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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2020

Hayward Andres

The purpose of this study is to investigate a theoretical framework that examines and extends understanding of the role of cognitive/information processing, learning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate a theoretical framework that examines and extends understanding of the role of cognitive/information processing, learning motivation and learning task behaviors in facilitating student engagement, course persistence and academic performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Student subjects were used to collect survey data. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the impact of active teaching, academic self-efficacy and task avoidance on the dependent variables – course grade, course persistence and expectancy for success.

Findings

Active teaching and academic self-efficacy were positive predictors of course grade while task avoidance was a negative predictor of course grade. Course persistence was positively impacted by academic self-efficacy and diminished by task-avoidance behaviors. Academic self-efficacy was shown to positively impact expectancy for success.

Practical implications

The results confirm the importance of adopting active teaching techniques, the need for periodic opportunities for experienced academic success and the need for coaching on self-regulation of study habits and class attendance behaviors.

Originality/value

This study builds on prior calls for more investigations on the role of teaching style on student psychological responses, engagement, learning task behaviors and academic performance. The teaching and learning processes were examined on four levels – attention/engagement, encoding, processing/synthesizing and learning task behaviors. In addition, prior work was extended by incorporating behavioral indicators (e.g. task avoidance) of learning motivation as opposed to reliance on self-reported levels of motivation that may have not been consistent with actual behaviors.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Weidong Wang, Wenrui Gao, DongMei Wu and Zhijiang Du

The paper aims to present a tracked robot comprised of several biochemical sampling instruments and a universal control architecture. In addition, a dynamic motion…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present a tracked robot comprised of several biochemical sampling instruments and a universal control architecture. In addition, a dynamic motion planning strategy and autonomous modules in sampling tasks are designed and illustrated at length.

Design/methodology/approach

Several sampling instruments with position tolerance and sealing property are specifically developed, and a robotic operation system (ROS)-based universal control architecture is established. Then, based on the system, two typical problems in sampling tasks, i.e. arm motion planning in unknown environment and autonomous modules, are discussed, implemented and tested. Inspired by the idea of Gaussian process classification (GPC) and Gaussian process (GP) information entropy, three-dimensional (3D) geometric modeling and arm obstacle avoidance strategy are implemented and proven successfully. Moreover, autonomous modules during sampling process are discussed and realized.

Findings

Smooth implementations of the two experiments justify the validity and extensibility of the robot control scheme. Furthermore, the former experiment proves the efficiency of arm obstacle avoidance strategy, while the later one demonstrates the time reduction and accuracy improvement in sampling tasks as the autonomous actions.

Practical implications

The proposed control architecture can be applied to more mobile and industrial robots for its feasible and extensible scheme, and the utility function in arm path planning strategy can also be utilized for other information-driven exploration tasks.

Originality/value

Several specific biochemical sampling instruments are presented in detail, while ROS and Moveit! are integrated into the system scheme, making the robot extensible, achievable and real-time. Based on the control scheme, an information-driven path planning algorithm and automation in sampling tasks are conceived and implemented.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Hyo Sun Jung and Hye Hyun Yoon

The aim of the study was to examine whether five-star hotel employees’ promotion focus significantly influences their task-coping style, and whether their prevention focus…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the study was to examine whether five-star hotel employees’ promotion focus significantly influences their task-coping style, and whether their prevention focus has a significant effect on their emotion- and avoidance-coping styles. This study also investigates the moderating impact of employees’ tenure on the relationships between stress-coping styles and turnover intent.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 342 five-star hotel employees in South Korea participated in the study using a self-administered questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to examine the hypothesized relationships between the constructs.

Findings

Hotel employees’ turnover intent decreases when they are motivated by strategies corresponding to their regulatory focus. This study found that hotel employees’ promotion focus had a significant positive effect on their task-coping style, whereas prevention focus had a significant negative effect on the emotion- and avoidance-coping style. In addition, employees’ task-coping style negatively affected their intent to leave the organization, while their emotion-coping and avoidance-coping styles positively affected turnover intent. Finally, moderating effects were related to tenure in the causal relationships among stress-coping styles and turnover intent. Thus, one can infer that the emotion-coping style has a greater effect on turnover intent in employees with a relatively short tenure than in those with a long tenure.

