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The purpose of this paper is to examine the structure of employment in the most urbanized state in India during the period 1983-2010. The paper also analyses the determinants of growth of farm employment in urban areas in the state of Tamil Nadu.
The paper compares trends in employment in Tamil Nadu with that of the country as a whole. In order to see whether there is evidence of Lewisian labor transfer, the study examines labor transfer between sectors and percentage distribution of workers in the rural and urban areas.
The paper finds that employment in the entire non-agricultural sector slowed down in 2009-2010 compared to 2004-05 in Tamil Nadu. The share of employment in primary sector in urban areas increased more sharply, experiencing slow economic transformation in the post-reform years. The analysis reveals that rapid rural-urban transformation could be one reason for more people in the primary sector in urban areas.
Studying the employment structure at the district level, for which analyzing the district-level data collected and published by state’s Bureau of Economics and Statistics is required, would be helpful to discern a deeper influence of urbanization on structure of employment.
The results suggest that the issue needs further examination with analysis of the district-level data. Policy reforms should, therefore, be suitably oriented toward tapping the employment potential of both unorganized and organized segments in manufacturing, trade and services sectors. It is also necessary to ensure robust economic growth that creates decent jobs for all young educated people in the state.
The study explains the domination of farm employment in urban Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu is considered to be the most urbanized state in India. The reason for an increase in the share of primary sector employment in urban areas of Tamil Nadu is due to high urbanization in the post-reform periods.
Describes the results of a research survey conducted at the Department of Library and Information Science, University of Madras, Chennai, India which examines features…
Describes the results of a research survey conducted at the Department of Library and Information Science, University of Madras, Chennai, India which examines features provided in online public access catalogues (OPACs) in Tamil Nadu. OPACs are recent developments in libraries in India in general and Tamil Nadu in particular. A review of the literature reveals that only a few studies on OPACs in India have been conducted and there is no comprehensive study about the OPACs in Tamil Nadu. A sample of 50 libraries in Tamil Nadu were selected at random, out of which 36 responded. The analysis of the data represents the state‐of‐the‐art of the libraries in the summer of 2002. The major findings of the survey reveal emerging trends in OPAC.
The need for continuing professional education (CPE) for librariansis discussed. The libraries and educational institutions in Tamil Naduare briefly examined and attempts…
The need for continuing professional education (CPE) for librarians is discussed. The libraries and educational institutions in Tamil Nadu are briefly examined and attempts at CPE programmes in India are traced. A draft plan for CPE for librarians in Tamil Nadu is presented and the New Education Policy of the Government of India and role of the UGC and staff colleges are highlighted. Obstacles to CPE are listed.
The purpose of this paper is to assess congestion as the simultaneous occurrence of desirable health output (e.g. maternal admissions) along with undesirable output (e.g…
The purpose of this paper is to assess congestion as the simultaneous occurrence of desirable health output (e.g. maternal admissions) along with undesirable output (e.g. still births (SB)), in emergency obstetric care settings of public hospitals in Tamil Nadu.
The study is based on a cross-sectional data set of 97 public hospitals collected by the statistical cell of Tamil Nadu Health Systems Project for the year 2013–2014. The study uses three inputs – beds, doctors and nurses; three desirable outputs – maternal admissions, neonatal admission and live births; and four undesirable outputs – SB, intra-uterine deaths, neonatal deaths and maternal deaths. Congestion analysis, a variant of the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method and slack analysis, has been applied to detect an excessive use of some inputs or a shortfall in some outputs across these hospitals. Furthermore, the association between congestion and some contextual factors has been examined.
On an average, the hospitals in our sample can increase the total amount of outputs by 62.8 percent by improving overall efficiency, and about 34.2 percent of this inefficiency can be attributed to congestion. Analysis of sub-samples showed that government hospitals at the taluk level have higher congestion than district headquarter hospitals. Congestion seems to decrease with greater hospital volume up to a limit; beyond that, it increases in obstetric care settings.
Hospital-based efficiency studies in the Indian context, so far, have estimated relative efficiency among hospitals using the classical DEA method, but ignoring adverse health outcomes. Congestion analysis, an advance in the DEA method, considers how much the desirable outputs can be increased as also how much undesirable outputs affect efficiency.
This study aims to provide a methodology for constructing farm household-level adaptation metrics for agriculture and water sectors. The livelihood of farm households is…
This study aims to provide a methodology for constructing farm household-level adaptation metrics for agriculture and water sectors. The livelihood of farm households is at risk now and in the foreseeable future, as both agriculture and water sectors are vulnerable to climate variability, particularly in developing nations. Adaptation is critical to protect their livelihood. Vulnerable farmers have adopted various adaptation mechanisms to counteract negative impacts of climate variability, though the extent varies temporally and spatially.
It is, therefore, imperative to understand current adaptation practices for successfully implementing them. A few studies have emerged so far in this context, investigating different issues associated with micro-level adaptation strategies related to agriculture and water sectors, e.g. output and cost-effectiveness, and constraints related to farm, household and institutional levels.
While such analysis is critical to enhance micro-level adaptation measures, there is a felt need to formulate adaptation metrics that can investigate the underlying factors in an integrated manner. For empirical assessment, 146 farmers were interviewed from different agro-ecological zones of Tamil Nadu, India, regarding seven adaptation measures, such as micro-irrigation, rainwater harvesting, resistant crops, use of bio-fertilisers, crop insurance, income diversification and community-based efforts.
