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Article

Tariq Ahmed, V.G.R. Chandran and Jane Klobas

There is a long-standing debate on whether the entrepreneurship education program (EEP) of university graduates can promote entrepreneurship intention and behaviour. The…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a long-standing debate on whether the entrepreneurship education program (EEP) of university graduates can promote entrepreneurship intention and behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to use the theory of planned behaviour as a conceptual framework and compare the differences in entrepreneurial attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions among students who participated in entrepreneurship education with a control group of Master of Business Administration (MBA) students in Pakistan. The study further examines what drives intentions between the two groups.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a questionnaire survey from 348 entrepreneurship students and 329 MBAs in their final year (both groups did a total of four years’ tertiary study). One-way analysis of variance test and regression analysis were used to examine the differences and the antecedents of entrepreneurship intention between the two groups.

Findings

MBAs have higher entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) than EEP students and the EIs are statistically significant. Nevertheless, the authors did not find any differences in attitude, perceived control behaviour and subjective norms towards entrepreneurship in both the groups. The entrepreneurship intentions of the MBA students are more influenced by social pressure as opposed to EEP students who are influenced by perceived control behaviours.

Research limitations/implications

First, although the study introduced a control group, comparisons were based only on EIs and their antecedents in participants’ final year of study. This cross-sectional design provides no information about how much intentions and antecedents changed over time. A longitudinal study would provide information about such changes. Second, the groups in the study were matched in terms of gender, age distribution, family background, years of study and presumed disposition towards running their business. It would be useful if future comparative and longitudinal research measured these individual factors and their effects.

Practical implications

Educational activities render the starting of a business desirable and feasible by changing the attitudes and intentions. Nevertheless, various exposures to the challenges of being an entrepreneur via the education programmes may lower their intention to be entrepreneurs. As such, entrepreneurial programmes should be designed with care.

Social implications

The study provides some insights on improving EIs especially in understanding the antecedents that are important for nations, such as Pakistan which has high unemployment and widespread poverty.

Originality/value

This study provides fresh evidence on the role of entrepreneurship education by comparing EIs and the cognitive antecedents of intentions of the two groups – entrepreneurship as well as MBA students.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article

Essia Ries Ahmed, Md Aminul Islam, Tariq Tawfeeq Yousif Alabdullah and Azlan Bin Amran

This paper aims to investigate the influence of the determinants (pricing, type of structure, Shariah auditing, Shariah risk and Shariah documentation) and the sukuk

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the influence of the determinants (pricing, type of structure, Shariah auditing, Shariah risk and Shariah documentation) and the sukuk legitimacy among Islamic financial institutions using a qualitative approach. The paper further explained the significance of the determinants on legitimacy, evaluated the relationship between sukuk characteristics and sukuk legitimacy and examined the moderating effect of Shariah Supervisory Board (SSB) on the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a purposive sampling technique to select the target respondents required for the survey (semi-structured interview). This technique is applied by selecting members of SSBs among Islamic financial institutions. A total number of ten members are selected as the sample size for the study based on their experience and basic knowledge of Fiqh Al-Mua’malat and its application in Islamic financial institutions.

Findings

The findings revealed that the determinants have a significant impact on the sukuk legitimacy, meaning that there is a positive and significant relationship between the determinants and the sukuk legitimacy. In addition, this study indicates the empirical evidence of the moderating effect of SSB on the relationship between the determinants and the sukuk legitimacy.

Practical implications

This study has added to the literature by examining the determinants of sukuk legitimacy while evaluating the moderating effect of SSB on the relationship. Besides, this might add benefits to the numerous Islamic financial institutions relating to the amendment of its regulatory frameworks with the view to pushing the sukuk market investors to move toward asset-backed structure. In addition, the SSB in central banks must also focus its attention regarding the sukuk legitimacy and its application among the various Islamic financial institutions.

Originality/value

This study has added a new discussion to the body of knowledge, i.e. examining the sukuk legitimacy and its relationship with sukuk determinants; hence, an approach that is not widely discussed in the previous studies. Furthermore, conducting such research in the field of Islamic finance provides novelty in the literature among both emerging and developed economies including Malaysia. This is because to the best knowledge of the researchers, there was no empirical study (within the literature) that combined these variables and evaluated their empirical significance. Accordingly, this would enlighten the Islamic Ummah and propel the society’s intensity toward contributing to knowledge and might further provide clarification on the determinants and the sukuk legitimacy to prospective scholars, precisely on the moderating effect of SSB on the relationship between determinants and legitimacy of sukuk.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Article

Salman Azhar and Rafiq M. Choudhry

The purpose of this paper is to present findings of a capacity building project on construction health and safety that is recently completed in Pakistan. The major…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present findings of a capacity building project on construction health and safety that is recently completed in Pakistan. The major objectives of this project are: first, to benchmark the current state of construction health and safety practices in Pakistan and to identify the data needs for continuous performance measurement; second, to develop health and safety guidelines; third, to develop adequate educational and training material; and finally, to improve the existing regulatory infrastructure for worker health and safety.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixed-methods approach is adopted for data collection which included site observations, surveys, semi-structured interviews, and case studies. The methodology consists of following major tasks: first, literature review and study of best practices; second, investigation of existing safety practices and development of guidelines; third, educational and training programs for construction professionals and educators; and finally, development of a strategic framework for continuous improvement in construction safety culture, laws, and practices. Collected data were analyzed using various qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods.

Findings

The enforcement of health and safety regulations on construction sites is very limited in Pakistan. Procedures for formulating, implementing, and monitoring safety rules and regulations are weak, and the implementation of safety management systems does not occur on most construction sites. The paper presents a detailed plan to improve the health and safety culture, laws, and practices in Pakistan.

