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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2022

Tariq H. Ismail, Karim Mansour and Emad Sayed

This paper aims to (1) investigate the effect of other comprehensive income (OCI) on audit fees (AF) and audit report lag (ARL) and (2) test the moderating effect of board…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to (1) investigate the effect of other comprehensive income (OCI) on audit fees (AF) and audit report lag (ARL) and (2) test the moderating effect of board gender diversity (BGD) on such relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses data extracted from the financial reports for a sample of Egyptian firms from 2013 to 2019, where the data are processed using the Panel Corrected Standards Errors (PCSE) and the Structure Equation Model (SEM).

Findings

The results reveal that (1) the OCI existence and OCI volume have a significant positive effect on AF and ARL, and (2) the presence of female directors on the board and the percentage of female representation affect the relationship between OCI and AF positively, but this effect on the relationship between OCI and ARL is insignificant.

Research limitations/implications

This paper has some limitations, where the analysis uses a small sample of Egyptian listed firms, as well as, the measures that were used as proxies of the study variables, which do not necessarily express the most suitable ones.

Practical implications

The results of this paper would (1) provide signals to the audit market, the professional bodies in Egypt and stakeholders about the determinants of AF and ARL, (2) provide guidelines that support the capital market authority to consider gender diversity in boards of companies taking into considerations its impact on AF and ARL, and (3) help the accounting setters in emerging economies as Egypt in drafting more suitable standards and guidelines regarding OCI.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the literature on OCI, where it investigates the effect of OCI on ARL, which was not yet studied in prior studies. Also, this paper complements and extends the literature by providing empirical evidence from one of the emerging markets as Egypt about the effect of BGD on the relationships between OCI, AF and ARL, as these relationships have not been examined before.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 October 2019

Tariq H. Ismail

This study aims at investigating the extent to which Egyptian universities disclose information on social responsibility to different stakeholders, which leads to the…

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1438

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at investigating the extent to which Egyptian universities disclose information on social responsibility to different stakeholders, which leads to the enhancement of sustainable development.

Design/methodology/approach

An index of social responsibility that fits the Egyptian universities is established, comprising four dimensions: organizational governance, energy and environment resource sustainability, human resource development and community participation and community development. This index has been used to score the disclosure level of social responsibility of Egyptian universities. This study uses information available on websites of Egyptian universities as of the end of December 2018. Frequencies provide the basis for discussion.

Findings

The results reveal that the level of disclosure of universities on social responsibility is low, but, in favor of private universities vs public universities. At the university level, only a few numbers of public universities disclosed high volume of information on social responsibility, such as Cairo University, Ain Shams University, Alexandria University and Assiut University. Furthermore, the results manifest that public universities disclose higher level of information related to organizational governance, energy and environment resource sustainability and community participation and community development, whereas, private universities disclose higher level of information related to human resource development.

Research limitations/implications

The results are constrained with the social responsibility dimensions and attributes used to establish a disclosure index that fits Egyptian universities, as well as the information disclosed on universities websites.

Originality/value

This study provides insights to Egyptian higher education regulators and the rectors of Egyptian universities that may help in planning and monitoring social responsibility activities in a way that could lead to sustainable development.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2632-279X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2021

Muhammad Abbas Ranjah, Amir Ismail, Muhammad Waseem, Saira Tanweer, Baila Ahmad, Tahir Mehmood, Faiz-Ul-Hassan Shah, Zulfiqar Ahmad, Majid Hussain and Tariq Ismail

This study aims to compare the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of different parts (tip, mid and base portion) of lemongrass leaves for application as a natural…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to compare the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of different parts (tip, mid and base portion) of lemongrass leaves for application as a natural ingredient in the functional drink.

Design/methodology/approach

Lemongrass leaf powder was prepared from different parts of leaves and evaluated for nutritional composition. Additionally, the extracts of different portions of lemongrass leaves were analyzed for total phenolics, free radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and antimicrobial activities for their application in food products.

Findings

Tip portion of lemongrass leaf anticipated significantly (p < 0.05) higher contents of ash, protein, calcium, potassium and iron i.e. 6.2 mg/100 g, 18 mg/100 g, 340 ppm, 819 ppm and 32 ppm, respectively. Maximum (p < 0.05) phenolics (14.7 mg GAE/100 g), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydroxyl (86.3%) and FRAP (200 mmol/100 g) were observed in lemongrass leaf tip methanolic extracts. Moreover, lemongrass leaf tip hydro-methanolic extracts portrayed maximum zone of inhibition against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus i.e. 16.7 and 18.2 mm, respectively.

