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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2009

Tao (Tony) Gao and Talin E. Sarraf

This paper explores the major factors influencing multinational companies’ (MNCs) propensity to change the level of resource commitments during financial crises in…

Abstract

This paper explores the major factors influencing multinational companies’ (MNCs) propensity to change the level of resource commitments during financial crises in emerging markets. Favorable changes in the host government policies, market demand, firm strategy, and infrastructural conditions are hypothesized to influence the MNCs’ decision to increase resource commitments during a crisis. The hypotheses are tested with data collected in a survey of 82 MNCs during the recent Argentine financial crisis (late 2002). While all the above variables are considered by the respondents as generally important reasons for increasing resource commitments during a crisis, only favorable changes in government policies significantly influence MNCs’ decisions to change the level of resource commitments during the Argentine financial crisis. The research, managerial implications, and policy‐making implications are discussed.

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2019

Cuiping Chen and Tao (Tony) Gao

Despite the importance of online word-of-mouth (WOM) communication to senders, receivers and concerned companies alike, a surprisingly limited amount of research exists on…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the importance of online word-of-mouth (WOM) communication to senders, receivers and concerned companies alike, a surprisingly limited amount of research exists on the impacts of online WOM participation on the senders themselves. Motivated by an attempt to fill this significant gap in the literature, this paper aims to investigate the sender outcomes of online WOM participation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on insights from focus group studies and psychological theories of emotions, catharsis and regret and the signaling theory to develop a conceptual model linking the drivers and content characteristics of online WOM participation and sender outcomes.

Findings

The findings show that sender outcomes from online WOM transmission differ by the types of drivers stimulating the online sharing activity and the level of exaggeration in the senders’ self-generated contents. Specifically, online WOM triggered by emotions leads to catharsis and emotional homeostasis among the senders, while that stimulated by motivational drivers such as altruism, reciprocity, self-enhancement and belongingness leads to sender happiness. Exaggeration in self-generated WOM contents by the senders, in turn, leads to delayed outcomes of sender regret and reduced sender trust in general online WOM contents.

Research limitations/implications

The most important contribution to online WOM research lies in the study of the outcomes of WOM transmission from a sender’s point of view. By drawing on our exploratory findings and psychological theories of emotions, catharsis and regret and the signaling theory, the authors develop a conceptual model linking the drivers and the exaggeration nature of online WOM participation and sender outcomes.

Practical implications

Managers should realize that the most fundamental way of ensuring positive consumption experiences is to listen to customer voices, including even the most negative of feedback shared privately or publicly, and use that information to improve essential customer experience aspects. The finding on the effects of online WOM exaggerations on sender regret suggests that companies and consumers alike should work on ensuring producing more accurate and complete online customer reviews. The finding on the negative effect of online WOM exaggerations on sender trust raises an important question on the meaning of high quality reviews from the company’s perspective. To pursue high quality reviews, merchants should not only aim at receiving the highest possible numeric ratings but also encourage most truthful accounts of purchase and usage experiences. In turn, online platforms such as Amazon should also factor the quality of online ratings more effectively into their product recommendation algorithms.

Social implications

In further consideration of consumer welfare implications, online WOM transmissions should be more recognized as a tool for allowing consumers to cleanse their emotions associated with marketing stimuli.

Originality/value

Overall, the qualitative study and proposed conceptual model contribute to a more thorough and deeper understanding of individual-level sender outcomes of online WOM participation.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Lee Phillip McGinnis, Tao Gao, Sunkyu Jun and James Gentry

The understanding of the motives for consumers’ support of business underdogs is generally limited. The purpose of this paper is to help address this important research…

Abstract

Purpose

The understanding of the motives for consumers’ support of business underdogs is generally limited. The purpose of this paper is to help address this important research topic by conceptualizing underdog affection as a theoretical construct capturing the emotional attachment held by some consumers toward underdog business entities and advances two perspectives (self- and other-oriented) to unravel its motivational underpinnings.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the conceptual model, a survey study was conducted involving 365 respondents drawn from an electronic alumni association list from a medium-sized Midwestern university in the USA. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses were used to validate the scales, and the structural equations modeling method was used to test the hypothesized effects.

Findings

The data support most of the hypotheses (eight out of nine). Under the self-oriented perspective, commerce underdog affection is positively influenced by underdog orientation, need for uniqueness, nostalgia proneness, and hope, and is negatively impacted by their materialism level. Only hope did not impact consumer underdog affection. Under the other-oriented perspective, balance maintenance, top dog antipathy, and empathic concern positively influence underdog affection. The other-oriented factors, especially top dog antipathy and balance maintenance, show stronger effects on commerce underdog affection than self-oriented factors.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was geographically restrictive in the sense that it measured only one group of respondents in the USA. The conceptual model is limited in terms of its coverage of the consequences of underdog affection. While discriminant validity is established in the scale development phase of the study, relatively close relationships do exist among some of these theoretical constructs.