Practical/implications

Detailed proposals for improving existing construction health and safety laws and regulations are prepared for relevant regulatory and statutory bodies and ministries in Pakistan. From an educational perspective, comprehensive health and safety training material are developed and training workshops are conducted in major cities of Pakistan. Over 1,000 construction professionals benefited from these workshops.

Social/implications

The project helped in raising awareness about construction health and safety in Pakistan.

Originality/value

The project benchmarked existing health and safety practices in Pakistan. It identified data needs for continuous monitoring of health and safety performance and provided a mechanism for collecting such data. The project produced international standard health and safety training material that can fulfill the local needs. The project deliverables are extremely helpful for other developing countries in the region.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

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Book part

Tariq Ahmed, Ijaz Ur Rehman and Bruno S. Sergi

Understanding and predicting the emergence of venture initiation entails research to explore the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention (EI) and behavior. This book…

Abstract

Understanding and predicting the emergence of venture initiation entails research to explore the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention (EI) and behavior. This book chapter aims to provide an overview on the role of exogenous factors (entrepreneurship education), contextual and environmental factors (perceived entrepreneurial motivators and barriers) in developing EIs and behavior among the university graduates. It also highlights the different strands of opinion and research on the role that formal entrepreneurship programs may (or may not) play in developing EI and action. This book chapter further provides some developments on the factors mentioned above among the different Asian countries while using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). Since 1999 GEM reports have been a key source of comparable data across a large variety of countries on attitudes toward entrepreneurship, start-up, established business activities, and aspirations of entrepreneurs for their businesses.

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Book part

Tariq Elyas and Abdullah Ahmed Al-Ghamdi

This chapter briefly explores selected English and general education policy documents, curricula, and textbooks within the context of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from a…

Abstract

This chapter briefly explores selected English and general education policy documents, curricula, and textbooks within the context of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from a Critical Discourse Analysis perspective and examines how they have changed pre- and post-21st century. First, a policy document related to education in KSA in general (pre-21st century) is analyzed along with an English language teaching (ELT) policy document of the same period. Next, two general policy documents post-21st century are explored, followed by one related to ELT policy. Finally, one post-21st century document related to higher education is discussed. The “network of practices” within which these documents are situated are first detailed, as well as the structural order of the discourse, and some linguistic analysis of the choice of vocabulary and grammatical structures (Meyer, 2001). Issues which might be problematic to the learning and teaching identities of the students and teachers interpreting these documents are also highlighted. Finally, we consider whether the network of practices at this institution and KSA in general “needs” the problems identified in the analysis and critically reflect on the analysis.

Details

Cross-nationally Comparative, Evidence-based Educational Policymaking and Reform
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-767-8

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Abstract

Details

Entrepreneurship and Development in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-233-7

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Article

Syed Jalaluddin Haider

Awareness of resource sharing in Pakistan in its present day form is a phenomenon of the 1980s. This is primarily attributed to problems encountered by libraries with…

Abstract

Awareness of resource sharing in Pakistan in its present day form is a phenomenon of the 1980s. This is primarily attributed to problems encountered by libraries with regard to the paucity of resources, lack of funds and absence of bibliographic and physical accessibility to limited resources. Projects directed towards resource sharing were planned and directed in the areas of business and economics (LABELNET), legislative information (Parliamentary Development Project) and agriculture (MART). But none could be implemented owing to the absence of proper planning, lack of competent human resources, non‐availability of standards, non‐existence of bibliographic apparatus and absence of leadership. Suggestions include: formation of a task force for development of standards; need for an active role on the part of the Pakistan Library Association and National Library of Pakistan for the development of awareness of computers in library operations to accelerate cooperative activities; and revision of the curriculum and improving the quality of library school faculty.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Digital Library Perspectives, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5816

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Article

Sumi Jha

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between team psychological safety and team performance and to test the mediating effect of learning orientation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between team psychological safety and team performance and to test the mediating effect of learning orientation and moderating effect of psychological empowerment on that relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 50 teams and 345 team members from 20 different organizations. The moderated mediation analysis of psychological empowerment was tested using hierarchical regression analysis (PROCESS Macro) in SPSS.

Findings

The results show that higher the psychological empowerment, higher is the effect of psychological safety and learning orientation on team performance. Results supported the moderated mediation analysis of psychological empowerment.

Practical implications

Given that psychological empowerment and learning orientation of team members will effect team performance, organizational efforts to foster psychological empowerment should be rewarding. Focusing on channelizing team psychological safety to improve team members’ relationship, openness and comfort with each other will increase team performance.

Originality/value

The study incorporated learning orientation and psychological empowerment to redefine the relationship between psychological safety and team performance.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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Article

Nisar Ahmed Channa, Maqsood Hussain Bhutto, Musaira Bhutto, Niaz Ahmed Bhutto and Beenish Tariq

Research suggests that innovation plays a key role in creating a competitive edge and business survival in highly competitive industries like retail. Despite the…

Abstract

Purpose

Research suggests that innovation plays a key role in creating a competitive edge and business survival in highly competitive industries like retail. Despite the importance of innovation in retail establishments, very limited efforts have been made so far to study how innovation influences consumer behavior in retail establishments. This paper aims to identify the impact of relationship benefits (i.e. confidence, social and special treatment benefits) on consumer’s loyalty with the retail store and examine the moderating effect of retailer innovation in these relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

To conduct this study, a sample comprised of 400 consumers of four retail sectors (i.e. household, electronics, textile and food) was chosen. The data were analyzed through partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique.

Findings

The findings of this research suggest a significant positive influence of confidence and special treatment benefits on consumer loyalty and that retail innovation moderates the link between relationship benefits and consumer loyalty.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the existing literature in the domain of retail customer loyalty by empirically testing the under-studied phenomenon of retail innovation with the help of contingency theory.

Details

European Business Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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