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Article

Sang Man Kim and Jongho Kim

The purpose of this paper is to review the use of zeroing in the weighted average-to-transaction (W-T) comparison methodology and targeted dumping under the anti-dumping

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the use of zeroing in the weighted average-to-transaction (W-T) comparison methodology and targeted dumping under the anti-dumping agreement by reviewing the WTO appellate body’s rulings on the use of zeroing in the W-T comparison methodology in the USA – anti-dumping measures on large residential washers from Korea (DS464). Although the appellate body has ruled that the use of zeroing would not be allowed in the weighted-average-to-weighted-average comparison methodology nor in the transaction-to-transaction comparison methodology, it has not ruled on whether the use of zeroing is allowed in the W-T comparison methodology prior to the instant case.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper mainly analyzes the WTO appellate body report on the USA – anti-dumping and countervailing measures on large residential washers from Korea’s rulings (DS464) and reviews other WTO appellate body reports on the use of zeroing in anti-dumping measures. This paper reviews the relevant provisions of the WTO anti-dumping agreement and the US Anti-Dumping Act, and also referred prior papers on the use of zeroing.

Findings

The appellate body upheld the panel’s finding that the USA’s use of zeroing in the W-T comparison methodology is inconsistent with Article 2.4.2 of the anti-dumping agreement. As zeroing inflates dumping margins, increases the amount of duty collected, and hinders the expansion of trade in goods. The use of zeroing should be prohibited or permitted only in very limited circumstances.

Social implications

Zeroing, which has been the subject of many WTO disputes between the USA and foreign governments, causes dumped sales to be masked by fair value. The WTO appellate body has consistently condemned the US practice of zeroing over the past decade as an unfair commerce practice. The instant case and this paper will help to stop the practice of zeroing in anti-dumping measures.

Originality/value

The text of Article 2.4.2 does not clearly prohibit the use of zeroing. The paper reviews the WTO appellate body’s rulings on the use of zeroing in the W-T comparison methodology in the USA – anti-dumping measures on large residential washers from Korea (DS464). The appellate body report was very recently circulated, on September 9, 2016. The appellate body has not ruled on whether the use of zeroing is allowed in the W-T comparison methodology prior to the instant case. This paper, first, concludes that the W-T comparison methodology is inconsistent with Article 2.4.2 of the anti-dumping agreement.

Details

Journal of Korea Trade, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1229-828X

Keywords

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Article

A. Panas and J.P. Pantouvakis

The paper aims to provide a structured framework for comparing different productivity estimation methodologies and evaluate their sensitivity to operational coefficients…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to provide a structured framework for comparing different productivity estimation methodologies and evaluate their sensitivity to operational coefficients variation for excavation operations.

Design/methodology/approach

Two process‐oriented methodologies were analysed in a deterministic fashion in terms of their input requirements and their respective outputs. A phase‐oriented framework was presented to enable their comparison. The research methodology allows the estimation of excavation productivity in relation to the selected operational coefficients.

Findings

The system productivity is significantly influenced by operational conditions, such as the digging depth and the swing angle from the excavation front to the dumping position. Each methodology presents a differing sensitivity to every operational factor. Since the excavator is considered as the system's leading resource, the variation on productivity has direct implications for the truck fleet size and the unit cost of operations.

Originality/value

The proposed approach is useful in analyzing process‐oriented productivity estimation methodologies under a given set of operational coefficients when no historical data is available. Thus, it provides an alternative to intuitive estimates based solely on personal judgment. The concept of “baseline reference” conditions is introduced, so as to enable the transformation of any operational scenario into equivalent mathematical models that allow comparisons between different estimation methodologies and computational approaches.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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Article

Jaemin Lee and Youngjeen Cho

The purpose of this paper is to examine zeroing jurisprudence under the WTO’s Anti-Dumping Agreement and to see if the jurisprudence can still be applied to situations of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine zeroing jurisprudence under the WTO’s Anti-Dumping Agreement and to see if the jurisprudence can still be applied to situations of targeted dumping where dumping takes place in a specific region, at specific timing, or for specific consumer groups.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the prior decisions of the WTO panels and the Appellate Body relating to the zeroing practice. It categorizes the key elements of these prior decisions where the zeroing practice has been found WTO-inconsistent. While there has been no specific dispute addressing targeted dumping per se, this paper proves that core elements of the zeroing practice have been anatomized and dissected by the panels and the Appellate Body in prior proceedings. The paper then analyzes whether these key elements still exist in the specific context of targeted dumping and thus whether application of zeroing is still prohibited in targeted dumping situations.