Practical implications

Given the significant evidence linking consumers’ underdog affection to underdog support in commerce, small locally owned businesses could use underdog positioning advertising to differentiate themselves against national retailers. Due to their tendency to display higher underdog affection in commerce, people with higher levels of balance maintenance, top dog antipathy, underdog orientation, emphatic concern, and nostalgia proneness, and lower levels of materialism can be segmented for marketing purposes.

Social implications

This research indicates that there are ways in which small business entities and non-profits alike can operate in a business setting that is increasingly more competitive and challenging for underdog entities.

Originality/value

This study integrates the various underdog studies across contexts to examine motives to underdog affection, a construct not yet operationalized in business studies. In addition, hypotheses linking eight specific antecedents to commerce underdog affection, via two theoretical perspectives, are empirically examined to assess relative as well as absolute effects.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2021

Li Tao, Yan Gao, Lei Cao and Hongbo Zhu

The purpose of this paper is to seek an efficient method to tackle the energy provision problem for smart grid with sparse constraints and distributed energy and storage devices.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to seek an efficient method to tackle the energy provision problem for smart grid with sparse constraints and distributed energy and storage devices.

Design/methodology/approach

A complex smart grid is first studied, in which sparse constraints and the complex make-up of different energy consumption due to the integration of distributed energy and storage devices and the emergence of multisellers are discussed. Then, a real-time pricing scheme is formulated to tackle the demand response based on sparse bilevel programming. And then, a bilevel genetic algorithm (BGA) is further designed. Finally, simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach.

Findings

The considered situation is widespread in practice, and meanwhile, the other cases including traditional model without the sparse constraints can be seen as its extensions. The BGA based on sparse bilevel programming has advantages of “no need of convexity of the model.” Moreover, it is feasible without the need to disclose the private information to others; therefore, privacies are protected and system scalability is kept. Simulation results validate the proposed approach has good performance in maximizing social welfare and balancing system energy distribution.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, the authors consider the sparse constraints due to the fact that each user can only choose limited utility companies per time slot. In reality, there exist some other sparse cases, which deserve further study in the future.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the very first studies to address pricing problems for the smart grid with consideration of sparse constraints and integration of distributed energy and storage devices.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2004

Tao Gao

This paper delves into the mechanism of the contingency framework for foreign entry mode decisions and identifies two essential tasks that jointly determine the outcome of…

Abstract

This paper delves into the mechanism of the contingency framework for foreign entry mode decisions and identifies two essential tasks that jointly determine the outcome of the entry mode decision. It then recognizes a critical weakness in previous research pertaining to the comparison of entry modes along a key decision criterion, the degree of control. Existing studies generally treat equity involvement as the only source of entrant control, while largely ignoring non‐equity sources of control (i.e., bargaining power and trust). Non‐equity sources of control, when underutilized, amount to missed opportunities, increased resource commitments, and heightened risk exposures in foreign markets. Drawing from a pluralism perspective in transaction and relationship governance, the author presents a more integrative method for the ranking of entry modes along the degree of control. The central message is that companies entering foreign markets should make an earnest effort to identify trust and bargaining power situations and fully utilize their control potential in making entry mode decisions.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 April 2016

Zhen Li, Xianwei Liu, Yiwei Lian, Juan Xie, Xiaorui Gao and Tao Chang

This paper aims to report the conductivity measurement of ten different surfactant-free microemulsions (SFMEs)

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report the conductivity measurement of ten different surfactant-free microemulsions (SFMEs)

Design/methodology/approach

The variations of electrical conductivity as a function of water volume fraction are examined at one constant alcohol (or DMF, ethyl lactate, γ-valerolactone)/water, alcohol (or DMF, ethyl lactate, γ-valerolactone)/oil volume ratios for each sample.

Findings

Most of the results are consistent with percolation character. The conductive mechanism of these SFMEs is discussed by the percolation model, and it is found that it might be described with the static percolation model below the percolation threshold.

Originality/value

Our report gives a systematic research on the percolation mechanism of as many species of SFMEs as possible by the theoretical models

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2010

Tao (Tony) Gao, Fareena Sultan and Andrew J. Rohm

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors affecting consumers' acceptance of mobile marketing in China.

13216

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors affecting consumers' acceptance of mobile marketing in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on technology acceptance and uses and gratifications theories to develop a conceptual model of antecedent factors (including risk acceptance related to the mobile platform and personal attachment related to mobile devices) and marketing‐related and value‐based mobile activity related to the acceptance of mobile marketing practice. The conceptual model is tested using data collected among Chinese youth consumers.

Findings

The results confirm the importance of risk acceptance and personal attachment in influencing mobile marketing acceptance, and support the “priming” effect of regular mobile phone usage on orienting consumers toward accepting mobile marketing initiatives.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to a specific sample of youth consumers in China. The findings illustrate the role of antecedent factors – including personal attachment and risk acceptance – related to acceptance of mobile marketing in the Chinese market and they emphasize the role of marketing‐related and value‐based mobile activity in mediating the relationships between antecedent factors and mobile marketing acceptance.