Practical implications

This study verified that hotel employees’ regulatory focus plays an important role in employee behavior within organizations just as individual characteristics such as personality or values do. Thus, a substantial application plan for employees’ regulatory focus was proposed for the organizational dimension. In addition, diverse plans were presented for employees’ flexible coping with stress, based on differing turnover intent, depending on employees’ stress-coping styles. Through this, a plan for reducing employee turnover intent was pursued.

Originality/value

This study associated employees’ stress-coping styles, which had been dealt with in the human resources management area, with their regulatory focus and showed that different stress-coping styles might be derived using such regulatory focus; the resulting turnover intent might also be different. The study results can provide a theoretical basis for understanding relationships among regulatory focus, stress-copying styles and turnover intent as such research is relatively lacking. Finally, this study is meaningful in that it applied the regulatory focus theory centered on customer behaviors to employees and verified the moderating effect of employees’ tenure between stress-coping styles and turnover intent.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Job Crafting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-222-5

Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Hyo Sun Jung and Hye Hyun Yoon

This study aims to investigate the effects of workplace bullying on the coping strategies (responses) and counterproductive behavior of hospitality employees.

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effects of workplace bullying on the coping strategies (responses) and counterproductive behavior of hospitality employees.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 284 luxury hotel employees in the Korean hospitality industry. SPSS and AMOS were the statistical programs used to verify the hypotheses of the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis were conducted to verify the validity and reliability of the measured items. Before verification of the hypotheses, directivity between factors derived through correlation analysis was verified, and causal relationships with regard to the three hypotheses were verified through the structural equation model.

Findings

Organizational and work-related bullying had a significant effect on task coping, whereas personal bullying had a significant effect on emotional and avoidance coping. The results also showed that positive task coping did not significantly affect counterproductive behavior, but negative coping, such as emotional and avoidance responses, significantly affected employees’ counterproductive behavior.

Originality/value

The present study verified that coping responses in work situations can differ depending on the type of workplace bullying that occurs. Task coping, a positive coping strategy, was affected by organizational and work-related bullying, whereas emotional and avoidance coping, negative coping strategies, were negatively affected by personal bullying. Consequently, the possibility of harmful actions against organizations varies depending on the coping strategies chosen by employees who are exposed to bullying. Therefore, appropriate education should be offered to employees to use positive and proactive work-oriented coping strategies when dealing with bullying rather than negative methods such as emotional or avoidance coping.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2008

Deniz Aslan

The effects of stigmatisation regarding sex abuse and rape crimes have rarely been studied. This present study explores the effects of social stigma by examining coping…

Abstract

The effects of stigmatisation regarding sex abuse and rape crimes have rarely been studied. This present study explores the effects of social stigma by examining coping style, thought suppression, depression and anxiety in those falsely accused of sex crimes compared with those convicted of sex crimes. A total of 60 males volunteered to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaires were given to participants from organisations that support people falsely accused and people who have been found guilty of sexual offending. The findings indicate that falsely accused individuals employ an emotion‐focused coping strategy significantly more than convicted sex offenders.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 December 2021

Alexandra A. Henderson and Claire E. Smith

While presenteeism is empirically linked to lower productivity, the role of a person's motives for engaging in presenteeism has been overlooked. Using a Conservation of…

Abstract

Purpose

While presenteeism is empirically linked to lower productivity, the role of a person's motives for engaging in presenteeism has been overlooked. Using a Conservation of Resources Theory framework, we examine the moderating effects of presenteeism motives (approach and avoidance motives) on the presenteeism–productivity relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 327 dental hygienists with chronic health conditions was surveyed. Moderated multiple regression was used to test study hypotheses.

Findings

Results indicate that presenteeism does indeed appear to detriment productivity. However, we demonstrate that motives are an important moderator, such that high approach motives appear to mitigate the negative effects of presenteeism on productivity.

