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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Kea G. Tijdens, Esther De Ruijter and Judith De Ruijter

Do similar job titles refer to the same work activities, as assumed often, but hardly empirically tested? The purpose of this paper is to analyze the similarity of 160…

Abstract

Purpose

Do similar job titles refer to the same work activities, as assumed often, but hardly empirically tested? The purpose of this paper is to analyze the similarity of 160 occupations within and across eight European countries using interrater agreement statistics (rWG).

Design/methodology/approach

Using a multilingual web survey, experts and jobholders in the eight countries rated the frequency of ten tasks per occupation they had knowledge of (n=4,197 ratings). Three hypotheses are investigated: first, interrater agreements of occupations are similar regardless the country; second, interrater agreements of occupations are similar within countries; and third, experts and jobholders are similar in their ratings.

Findings

Half of the occupations reveal no agreement across ratings, one-third shows a weak/moderate agreement and one in ten shows a strong agreement. H1 is rejected for task frequency but not for task importance. Within-country similarity of occupations is larger than across-country similarity. H2 is supported for two countries and rejected for two other countries. H3 is not supported. Jobholders demonstrate higher agreement than experts.

Research limitations/implications

An empirical testing of occupation-specific tasks for a wide range of occupations across Europe seems a viable approach.

Practical implications

The paper contributes to the challenges related to labor market mobility across borders.

Originality/value

Work tasks for a wide range of occupations and countries, using job-specific work activities in combination with web surveys and the internet for recruitment of jobholders, have not been used before.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

Clifton P. Campbell

Job analysis is the common basis for designing a training course orprogramme, preparing performance tests, writing position (job)descriptions, identifying performance…

Abstract

Job analysis is the common basis for designing a training course or programme, preparing performance tests, writing position (job) descriptions, identifying performance appraisal criteria, and job restructuring. Its other applications in human resource development include career counselling and wage and salary administration. Job analysis answers the questions of what tasks, performed in what manner, make up a job. Outputs of this analytical study include: (a) a list of the job tasks; (b) details of how each task is performed; (c) statements describing the responsibility, job knowledge, mental application, and dexterity, as well as accuracy required; and (d) a list of the equipment, materials, and supplies used to perform the job. Various techniques for conducting a job analysis have been used. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. As a result, different techniques or combinations of techniques are appropriate to different situations. The combined on‐site observation and individual interview techniques are recommended for industrial, trade, craft, clerical, and technical jobs because they generate the most thorough and probably the most valid information. A job analysis schedule is used to report the job information obtained through observations and individual interviews. The schedule provides a framework of 12 items in which to arrange and describe important job analysis information. These 12 items are organised into four sections. Section one consists of items one through four. These items identify the job within the establishment in which it occurs. The second section presents item five, the work performed. It provides a thorough and complete description of the tasks of the job. The Work Performed section describes what the job incumbent does, how it is done, and why it is done. Section three presents items six through nine. These are the requirements placed on the job incumbent for successful performance. It is a detailed interpretation of the basic minimum (a) responsibility, (b) job knowledge, (c) mental application, and (d) dexterity and accuracy required of the job incumbent. The fourth section includes three items which provide background information on the job. These items are: (a) equipment, materials and supplies; (b) definitions of terms; and (c) general comments. Appendix A is a glossary of terms associated with job analysis. It is provided to facilitate more exacting communication. A job analysis schedule for a complex and a relatively simple job are included in Appendices B and C. These examples illustrate how important job analysis information is arranged and described. Appendix D provides a list of action verbs which are helpful when describing the manipulative tasks of a job.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Barbara Wildemuth, Luanne Freund and Elaine G. Toms

One core element of interactive information retrieval (IIR) experiments is the assignment of search tasks. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical review of…

Abstract

Purpose

One core element of interactive information retrieval (IIR) experiments is the assignment of search tasks. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical review of current practice in developing those search tasks to test, observe or control task complexity and difficulty.

Design/methodology/approach

Over 100 prior studies of IIR were examined in terms of how each defined task complexity and/or difficulty (or related concepts) and subsequently interpreted those concepts in the development of the assigned search tasks.

Findings

Search task complexity is found to include three dimensions: multiplicity of subtasks or steps, multiplicity of facets, and indeterminability. Search task difficulty is based on an interaction between the search task and the attributes of the searcher or the attributes of the search situation. The paper highlights the anomalies in our use of these two concepts, concluding with suggestions for future methodological research related to search task complexity and difficulty.