Practical implications

This study demonstrated higher antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the tip of lemongrass leaves as compared with mid and base portions, hence suggesting its role in the improvement of physicochemical, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of food products. Consequently, the application of lemongrass methanolic extract up to 10% remarkably enhanced the nutritional value and sensorial acceptance of the beverages.

Originality/value

The present research draws evidence from laboratory analysis of fresh lemongrass grown in Pakistan. The findings suggest that lemongrass methanolic extracts could be used as a nutritionally rich source of antioxidant activity in functional drinks.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Tariq Ismail and Melinda Cline

This research furthers scholarly discourse which discusses the most effective way(s) to calculate investment returns under conditions of continuous and/or discrete cash…

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4819

Abstract

Purpose

This research furthers scholarly discourse which discusses the most effective way(s) to calculate investment returns under conditions of continuous and/or discrete cash flows with continuous and/or discrete discounting.

Design/methodology/approach

Discusses Pogue's work on the methods for investment analysis.

Findings

Pogue's article of discrete versus continuous calculation of investment returns discusses limitations of the traditional assumption that cash flows in investment appraisal occur at the end of each period and points to a more realistic assumption that cash flows occur on a continuous basis. Pogue then proposes a formula for managers to use when calculating investment returns. Finds that Pogue's suggested method of calculation is neither supported by prior literature nor sound in its implications.

Originality/value

Provides further analysis of discrete and continuous discounting models in investment decisions.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2012

Tariq H. Ismail and Nesma M. El‐Shaib

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of market and organizational determinants on the voluntary disclosure level of Egyptian companies.

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1155

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of market and organizational determinants on the voluntary disclosure level of Egyptian companies.

Design/methodology/approach

Uses a disclosure index of voluntary disclosure that is based upon the following information categories: strategic information; financial information; non‐financial information; and future prospect information to rate the level of disclosure. Multivariate analysis, voluntary disclosure determinants: earnings quality; ownership structure; competition intensity; information asymmetry, and possible relationships with disclosure level provide the basis for discussion.

Findings

It is found that the level of voluntary disclosure in the emerging market of Egypt ranges from low to moderate level. There is no significant relationship between a company's voluntary disclosure level and earnings quality and competition intensity, while this relationship is significant for information asymmetry and ownership structure.

Research limitations/implications

The results are constrained by the proxies that represent non‐financial factors of the market.

Originality/value

This paper extends prior studies on voluntary disclosure in Egypt by looking at a comprehensive set of market and organizational factors that might affect the disclosure level, based on a structured disclosure index of strategic, financial and non‐financial, and future prospect information. The findings would help boards of directors to explain the adoption of certain disclosure strategies, and understand the corporate disclosure behavior.

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2007

Tariq H. Ismail

This study aims to examine performance evaluation measures across private sector companies in an Egyptian context and pinpoints obstacles that may limit the adoption of…

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3825

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine performance evaluation measures across private sector companies in an Egyptian context and pinpoints obstacles that may limit the adoption of the balanced scorecard (BSC).

Design/methodology/approach

Uses a questionnaire that was mailed to a sample of 150 companies listed in the Egyptian stock exchange market. The analysis is directed at determining managers' perceptions of performance evaluation measures within the Egyptian private sector. Descriptive statistics, frequency of use of companies' practices and possible relationships between variables provide the basis for discussion.

Findings

Companies rely on both financial and non‐financial measures of performance evaluation. The profit margin, as a financial measure, is also the most commonly used performance measure. Customer satisfaction is the most commonly used non‐financial measure of performance evaluation. The BSC has wide spread use in the Egyptian companies surveyed, but the level of use of multi‐dimensional indicators is significantly low. The survey provides considerable insight into obstacles inhibiting the adoption of the BSC. The most significant obstacle is the inadequacy of implemented information systems.

Research limitations/implication

Survey results restrict generalization, as the sampling design cannot be claimed to represent all Egyptian companies. Also a relatively low response rates must be taken into account.

Originality/value

Provides an insight into performance evaluation practices in the private sector in a developing country.

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Tariq H. Ismail and Zakia Abdelmoniem

This paper aims to investigate the extent to which companies in one of the Islamic culture countries, Egypt, are complying with the Islamic implementation of the…

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1404

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the extent to which companies in one of the Islamic culture countries, Egypt, are complying with the Islamic implementation of the Anglo‐Saxon model of corporate governance and testing the impact, if any, of such compliance on mitigating of stock option fraud incentives.

