of equity-based compensation on the sources of book-tax differences. The authors investigate whether equity-based…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the moderating effect of equity-based compensation on the sources of book-tax differences. The authors investigate whether equity-based compensation affects the association between book-tax differences and tax planning, and the association between book-tax differences and earnings management.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a sample of 9,024 firm-year observations (913 firms) spanning the period 1992-2011, obtained from ExecuComp and Compustat. They estimate cross-sectional regressions of the proxy for tax planning, discretionary accruals and their interactions with equity-based compensation on book-tax differences.

Findings

The authors find that tax planning-related book-tax differences increase as the equity-based pay of executives does, and that earnings management-related book-tax differences decrease as the equity-based pay of executives increases. The results are robust across three alternative measures of tax planning.

Originality/value

Equity-based compensation plays an important role in managerial discretion on tax planning and earnings management. The findings suggest that, although equity incentives promote a high level of both tax planning and earnings management, they motivate managers to constrain the level of earnings management to avoid larger book-tax differences.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Horn-chern Lin and Tao Zeng

This paper aims to examine the design of optimal incentives for a firm’s tax department in the presence of information asymmetry.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the design of optimal incentives for a firm’s tax department in the presence of information asymmetry.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a theoretical model to examine the design of optimal incentives. The focus is on a situation in which a risk-averse tax department has private information about its efficiency type or effort to be exerted before the firm sets the incentive schemes.

Findings

This paper shows that a tax department’s risk aversion leads to a decline in the fraction of the cost borne by the tax department. It also shows that the optimal contract schemes should be designed to filter out as much uncontrollable risk as possible by using third-party information relevant to a tax department’s realized cost.

Social implications

It contributes to a better understanding of the impact of corporate incentive plans on firms’ tax practices. This study, by designing a theoretical model, helps explain why there exist differences in tax planning across firms based on the finding that incentives for tax planning activities differ across firms.

Originality/value

This paper is the first study that considers the situation in which tax managers’ risk-averse and types, as well as relevant information collected by the firms, can be used to set up incentive schemes and investigates whether and how the incentive schemes will be affected when firms improve their prior information by acquiring relevant information before the tax department acts.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Mingjun Zhou

This study aims to use research setting provided by the implementation of Financial Accounting Standards Board Interpretation 48 (FIN48) to help develop a further…

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1271

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use research setting provided by the implementation of Financial Accounting Standards Board Interpretation 48 (FIN48) to help develop a further understanding of large positive book–tax differences (LPBTD) and their relationship with earnings persistence. Extant literature indicates that the tax information provided in financial statements, such as large book–tax differences, is useful for detecting earnings management and signals less persistent future earnings. However, more information is needed about the causes of large book–tax differences and their abilities to signal the differences in earnings persistence (Blaylock et al., 2012).

Design/methodology/approach

In the first step, temporary book–tax differences are ranked by quintiles based on the approach in Hanlon’s (2005) study and the highest quintile in the sample observations are designated as large positive temporary book–tax differences (LPBTD). In the second step, differences in the persistence of earnings for high tax-planning firms as measured by UTB_NonETR are searched for. In further testing, an ordered logistic model and the Vuong (1989) test are applied to compare both the incremental and the relative ability of UTB_NonETR and Cash-ETR to explain the ranking order of temporary book–tax differences.

Findings

The negative relation between temporary differences and earnings persistence is moderated by the level of tax planning as measured by UTB_NonETRs. More specifically, the persistence of earnings appears to be higher for firm-years with large UTB_NonETRs. When comparing the relative power of UTB_NonETR with Cash-ETR, the results indicate that UTB_NonETR is incrementally useful for explaining the ranking orders of temporary book–tax differences. However, it appears that neither UTB_NonETR nor Cash-ETR is relatively more useful over another under the Vuong (1989) test.

