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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2019

Tamir Agmon

The research proposition of this paper is that multinational enterprises (MNEs) were important in the process of growth and divergence that took place in the world in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The research proposition of this paper is that multinational enterprises (MNEs) were important in the process of growth and divergence that took place in the world in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The rate of growth of GDP per capita was unprecedented, but it was coupled with an increasing gap between the developed and the developing countries. MNEs are even more important in the growth and convergence process that started at the beginning of the twenty-first century where the gap is closing. Global sourcing is the strategy that has led to closing the gap while high growth continues. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on macroeconomics general equilibrium model in an imperfect market and on looking at the inventive process as the driving process of the development and the location of MNEs. Using a financial economics model of assets and liabilities, it is shown that MNEs affect the geopolitical distribution of income and wealth through expanding their liabilities. The methodology is a combination of applying economic model and using historical and current data to motivate the use of the model and to validate the models and the conclusions derived from them.

Findings

MNEs and major global companies before the name MNE was used were shaped by major macroeconomic processes like the inventive process and the same time they were the prime movers of the two major economic processes of the last 200 years: growth and divergence and growth and convergence. The ideas-led growth model shows why MNEs are becoming larger. As MNEs became bigger they start to import inputs through value maximizing strategy of global sourcing. This led to transfer of value to suppliers in emerging markets that grow over time and eventually it led to new MNEs from emerging markets large countries like China and from smaller countries in Asia and elsewhere. The growth convergence process and the resulting changes in the geopolitical distribution of MNEs is assisted by rapid changes in technology that reduces transactions cost. The continuation of rapid changes in transactions costs is likely to change the current structure, strategy and the location of MNEs and may reverse the growth convergence process once more.

Originality/value

The study begins with aggregate macroeconomic processes and relates them to the development of MNEs and in particular to the development of MNEs from emerging markets. It highlights the importance of global value chains and global sourcing in the process of growth and divergence and the turning of the “Wheel for Fortune” toward China and India as it has been prior to the sixteenth century.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Tamir Agmon

Recently there has been a new interest in capital budgeting. The interest can be traced to two sources: (1) lack of satisfaction with the way that standard NPV procedures…

Abstract

Recently there has been a new interest in capital budgeting. The interest can be traced to two sources: (1) lack of satisfaction with the way that standard NPV procedures perform, and (2) the development of new financial techniques and their application to corporate finance, notably the application of option pricing models. The first source creates the demand for a critical re‐evaluation of the accepted procedures of capital budgeting, the second provides the means for such an evaluation.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 17 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1985

Ike Mathur

Just a few years ago, active management of foreign exchange risks was confined to a relatively small number of multinational firms. With saturation of domestic markets…

Abstract

Just a few years ago, active management of foreign exchange risks was confined to a relatively small number of multinational firms. With saturation of domestic markets, though, many firms have turned their attention to product markets abroad. Some have gone abroad in search of lower production costs. Second, since 1973, foreign exchange rates have fluctuated widely, oftentimes wildly. Finally, recent financial accounting reporting requirements have made corporate gains and losses due to foreign exchange transactions much more visible. All of these factors have served to magnify the importance of managing foreign exchange risks.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Abstract

Jefferson County, Alabama undertook a series of risky financial maneuvers in 2003 that included issuing large amounts of variable rate and auction rate securities as well as engaging in numerous interest rate swaps in order to lower the burgeoning costs of repairing its sewer system to comply with federal regulations. These complex financial instruments, intended to lower debt service costs on the countyʼs $3 billion in outstanding sewer warrants, led the county to financial bankruptcy in the wake of the financial markets collapse. This paper explores the choice of securities by analyzing the risk of adjustable rate securities and interest rate swaps, examining the Jefferson County case in detail, and providing some lessons for future financial management within the context of unexpected events such as the current recession.

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Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

Adrian Buckley

The financial analysis of international investment decisions is complex. The basic methodology which homes in on incremental cash flows needs to be refined in order to…

Abstract

The financial analysis of international investment decisions is complex. The basic methodology which homes in on incremental cash flows needs to be refined in order to focus upon cash flows which are remittable to the parent company, for it is only these that would logically add shareholder value. Build in the complications of two lots of tax and changing exchange rates and the equation looks anything but simple. But there is another complexity too which renders the traditional discounting methodology less than wholly appropriate. And this applies not just to international investment but to any situation where capital is committed with an option to expand or curtail embedded in it. This is not to say that the typical model cannot be adapted to meet the situation. It can and it is not too difficult.

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Managerial Finance, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1984

Ike Mathur and David Loy

Introduction In a world of increased uncertainty about the future value of exchange rates and increased visibility of foreign exchange gains and losses, it is not…

Abstract

Introduction In a world of increased uncertainty about the future value of exchange rates and increased visibility of foreign exchange gains and losses, it is not surprising that both commercial and financial firms have become more concerned about minimizing foreign exchange risks. Once a company becomes involved in international trade, be it the formation of a foreign subsidiary or simply the import or export of goods, it subsequently becomes subject to foreign exchange risk exposure. Foreign exchange risk exposure can be broken down into three categories for further development; these are real economic exposure, translation exposure, and transaction exposure.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Yingqi Wei, Xiaming Liu and Chengang Wang

This paper argues that multinational firms can benefit from indigenous knowledge diffusion in a host developing country so that there can be two‐way productivity…

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Abstract

This paper argues that multinational firms can benefit from indigenous knowledge diffusion in a host developing country so that there can be two‐way productivity spillovers between foreign and local firms even in the developing world. This new argument is confirmed by a very large firm‐level data set from the Chinese manufacturing sector. After grouping firms based on their trade orientation, we find that foreign firms have a positive impact on local‐market‐oriented Chinese firms. When the degree of foreign presence is sufficiently high, there will be negative productivity effects on export‐oriented Chinese firms. On the other hand, local Chinese firms have a positive impact on export‐oriented foreign invested firms. After dividing foreign firms according to their sources, we find that the beneficial spillovers between OECD and local Chinese firms are much greater than those between Hong Kong/Macao/Taiwan and local Chinese firms.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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