Originality/value

By analyzing and synthesizing current practices, this paper provides guidance for future experiments in IIR that involve these two constructs.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 70 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2005

Thomas Moritz, Klaus‐Dieter Schewe and Bernhard Thalheim

The development of web information systems (WISs) requires modelling on various layers of abstraction. Based on an abstract abstraction layer model (ALM) the work in this…

Abstract

The development of web information systems (WISs) requires modelling on various layers of abstraction. Based on an abstract abstraction layer model (ALM) the work in this article approaches the modelling on the highest layer dealing with strategic modelling. Strategic modelling addresses a very general characterisation of WISs in terms of its content, functionality, context, usage and presentation, and pragmatic guidelines for achieving these. The article discusses branding, utilisation space modelling, utilisation portfolio modelling and atmosphere modelling as the major parts of a strategic model. Furthermore, techniques based on linguistic analysis, communication analysis and metaphors make up the informal means to approach WISs in strategic terms.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Yijin Chen, Yiming Zhao and Ziyun Wang

This study considers online searching by health information consumers as a learning process. We focus on search sequences, query reformulation, and conceptual changes.

Abstract

Purpose

This study considers online searching by health information consumers as a learning process. We focus on search sequences, query reformulation, and conceptual changes.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative user study (30 participants; three health information seeking tasks) investigated mobile searching behavior. Recorded screen activity, questionnaires, and in-depth personal interview data were collected and analyzed.

Findings

(1) Search platform sequences of health information consumers in search as a learning process were exacted and their features were highlighted. (2) Query sequence and reformulation pattern of health information consumers were exacted and discussed. (3) The types and degree of conceptual changes of health consumers were reflected by their query reformulation behavior and differ from different health information search tasks. (4) Characteristics of health consumers' search as learning process were revealed.

Research limitations/implications

(1) A novel perspective of consumer health information studies was proposed by exacting search platform sequence, query sequence and linking them with conceptual changes during the search as learning process. (2) Conceptual changes in the searching as a learning process are regarded as a measure of search outcome in this study, in which terms extracted from queries were used to reflect conceptual changes in consumers' mind. (3) Our findings provide evidences that types of health information seeking tasks do have significant influences on the search as a learning process.

Practical Implications

The findings of this study can lead to the fit-to-needs of the search platforms, provide advice for information architecture of search list of search platforms, and guide the design of knowledge graph of health information systems.

Originality/value

Potential relationships between information-seeking behavior and conceptual changes in search as a learning process relative to health information were revealed.

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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2019

Orly Lahav, Vadim Talis, Ravit Shelkovitz and Rona Horen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the ability of high-functioning autistic (HFA) children to programme robotic behaviour and sought to elucidate how they describe…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the ability of high-functioning autistic (HFA) children to programme robotic behaviour and sought to elucidate how they describe and construct a robot’s behaviour using iconic programming software.

Design/methodology/approach

The robotic learning environment is based on the iPad, an iconic programming app (KinderBot), and EV3. Two case studies, of A. and N., both HFA children of average age 10.5, are the focus of this research.

Findings

The research revealed how the participants succeeded in programming the behaviour of an “other” at different programming complexity levels (from simple action to combinations of states of two binary sensors and rule with subroutine). A transformation from procedural to declarative description was also found.

Practical implications

This research on the ability of HFA children to programme robotic behaviour yielded results that can be implemented in K-12 education. Furthermore, learning to programme robots and understand how robotic technologies work may help HFA children to better understand other technology in their environment.

Originality/value

In this research, the authors present an innovative approach that for the first time enables HFA children to “design” the behaviour of smart artefacts to use their sensors to adapt in accordance with the environment. For most HFA children, this would be the first opportunity to “design” the behaviour of the other, as opposed to oneself, since in most of their experience they have been largely controlled by another person.

Details

Journal of Enabling Technologies, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6263

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 May 2018

Jue Li, Minghui Yu and Hongwei Wang

On shield tunnel construction (STC) site, human error is widely recognized as essential to accident. It is necessary to explain which factors lead to human error and how…

Abstract

Purpose

On shield tunnel construction (STC) site, human error is widely recognized as essential to accident. It is necessary to explain which factors lead to human error and how these factors can influence human performance. Human reliability analysis supports such necessity through modeling the performance shaping factors (PSFs). The purpose of this paper is to establish and validate a PSF taxonomy for the STC context.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken in this study mainly consists of three steps. First, a description of the STC context is proposed through the analysis of the STC context. Second, the literature which stretch across the PSF methodologies, cognitive psychology and human factors of STC and other construction industries are reviewed to develop an initial set of PSFs. Finally, a final PSF set is modified and validated based on STC task analysis and STC accidents cases.