Originality/value

First, the part of UTB, if recognized, that would not affect earnings (UTB_NonETR) is used as an empirical proxy and its usefulness is tested in the context of book–tax differences and the persistence of earnings. Second, new evidence is provided supporting the predictions, as in Ayers’ et al. (2010) and Blaylock et al.’s (2012) studies, that the level of tax planning will attenuate the negative association between large book–tax differences and earnings quality. Third, the findings can contribute to the post-implementation review of FIN48 (Financial Accounting Foundation, 2012) supporting the argument that FIN48 can provide decision-useful information for financial statement users.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2019

Tina Wang

The purpose of this paper is to test the economic theory that product market competition should enhance firm performance in the US corporate tax management setting. It…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the economic theory that product market competition should enhance firm performance in the US corporate tax management setting. It identifies one mechanism through which corporate management can improve firm performance. The paper also identifies business conditions that may facility or impede effective corporate tax management.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper tests the relationship between product market competition and corporate tax efficiency using large archival data. The primary data source is COMPUSTAT, which contains annual and quarterly accounting data for US public firms. Other data sources include accounting comparability data generously shared by Professor Vedi.

Findings

The paper finds that firms in competitive industries are more efficient in managing taxes. Specifically, the paper documents that firms in competitive industries exhibit lower effective tax rates than their non-competitive counterparts. Furthermore, the paper finds that the positive link between competition and the efficiency of tax management is much stronger for firms with lower cash flow volatility and for firms with fewer industry investment opportunities. The lack of financial statement comparability may weaken this link.

Research limitations/implications

Tax laws vary greatly from country to country. Readers should interpret the results within the US tax environments.

Practical implications

Results in this paper have implications for multinational corporations that are interested in investing and doing business in the USA.

Originality/value

This paper sheds light on how competition influences firm performance through efficient tax management, a specific mechanism through which competition improves firm performance. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study provides the first documentation of how product market competition affects tax planning for US publicly traded companies.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Book part
Publication date: 4 January 2019

Mitchell Franklin and Michaele Morrow

This project requires students to analyze and make a client recommendation for the most tax-effective saving option, comparing a traditional individual retirement account…

Abstract

This project requires students to analyze and make a client recommendation for the most tax-effective saving option, comparing a traditional individual retirement account (IRA) versus Roth IRA. Students analyze the two alternatives and track growth as well as projected tax liability over the life of the client to determine the strategy that generates the best outcome for the client. The project emphasizes principles of tax planning to illustrate that the solution with the smallest tax liability in the short term is not necessarily the most beneficial option over the long term, as well as how this often is in conflict with a client’s expectations and tax preparer tactics utilized to attract new clients. Students will demonstrate critical thinking skills through the analysis of two options for a client, and the communication of the findings with a recommendation through a client letter.

Details

Advances in Accounting Education: Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-540-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

John M. Thornton and Michael K. Shaub

The purpose of this research is to determine whether the type of tax services provided by a public accounting firm to its audit client and the consequence severity of an…

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1218

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to determine whether the type of tax services provided by a public accounting firm to its audit client and the consequence severity of an audit failure impact jurors' assessment of audit quality and auditor liability.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors administer a court case to 168 jurors manipulating three levels of tax services provided to an audit client (none, tax preparation, and aggressive tax planning services); two levels of consequence severity of the alleged audit failure, observing the impact on jurors' assessment of audit quality, auditor responsibility for audit failure; and damages awarded the plaintiff.

Findings

Consistent with recent US regulations, jurors perceive the quality of the audit to be lower when auditors provide aggressive tax planning services, but not for tax preparation services. Damages are greater when auditors provide aggressive tax planning services across both levels of consequence severity.

Research limitations/implications

The results indicate that the type of tax services provided may impact jurors' views of audit quality and damage assessments against auditors. The questionnaire uses previously validated measures, but the results may not be generalizable to jurors in all jurisdictions.

Practical implications

Though empirical evidence is mixed at best about the impact of auditors providing non-audit services on auditor independence in fact, auditor independence in appearance, and thus audit quality, such impacts may affect the way jurors perceive the situation.

Originality/value

The study directly tests the implications for auditor liability of new restrictions on tax services and more accurately measures the impact of consequence severity, using actual jurors.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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