Practical implications

Based on our findings, we suggest managers strive to improve the approach motives of their employees through processes such as job enrichment.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates that presenteeism is not always detrimental to productivity, as approach motives appear to mitigate the negative effects of presenteeism on productivity. These results could drive future research on presenteeism, as well as inform best practices related to managing workers with chronic health issues.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2021

Shifa Sulaiman and A.P. Sudheer

Most of the redundant dual-arm robots are singular free, dexterous and collision free compared to other robotic arms. This paper aims to analyse the workspace of redundant…

Abstract

Purpose

Most of the redundant dual-arm robots are singular free, dexterous and collision free compared to other robotic arms. This paper aims to analyse the workspace of redundant arms to study the manipulability. Furthermore, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) algorithm is used to determine the various joint parameters of both the upper body redundant arms. Trajectory planning of robotic arms is carried out with the help of inverse solutions obtained from the MLP algorithm.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the kinematic equations are derived from screw theory approach and inverse kinematic solutions are determined using MLP algorithm. Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) and Bayesian regulation (BR) techniques are used as the backpropagation algorithms. The results from two backpropagation techniques are compared for determining the prediction accuracy. The inverse solutions obtained from the MLP algorithm are then used to optimize the cubic spline trajectories planned for avoiding collision between arms with the help of convex optimization technique. The dexterity of the redundant arms is analysed with the help of Cartesian workspace of arms.

Findings

Dexterity of redundant arms is analysed by studying the voids and singular spaces present inside the workspace of arms. MLP algorithms determine unique solutions with less computational effort using BR backpropagation. The inverse solutions obtained from MLP algorithm effectively optimize the cubic spline trajectory for the redundant dual arms using convex optimization technique.

Originality/value

Most of the MLP algorithms used for determining the inverse solutions are used with LM backpropagation technique. In this paper, BR technique is used as the backpropagation technique. BR technique converges fast with less computational time than LM method. The inverse solutions of arm joints for traversing optimized cubic spline trajectory using convex optimization technique are computed from the MLP algorithm.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2022

Bee-Lia Chua, Amr Al-Ansi, Seongseop (Sam) Kim, Antony King Fung Wong and Heesup Han

This study aims to investigate the theoretical relationships between job stressors, psychological stress and coping strategies in the context of the global travel and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the theoretical relationships between job stressors, psychological stress and coping strategies in the context of the global travel and tourism crisis faced by the airline industry.

Design/methodology/approach

An online cross-sectional survey was designed to obtain empirical data from airline employees in South Korea and Hong Kong. A total of 366 airline employees participated in the survey through convenience sampling method.

Findings

The structural equation modeling findings indicated that work schedule and demand; job insecurity and financial concerns; and role conflict played a significant role in creating psychological stress, which, in turn, determined emotion-oriented coping. The influence of the identified job stressors on psychological stress was significantly different between South Korean and Hong Kong airline employees.

Practical implications

The study demonstrates ways in which airline employees react to stressful work circumstances to avoid loss of resources. Furthermore, it highlights the role that psychological stress plays in influencing airline employees to direct attention to emotion-oriented coping mechanisms.

Originality/value

In view of the immense impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global airline industry, this study expands the role of job stressors in a peculiar and unprecedented work environment in the airline industry and accentuates the varying effects job stress may have on coping strategies from the perspective of airline employees in an Asian culture.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 34 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2011

Rose Trevelyan

The central question of this paper is, “What determines an entrepreneur's effort on different tasks?” The paper aims to address this question.

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Abstract

Purpose

The central question of this paper is, “What determines an entrepreneur's effort on different tasks?” The paper aims to address this question.

Design/methodology/approach

Propositions about the impact cognitive processes have on entrepreneurial effort across different tasks are developed. These propositions draw on self‐regulatory theory, in particular our understanding of regulatory focus and self‐efficacy.

Findings

It is argued that a promotion orientation motivates effort on explorative tasks, and a prevention orientation motivates effort on exploitative tasks. Further, it is proposed that high self‐efficacy motivates effort on action tasks, but high self‐efficacy reduces effort on judgment tasks.

Practical implications

One implication of these propositions for entrepreneurs is to understand self‐regulatory processes and to consciously decide how much effort to put into different tasks, rather than relying on (hidden) preferences. Another implication is for those involved in selecting and developing entrepreneurs. That implication is that entrepreneurs' self‐regulatory processes can inhibit effective effort. These processes can be managed to increase effectiveness.

Originality/value

By introducing task type into the discussion of self‐regulation and entrepreneurial effort, a more fine‐grained understanding of cognitive processes in actual entrepreneurial activities is developed.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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