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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Haris Aslam, Constantin Blome, Samuel Roscoe and Tashfeen M. Azhar

This paper positions market sensing, supply chain agility and supply chain adaptability as a coherent cluster of dynamic supply chain capabilities. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper positions market sensing, supply chain agility and supply chain adaptability as a coherent cluster of dynamic supply chain capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to understand how dynamic supply chain capabilities interrelate and their effect on supply chain ambidexterity.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a survey of Pakistani manufacturing firms, a theoretically-derived model was tested in a structural equation model.

Findings

The results of the study show that a market-sensing capability is an antecedent of supply chain agility and supply chain adaptability. Furthermore, supply chain agility, directly, and supply chain adaptability, indirectly, affect supply chain ambidexterity. Supply chain agility, therefore, mediates the relationship between supply chain adaptability and supply chain ambidexterity.

Originality/value

The contribution of this study lies in: first, identifying dynamic capability clusters relevant for achieving supply chain ambidexterity; second, evaluating performance implications of dynamic capabilities in the supply chain, specifically supply chain agility and adaptability; and third, proposing a unique measurement of supply chain ambidexterity in the light supply chain theory, and empirically evaluating the relationship between dynamic capabilities and supply chain ambidexterity.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 38 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Sarwar Mehmood Azhar, Rubeena Tashfeen, Jaweria Khalid and Tashfeen Mahmood Azhar

The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) for 2016 shows Pakistan as among the more corrupt nations in the world with a ranking of 117 among 176 countries surveyed. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) for 2016 shows Pakistan as among the more corrupt nations in the world with a ranking of 117 among 176 countries surveyed. This situation raises concerns about members of the society and especially about the business communities. This paper aims to examine whether the tendency to corruption is also prevalent amongst business students, the future leaders and executives of business organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses survey questionnaires in the manner of Parsa and Lankford (1999) to examine the ethical levels of business students. It uses Levene’s (1960) tests for equality of variances and the t-test for equality of means to examine whether there are difference in the ethical perceptions between: bachelors (BBA) and graduate (MBA) students; business students who have taken the ethics course and those who have not; and female and male students. The authors also examine the overall ethical perceptions of business students.

Findings

The results show that students seem to make a clear distinction in respect of what they consider as acceptable and unacceptable ethical behavior. They would not indulge in behavior that directly falls within the category of stealing, misusing of company’s resources and undertaking actions that are wrong or dishonest, which may stem from their religious indoctrination. However, they would consider as acceptable behavior the overlooking of safety violations, not telling on peers; and fudging of the truth to get the job done. The latter attitude appears to be in line with business objectives of achieving targets irrespective of the means employed and that inform business education. We do not find any differences between the behavior of women and men which may be the outcome of the same religious indoctrination and educational perceptions. While there is a difference in the ethical perceptions between students who have taken the ethics course and those who have not, the course is not able to counter the lack of ethics among business students. There is a need for some stronger measures to inculcate a set of ethical values within students. However, we did find that some of the unethical behavior is diluted at the MBA level in comparison to BBA students.

Originality/value

This study provides new insights into the ethical perceptions of students in an Islamic emerging country. There is a conflict between ethics conveyed through Islamic precepts, and the ethics of business education with a focus on profits/revenues, costs, performance and competition that endorses a Machiavellian attitude of achieving goals at any cost and the love of money (Tang and Chen, 2008). It is the first study to suggest a differentiation in the ethical behavior of business students that exhibit both ethical and unethical behavior. There appears to be a clear segregation between what students deem as acceptable and unacceptable ethical behavior that may result from their personal/religious beliefs, and their business attitudes that strongly informs their ethical behavior. It provides a basis for developing more customized and effective ethics courses in Pakistan and suggests more importantly that ethics needs to be integrated into business concepts imparted in business programs at universities.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Rubeena Tashfeen and Tashfeen Mahmood Azhar

No systematic models are being used in empirical research that provide assurance for the choice of proxies that are being used. The purpose of this paper is to examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

No systematic models are being used in empirical research that provide assurance for the choice of proxies that are being used. The purpose of this paper is to examine the validity of the proxies being used in empirical research, and as a case study, it focuses on the area of financial derivatives.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the authors review results of proxies from the financial derivatives literature and follow with empirical tests to confirm the findings from the review.

Findings

The review shows that proxies provide mixed results. The findings are further supported by the results from empirical tests. It suggests that measures used in the studies related to financial derivatives theory may need to be refined and highlights that no solid bases or tests have been developed for the proxies used to measure the constructs.

Research limitations/implications

As individual proxies are examined across studies, a meta-regression analysis cannot be used, and there is no other available model to capture this type of examination. The approach adopted has some limitations but provides a basis for examining the reasonableness of proxies as measures of constructs.

Originality/value

This is the first study that attempts to examine the strength of proxies in capturing related constructs. The methodology is unique to a review of past studies in financial derivatives. It supports the need for developing more rigorous models/bases for the measures being used, and this is an area that has been ignored in empirical research.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 March 2020

Haris Aslam, Constantin Blome, Samuel Roscoe and Tashfeen Mehmood Azhar

The purpose of this paper is to determine the antecedents of dynamic supply chain capabilities (DSCCs). The authors test entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and supply chain…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the antecedents of dynamic supply chain capabilities (DSCCs). The authors test entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and supply chain learning orientation (SCLO) as two antecedents of DSCCs.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses structural equation modelling to test a hypothetical model. Data are gathered from a survey of 275 operations managers in Pakistan’s turbulent manufacturing industry.

Findings

The findings suggest that the weaker direct effects of EO, in comparison to the indirect effects, indicate that an SCLO mediates the relationship between EO and DSCCs.

Research limitations/implications

It is widely accepted that firms do not compete with each other, instead, it is end-to-end supply chains that fight for market dominance. Many scholars use the dynamic capabilities view to understand supply chain level competition. However, the dynamic capabilities view is firm-centric in its examination of how companies transform internal resources to compete in the external environment. The theoretical contribution of this paper is a roadmap of how to build dynamic, supply-chain level and capabilities by determining the key antecedents. This paper explains that DSCCs emerge when buyers and suppliers share strategic orientations. Firms with an EO and the ability to learn with supply chain partners are well-positioned to develop DSCCs. This provides a new angle to theory testing by indicating that dynamic capabilities are enabled by an EO and an ability to learn with supply chain partners.

Practical implications

Managers are given the building blocks of DSCCs, starting with fostering an entrepreneurially-oriented mindset in the company and then learning with supply chain partners. Entrepreneurially-oriented managers are encouraged to take risks and co-develop innovative ideas with suppliers during the supply chain learning process.

Originality/value

This study is one of the earliest efforts to determine the strategic orientations that antecede the emergence of DSCCs.

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