Practical implications

The findings illustrate the importance of recognizing the drivers of, and obstacles to, mobile marketing acceptance. These factors included the likelihood of providing information, likelihood of accessing content, likelihood of sharing content, level of risk acceptance, and level of personal attachment to one's mobile phone.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the growing literature on Chinese youth consumers by examining their acceptance of mobile marketing. The study reveals several implications for theory and practice relating to the antecedents of mobile marketing acceptance among the youth consumer segment within China, a large and emerging market.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2022

Sadia Batool and Muhammad Kashif

This study investigates occupational segregation, microaggression, and social exclusion as antecedents of social invisibility to predict employee intentions to leave…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates occupational segregation, microaggression, and social exclusion as antecedents of social invisibility to predict employee intentions to leave. Furthermore, the authors question whether felt obligation moderates the relationship between social invisibility and intentions to leave. Finally, researchers explore various forms of occupational segregation, miscoaggression, and social exclusion from employee's perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies are conducted. Study 1 is quantitative where the data were collected from 273 nurses employed in various hospitals in Pakistan. Study 2 is qualitative where twelve confirmatory interviews were conducted to enrich our contextual understanding of the proposed relationships. The quantitative data are analyzed using partial least square methods via SmartPLS. The qualitative data analysis is based on a content analysis of interviews.

Findings

Surprisingly, occupational segregation does not predict social invisibility. Moreover, the relationship between occupational segregation and intentions to leave is not mediated via social invisibility. The issues such as social hierarchy and high power distance are reflected via the findings of the qualitative study.

Practical implications

The results provide insightful strategies to counter feelings of social invisibility among individuals performing those jobs which are considered stigmatized occupations.

Originality/value

This study uniquely presents three antecedents of social invisibility, its mediating role, and the moderation of felt obligation between social invisibility and intentions to leave.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Mohammed Ibrahimi and Hicham Meghouar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determiners to create and destroy value in horizontal mergers and acquisitions (M&A) using accounting indicators supposed…

1158

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determiners to create and destroy value in horizontal mergers and acquisitions (M&A) using accounting indicators supposed to influence the new entity’s value.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 90 French listed companies and stepwise regression method, the authors test eight accounting indicators supposed to influence the new entity’s value.

Findings

To create value after a horizontal M&A, it is necessary to concentrate on turnover and the restructuring of charges without neglecting the control of debt capacity. To avoid destroying value after a horizontal M&A, it is necessary to concentrate on the control of debt capacity and restructuring of charges in order to reduce financial charges and financial risk. Horizontal M&A also create value through the reduction of investment costs and through tax optimization.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is different from other contributions in that the majority of existing literature concerning the sources of value creation in M&A has been based on abnormal returns or microeconomic data. This paper analyzes accounting data that are likely to be influenced over the long term by corporate decision making. These kinds of decisions influence the firm’s value as well as the long-term gains that industrial investors may hope to obtain.

Originality/value

This study makes a significant contribution to the existing literature insofar as it seeks to divide the sources of value creation into three categories: sales synergy, cost synergies and hybrid synergies. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is also the first study to provide explanations from companies’ accounting data, which can lead managers to a greater vision of post-merger strategy management, reinforcing the mechanism for value creation.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 45 no. 10/11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

James S. Chisholm, Jennifer Alford, Leah M. Halliday and Fannie M. Cox

This paper aims to examine ways in which English language arts (ELA) teachers have exercised agency in response to policy changes that have been shaped by neoliberal…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine ways in which English language arts (ELA) teachers have exercised agency in response to policy changes that have been shaped by neoliberal education agendas that seek to further advance standardization and the primacy of measurability of teaching and learning.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors posed the following research questions of related literature: Under what conditions, in what ways and to what ends do teachers exercise agency within ELA classroom teaching? Through five stages of systematized analysis, this scoping review of 21 studies maps the evidence base.

Findings

Structural, material, interpersonal and pedagogical issues both constrained and supported agency. Teachers covertly exercised agency to be responsive to students’ needs; in some instances, teachers’ agentive practices reinforced institutionally sanctioned methods. Teachers’ agentive action aimed to combat the deprofessionalization of the field, foster innovative curriculum approaches and challenge stereotypes about students. The authors also found a range of definitions of agency in the research, some of which are more generative than others.

Originality/value

This paper addresses a gap in the research literature by illuminating contexts, consequences and conundrums of ELA teacher agency. The authors documented the range of structural, cultural and material conditions within which teachers exercise agency; the subversive, collective and small- and large-scale ways in which teachers realize agency; and the potentially favorable or unfavorable consequences to which these efforts are directed. In doing so, the authors also problematize the range of definitions of agency in the literature and call for greater attention to conceptual clarity around agency in research. As literacy researchers illuminate work that disrupts the marginalization of teachers’ agency, this scoping review maps the field’s knowledge base of agency in ELA teaching and sets up a future research agenda to promote the professionalization of teaching and advocacy for English teachers.

Details

English Teaching: Practice & Critique, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1175-8708

Keywords

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