Design/methodology/approach

A logistic regression model is used to examine the effects of board of directors, audit committee, ownership structure and other firm characteristics on the likelihood of stock option fraud. The analysis is based on the data for stock option grants obtained during the period from 2006 to 2009.

Findings

The results suggest that the rate of compliance with the Islamic implementation of the Anglo‐Saxon model of corporate governance in Egyptian public‐held companies is low. Weak corporate governance allows executives to exercise greater influence over the board of directors and audit committee decisions. Furthermore, a low level of disclosure, duality of CEO, high percentage of insiders in board of directors, auditor turnover, and management ownership are among the factors that increase the likelihood of stock option fraud in the Egyptian setting.

Research limitations/implications

The results are constrained by the proxies used to define stock option fraud. Additionally, the limited number of companies with stock option grants in Egypt might affect the results.

Originality/value

This paper provides insights into exposing stock option fraud by Egyptian public‐held companies and sheds light on the effective role of corporate governance mechanisms to mitigate this phenomenon. This would help policy setters to enhance compliance with the Anglo‐Saxon model of corporate governance and develop a comprehensive Shari'ah model of corporate governance that reduces stock option fraud.

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

Ruth W. Epps and Tariq H. Ismail

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corporate governance and earnings management in US context and provide further insights on the effects of…

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3254

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corporate governance and earnings management in US context and provide further insights on the effects of board of directors' characteristics on earnings management.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a sample of three groups of US firms; where firms with relatively high negative, firms with relatively high positive, and those with low levels of discretionary accruals in the year 2004 are examined. Descriptive statistics, univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, board of directors' characteristics, and possible relationships between corporate governance variables and earnings management proxy provide the basis for discussion.

Findings

Firms with annually elected boards, small size boards, 100 percent independent nominating committees, and 100 percent independent compensation committees have more negative discretionary accruals. However, firms with 75‐90 percent independent board or firms with a board size of between nine and 12 have higher positive discretionary accruals.

Research limitations/implications

Certain board characteristics may be the important factors associated with constraining the propensity of managers to engage in earnings management.

Practical implications

Results are limited by the accuracy of the models applied to isolate discretionary accruals. Additionally, the direction diverse of discretionary accruals may differ with selecting a time series of three or more years as a base for the analysis.

Originality/value

In contrast to prior literature, where board composition is defined as an insiders‐ or outsiders‐controlled board, this paper classifies board composition into seven discrete categories, using the same seven categories employed by Institutional Shareholder Services in evaluating and assigning corporate governance quotient scores to firms. The paper's major contributions to the existing literature are its findings that income‐increasing and income‐decreasing discretionary accruals have a different relationship with corporate governance practices and its expansion of the scope of corporate governance from board independence and audit committee independence to other corporate governance characteristics. This paper provides evidence that supports US regulators' initiatives that stronger corporate governance mechanisms provide greater monitoring of the financial accounting process and may be the important factors in improving the integrity of financial reporting.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2009

Tariq H. Ismail and Nermeen M. Sobhy

The purpose of this paper is to constitute and test a framework of factors that might affect auditors' perceptions of the work needed to audit internet‐based financial…

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1195

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to constitute and test a framework of factors that might affect auditors' perceptions of the work needed to audit internet‐based financial reports (IBFR).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper conducts a questionnaire on practicing auditors from audit firms in Egypt in the year 2007 to examine their perceptions of the work needed to audit IBFR and factors that might affect their perceptions.

Findings

The paper portrays total auditors' perceptions as a function of four dimensions. First, auditor personal‐specific characteristics (consisting of three variables); second, audit fieldwork‐specific characteristics (containing one variable); third, audit firm‐specific characteristics (comprising five variables); and fourth, environmental‐specific characteristics (consisting of four variables). The analysis of empirical study provides evidence of a significant association between auditors' perceptions of the work needed to audit IBFR and the following factors: auditors' knowledge of inherent risks of internet reporting, quality systems, audit tenure, legal form of client, client industry group, user needs of financial information, and legislation environment.

Research limitations/implications

The scope of the survey is limited to a small number of potential participants. Accounting and auditing standards setting environment in Egypt may restrict the generalization of the findings of this paper.

Originality/value

This paper enriches the literature on internet reporting and audit tasks by exploring factors that might affect auditors' perceptions of the work needed to audit IBFR. The paper provides evidence that supports Egyptian regulators' initiatives to issue guidelines that cover IBFR, and auditors' responsibilities and the work needed in the audit of IBFR in electronic business environments in an attempt to improve the integrity of financial reporting.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

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142

Abstract

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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