Findings

The existing jurisprudence on zeroing from previous WTO disputes should apply to targeted dumping situations as well. Unbridled application of zeroing in the targeted dumping situations will effectively nullify the existing zeroing jurisprudence accumulated through a decade of WTO disputes. If unchecked, this calculation methodology in the context of targeted dumping may open the back door wide open for “zeroing” negative anti-dumping margins. The paper concludes that the existing jurisprudence on zeroing stands for the proposition that zeroing in targeted dumping should also be prohibited.

Originality/value

This paper examines the legality of the zeroing practice in targeted dumping situations, which has been one of the most controversial issues among WTO members for the past several years. The analyses and discussions contained in this paper will provide legal guideline to evaluate zeroing in targeted dumping within the WTO framework. The outcome of the research will provide a platform for continued research and discussion in this area.

Details

Journal of Korea Trade, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1229-828X

Keywords

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Article

DAVID J. EDWARDS and GARY D. HOLT

Hydraulic excavator cycle time and associated unit costs of excavation for given input estimating data, for machines operating in the UK construction industry, are…

Abstract

Hydraulic excavator cycle time and associated unit costs of excavation for given input estimating data, for machines operating in the UK construction industry, are predicted. Using multiple regression analysis, three variables are identified as accurate predictors of cycle time: machine weight, digging depth and machine swing angle. With a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.88, a mean percentage error (MPE) of −5.49, and a mean absolute error (MAPE) of 3.67, the cycle time model is robust; this is further validated using chi‐square analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient (on predicted and actual values of machine cycle time). An illustrative example of the model's application to determine machine productivity is given. The paper concludes with a spreadsheet model for calculating excavation costs (m3 and cost per h) which is able to deal with any combination of the three independent cycle time predictor variables and other estimator's input data.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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Article

David J. Edwards, Hamid Malekzadeh and Silas B. Yisa

Previous methods have been developed to predict tracked hydraulic excavator output and associated costs of production, but these fail to provide a “complete” solution to…

Abstract

Previous methods have been developed to predict tracked hydraulic excavator output and associated costs of production, but these fail to provide a “complete” solution to the plant productivity problem. That is, when hiring or purchasing machines plant managers are not normally provided with sufficient detail to optimise the plant selection decision process. The crux of this problem is to choose an appropriate plant item from the vast range available. This paper contributes to resolving this selection process through the application of an optimisation technique, based on linear programming. Specifically, a decision tool for selecting the optimum excavator type for given production scenarios is presented. In achieving this aim, a mass excavation task was specified as the principal decision criterion. Production output and machine hire costs were predicted using both multivariate and bivariate regression models. The decision tool performed well during testing and therefore exhibits significant potential for use by practitioners. The paper concludes with direction for future research work; concentrating on development of a software package for accurately predicting productivity rates and assisting in the plant selection process.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Leadership in Public Services, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9886

Keywords

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Article

Xiaoling Hu and David Watkins

It is argued that the evolution of trade between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the European Union (EU) falls into three phases: limited contact; both sides…

Abstract

It is argued that the evolution of trade between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the European Union (EU) falls into three phases: limited contact; both sides seeking rapid growth and becoming mutually dependent; and high mutual trade levels with political considerations re‐emerging, China being kept at arm’s length by GATT/WTO and the EU restraining trade through increasing quotas, tariffs and anti‐dumping actions. Nevertheless, high levels of Intra Industry Trade (IIT) demonstrate mutual dependence. Cultural and political differences, as well as incompatible statistical records, prevent trade reaching its full potential at present.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 99 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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Article

Jiyao Xun and Biao Guo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between customer’s electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) regarding their direct service experiences with firms and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between customer’s electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) regarding their direct service experiences with firms and these firms’ company value. The authors drew on the marketing-finance interface research approach to demonstrate how interactive social media adopted by individual customer relate to important firms’ financial performances.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used seven American airline companies’ customers’ tweets collected during a 52-week observation period and paired with their corresponding financial data using stock returns and volatilities. Sentiment analysis algorithm and a vector autoregressive (VAR) model quantified the strong association between customer’s eWOM and these firms’ stock returns and volatilities.

Findings

The results show that customer’s eWOM regarding a firm positively associate with the firm’s stock return but negatively associate with its stock volatility; as negative valence of customer’s eWOM increases, the positive effect of eWOM on firm’s stock return decreases; the negative eWOM impacts on the stock market more profoundly compared with when both positive and negative sensitivities are considered; and eWOM’s wear-out effect is much shorter than that of traditional WOM.

Originality/value

The authors address a literature gap where little is known for how customer’s eWOM, that is evaluating firm services, can ultimately impact on firms’ long-term financial performances. The authors discuss how findings from this study offer implications for marketing management as well as strategic insights for practitioners and investment analysts alike.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Content available
Article

Abstract

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Abstract

Details

The Savvy Investor's Guide to Avoiding Pitfalls, Frauds, and Scams
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-559-8

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