Findings

The PSF taxonomy constituted by 4 main components, 4 hierarchies and 85 PSFs is established for human behavior modeling and simulation under the STC context. Furthermore, by comparing and evaluating the performance of STC PSF and existing PSF studies, the proposed PSF taxonomy meets the requirement for qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Practical implications

The PSF taxonomy can provide a basis and support for human behavior modeling and simulation under the STC context. Integrating PSFs into a behavior simulation model provides a more realistic and integrated assessment of human error by manifesting the influence of each PSFs on the cognitive processes. The simulation results can suggest concrete points for the improvement of STC safety management.

Originality/value

This paper develops a taxonomy of PSFs that addresses the various unique influences of the STC context on human behaviors. The harsh underground working conditions and diverse resources of system information are identified as key characteristics of the STC context. Furthermore, the PSF taxonomy can be integrated into a human cognitive behavior model to predict the worker’s behavior on STC site in future work.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2015

Angelina N. Kuleshova and Alysia D. Roehrig

To describe how a defined video reflection prompt for preservice mathematics teachers shaped their reflective writing, which was examined using academic reflection as a…

Abstract

Purpose

To describe how a defined video reflection prompt for preservice mathematics teachers shaped their reflective writing, which was examined using academic reflection as a genre model.

Methodology/approach

Academic reflection as a genre model was used to unpack the reflective processes evident in preservice teachers’ written reflections on a practicum teaching experience in the context of a methods course assignment, prior to any formal instruction about reflective genre. This chapter examines how the quality of participants’ reflective writing corresponded with two promising products of reflection – the accuracy of participants’ claims about the effectiveness of instructional tasks used during teaching and the quality of suggested revisions to the lesson.

Findings

The findings indicate that the extent to which participants engaged with the required parts of the assignment corresponded with the accuracy of their claims about the effectiveness of instructional tasks and the quality of revisions they suggested to the lesson. The authors discuss the writing produced by the participants, providing examples from their reflections to demonstrate preservice teachers’ initial competencies in using genre.

Practical implications

Informed by the nature of writing produced by the participants, the authors extend the model of reflection as a genre and suggest how it could be used to teach preservice teachers to effectively structure reflective writing. Furthermore, the authors offer recommendations for how to define the video reflection prompt to serve as a more effective scaffold of preservice teachers’ analysis of student learning.

Details

Video Research in Disciplinary Literacies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-678-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Elena Barsky and Judit Bar‐Ilan

The purpose of the research was to create internet search instructions, to test their effectiveness and to track the search behavior of the first year MLS students

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the research was to create internet search instructions, to test their effectiveness and to track the search behavior of the first year MLS students

Design/methodology/approach

The students received two exercises with similar search tasks. No specific search guidelines were delivered to the students prior to the first exercise. Prior to the second exercise students received a lecture based on the internet search instructions developed by the authors. The results of the two searches were analyzed and compared.

Findings

As a result of the lecture students significantly improved the search results. There were a certain number of problematic search behavior patterns and obstacles uncovered, which proved to have a critical impact on the search results, such as: difficulties in acquiring new or alternative vocabulary during the search process, perception of the task as the ultimate source of keywords, and perception of commercial sources as unavailable.

Research limitations/implications

In order to understand the effect of the internet search instructions, the experiment has to be repeated with other groups of users. If the results consistently show that search behavior improves, the authors recommend systematic training of internet users.

Originality/value

The paper might be particularly interesting for information specialists and search instructors mostly because it reveals connection between the way the problem was stated and initial search strategy – a connection that to our knowledge has not been deeply explored yet.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 October 2019

Simone Klammer and Barbara Hanfstingl

The purpose of this paper is to present an implemented lesson study (LS) in English as a second language course for 11-year-old students in the fifth grade. The aim of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an implemented lesson study (LS) in English as a second language course for 11-year-old students in the fifth grade. The aim of the research lesson was to learn how to describe a person systematically.

Design/methodology/approach

Two LS cycles in two different classes were conducted and evaluated using systematic observation, case student interviews and student feedback. The data were analysed by the involved teacher team and the mentor.

Findings

The study shows that and how LS and variation theory promotes theory-based lesson preparation and postprocessing as well as team orientation among teachers without LS experience. Second, the lesson data show how elements of variation theory lead to a significant improvement in student learning activity.

Originality/value

This paper provides insights how teachers apply a first time LS and variation theory and how this effects student learning positively.

Details

International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

Keywords

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