These adaptation measures were evaluated through an Analytical Hierarchy Process using four criteria: effective awareness, economic viability, individual and institutional compatibility and flexibility and independent benefits.
The present study provides a methodology to identify barriers that limit implementation of adaptation measures, and enable target-oriented policy measures to promote appropriate adaptation strategies at the local level.
The tsunami that swept the shores of Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004, killed over 30,000 people regardless of their ethnic or religious affiliations. This article deals…
The tsunami that swept the shores of Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004, killed over 30,000 people regardless of their ethnic or religious affiliations. This article deals with a different conflict – one fashioned by human beings, which has caused the loss of an estimated 70,000 lives. The vast majority of the lives lost have been from the minority Tamil population. The basic argument of this article is that the desire to uphold a unitary state in Sri Lanka established by the British colonial rulers in 1833 has really been the desire to establish Sinhala hegemony over the minorities, particularly the Tamil minority.
This chapter examines the manner in which a disaster-affected population of artisanal fishers relocated inland to new sites following the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004…
This chapter examines the manner in which a disaster-affected population of artisanal fishers relocated inland to new sites following the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 experienced and adapted to problems of water quality, scarcity, sanitation, and drainage. While numerous studies of conflicts over water tend to focus on issues of equitable access (see Anand, 2011), this chapter seeks to link the problem to the contested priorities driving land and resource use and access. I show how inland relocation negatively impacted households, making it harder to sustain livelihoods due to distance from the coast, while imposing new costs including that of commodified and scarce water, locational deficiencies, and the structural weaknesses of new housing. Placed in a historical context, the problem of water can be seen as an aspect of the long-term problem of ecologically unequal exchange pitting local artisanal fisher communities against an aggressively state-supported commercial fishery sector. The continuity I seek to hone in on is the pattern of imposing costs on fishers while enabling the alienation and privatization of coastal resources. Taking water not only as a vital substance presenting questions of access and quality but also as a problem of drainage and effluence enables a fuller consideration of how the unequal distribution of costs on poorer populations became legitimized in the name of recovery. At the same time, the chapter also highlights the manner in which fishers refused to remain docile subjects of power and used their agency and autonomy in adapting to and sometimes refusing the terms of relocation.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a new model, namely service quality measurement in higher education in India (SQM‐HEI) for the measurement of service quality in…
The purpose of this paper is to develop a new model, namely service quality measurement in higher education in India (SQM‐HEI) for the measurement of service quality in higher educational institutions.
Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire comprising six sections. Section A consists of ten questions pertaining to teaching methodology (TM). Sections B consists of five questions pertaining to environmental change in study factor (ECSF). Section C consists of eight questions relating to disciplinary measures taken by the institutions. Section D consists of five questions related to the placement‐related activities and in part E two questions provide an overall rating of the service quality, satisfaction level. Finally, in part F 13 questions pertaining to student respondent's demographic profile information were given. All the items in Sections A‐E were presented as statements on the questionnaire, with the same rating scale used throughout, and measured on a seven‐point, Likert‐type. In addition to the main scale addressing individual items, respondents were asked in Section E to provide an overall rating of the service quality, satisfaction level. For conducting an empirical study, data were collected from final‐year students of higher educational institutions across Tamil Nadu. The sampling procedure used for the study was stratified random sampling. The stratification has been done based on the region Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Tiruchirappalli, and nature of institution, government university, government college, aided college, private university and self‐financing college. While selecting the institutions from each category, non‐probabilistic convenience and judgmental sampling technique were used. However, within such institutions, the respondents were selected by stratified random sampling.
The SQM‐HEI‐mediated model argued that the placement is the better interactions of the quality of education in India. The model reveals that the quality of education is based on the best faculty (TM), the excellent physical resources (ECSF), a wide range of disciplines (DA) which paved the diverse student body and to improve the employability of the graduates (placement as mediating factor) coming out of the higher educational institutions in India. The above model proves that the placement is the mediated factor for various dimensions of quality education. SQM‐HEI model would help in identify three service areas to be focused in the higher educational institutions for improving the quality of . These three dimensions of quality correlated between the sub‐dimension variables and it is very necessary for improving the quality of higher education in India. The educationist says that, education is a change of behavior of students. Hence, the higher educational institutions should come forward to adapt the sub‐dimensions of quality variables to enhance the outcome of education.
The model described in this paper will assist academic institutions when mapping the level of service quality and thereby enhance the same.
This case can be used on a strategic management course in the second year of an MBA programme, any special elective course on the media and entertainment industry and in executive education programmes to demonstrate the application of strategic management concepts and frameworks.
The Indian film industry was the largest in the world and the seventh largest in terms of revenue. Significant number of movies were made in languages such as Bengali, Marathi, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam and Kannada, with Hindi commanding the highest number. The film industry in Karnataka made movies in the Kannada language. The industry was plagued by a host of issues with the industry contributing just 2 per cent of the revenues and box office success rate at just around 25 per cent. The state government had set up Karnataka Chalanachitra Academy with the objective of promotion and development of the movie industry in Karnataka. The Chairman of the academy, Shailesh Singh, was extremely concerned about the poor success rate of Kannada movies and was contemplating various options of reviving the ailing Kannada movie industry.
Expected learning outcomes
The expected learning outcomes are as follows: application of strategic management frameworks in the context of the movie industry; analysis of industry issues from the long-term and short-term perspectives; study of different entities in the movie industry and the roles they play and their interdependence; applying learning to suggest survival strategies in an extremely competitive market; and insights into the role of government in the media/entertainment industry.
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CSS 11: Strategy.