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The purpose of this chapter is to study the American practice of implementing the model of information economy as an example to the leading countries of the American…
The purpose of this chapter is to study the American practice of implementing the model of information economy as an example to the leading countries of the American region of the global economic system and to compile a conceptual model of formation and development of information economy in modern America.
For provision of compatibility of data on different regions of the global economic system, the research is performed on the basis of the previously used methodology and information platform. The values of the indicators of technosphere, sociosphere, economic sphere, and target result in information economy’s formation in American countries and are compared to determine their variation from direct average; subsequently, they are compared with the global values for evaluation of percentage deviations. The research concerns countries such as USA, which is a leader in the American region with regard to the global economic system, Canada, which is the country closest to the level of economic development by the region’s leader, and Brazil, which is the foremost leading country among the developing countries of the American region. The data from 2017 is used in the study.
The authors conclude that the US economy is not a deviant economic system but a true leader of the American region with regard to the the global economic system. That is, the USA shows higher level and rate of information economy’s formation, but applied that for the same conceptual model as other countries of the American region. The most vivid uniqueness of the American model of establishment and development of information economy is the stage-by-stage character of the noosphere pyramid, which is manifested by vivid reduction of the area of its structural elements, the most massive of which is technosphere, which corresponds to the indicators that are standard for the leading countries of the world.
The offered conceptual model is recommended for studying the formation of information economy in the America region and compare this process in other regions of the world.
Purpose: The purpose of the chapter is to determine the regularities and tendencies of decision making in business systems by the example of modern Russia.Methodology: The…
Purpose: The purpose of the chapter is to determine the regularities and tendencies of decision making in business systems by the example of modern Russia.
Methodology: The method of logical analysis (analysis of causal connections) and the method of dynamic analysis of development of socioeconomic systems are used. These methods are applied with the current statistical and analytical information. The information and analytical basis of the research is the materials of the Federal State Statistics Service for 2018.
Conclusions: The factors of functioning and development of modern business systems, related to development of E-commerce, liberalization of state regulation of business systems, growth of their competition and corporate responsibility, change of technological mode, and crisis are determined. Influence of these factors on managerial decisions is connected to reduction of resource provision of business systems, accessibility of new managerial tools, complication of made decisions (growth of the number of accessible decisions), growth of the number of new technologies of decision making, and increase of the risk component of decisions. Regularities and tendencies of decision making are determined: striving for saving resources during decision making, more active usage of new managerial tools during decision making, striving for acceleration of the process of making of more complicated managerial decisions, more active usage of new technologies during decision making, and striving for minimization of risks of made decisions.
Originality/value: It is substantiated that the determined regularities and tendencies of decision making lead to increase of contradiction during making of managerial decisions in modern business systems, connected to growth of complexity of this process and simultaneous reduction of resources and time that are accessible to business managers. In order to solve this contradiction, it is necessary to implement cardinal changes into the process of making of managerial decisions in modern business systems, which allow – with minimum managerial cost – determining multiple alternative variants of solutions of the whole specter of current problems of a business system and comparing them as to mutually excluding criteria, thus making complex decisions.
The purpose of the chapter is to consider the methodology of studying socio-economic systems through the prism of the theory of cycles and to analyze applicability of this…
The purpose of the chapter is to consider the methodology of studying socio-economic systems through the prism of the theory of cycles and to analyze applicability of this methodology to studying economic.
Based on the dynamic model of development of socio-economic system through the prism of the theory of cycles, the authors analyze dynamics of development of Russia’s socio-economic system through the prism of the theory of cycles in 2000–2022.
Drawbacks of the existing theory of cycles are determined. First, the models of economic cycles are too idealized and are alien to the current economic reality. These models do not correctly describe cyclic fluctuations of modern socio-economic systems – which is shown by the example of Russia. Second, application of the methodology of the theory of cycles in practice (by the example of Russia) leads to contradictory results. Each indicator of economic growth, including investments into economy, inflation, unemployment level, and balance of federal budget, has its own cyclic fluctuations, which could differ from fluctuations of GDP in constant prices. Third, the system of factors of cyclic fluctuations of socio-economic systems includes primarily economic (not social) factors. Due to this, the theory of cycles takes into account only objective reasons of crises of socio-economic systems.
It is determined that domination of subjective reasons in emergence of economic conflicts makes application of the theory of cycles not applicable to full-scale study of economic conflicts – application of this concept is expedient only as to economic crises that are one of a lot of manifestations of economic conflicts. It is probably that neglecting subjective (social) factors leads to the above contradictions of the theory of cycles and difference between its theoretical models and empirical data. Based on this conclusion, it is substantiated that methodology of studying socio-economic system through the prism of the theory of cycles is not applicable to economic conflicts; it is determined that development of the concept of economic conflicts can specify and improve the methodology of the theory of cycles.