The purpose of this study is to explore a support system for beginners in drawing in a networked environment. Learners can receive advice and assessments from art experts…
The purpose of this study is to explore a support system for beginners in drawing in a networked environment. Learners can receive advice and assessments from art experts without time and/or place constraints by using the proposed system. The authors investigate the possibilities of online supporting drawing learning. Two key factors are introduced: a digital pen as a drawing tool and a drawing process model (DPM).
The major difference between an offline drawing class and an online drawing class is the availability of instruction during learners' drawing. The instruction for the learners' drawing process is more important than instructional comments for his/her work. Therefore, quick and personalized feedback from a tutor is an indispensable function for a networked learning environment. In this study, the learner's drawing process that is recorded by a digital pen is reused in order to replay and refer his/her drawing process. To generate an evaluation for the drawing process automatically, these data are also reused in the system the authors propose.
The paper provides three findings. One is the DPM to capture learner's drawing features. Second is a drawing learning support system based on the DPM. And third is a feasibility study of the support system in a real art school. In this study, the learner's drawing process is reused in two evaluations. One is the tutors' evaluation, and the other is the system's evaluation. For the latter, the authors implemented the automated evaluation function based on the DPM. This model consists of three types of parameters. They are the drawing step, the drawing phase and the features of the drawing strokes.
Because of the art school curriculum, the authors cannot examine the learning effectiveness deeply. So the research results in this paper may lack generality. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed approach further.
The paper includes implication for the skill learning support based on the ICT.
This paper fulfils an identified need to capture and support how drawing behaviour can be done.
In order to be able to use the aroma hand massage as a skill that can be done by a nurse who does not have a special aromatherapy technique, we examine anti-stress effects…
In order to be able to use the aroma hand massage as a skill that can be done by a nurse who does not have a special aromatherapy technique, we examine anti-stress effects of simplified aroma hand massage for healthy subjects. We evaluated the anti-stress action of aroma hand massage and the different components of the procedure in 20 healthy women in their twenties. We used autonomic nervous function measured via electrocardiogram as an index of stress. After conducting a baseline electrocardiogram, we induced stress in the participants by asking them to spend 30 minutes completing Kraepelin's arithmetic test. We then administered various treatments and examined the anti-stress effects. Kraepelin's test significantly increased sympathetic nervous function and significantly reduced parasympathetic nervous function. Compared with massage without essential oil or aroma inhalation, aroma hand massage significantly increased parasympathetic nervous function and significantly decreased sympathetic nervous function. The effect of the aroma hand massage persisted when the procedure was simplified. The anti-stress action of the aroma hand massage indicates that it might have beneficial application as a nursing technique. There are several limitations in this study; ambiguities of low component/high component ratio of heart rate variability and bias by small subjects groups of the same women.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the mental health issues among teachers globally and to investigate the significant factors that specifically impact the mental…
The purpose of this paper is to describe the mental health issues among teachers globally and to investigate the significant factors that specifically impact the mental health of school teachers in Okinawa, Japan.
This cross-sectional study examined depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem and resiliency among 174 teachers from seven schools in Okinawa, Japan. The study questionnaire consisted of four parts, including demographic data, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale (DASS-42), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), and Connor-Davidson Resiliency Scale (CD-RISC). Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of mental health variables.
Of the 174 teachers, 111 were females (64%) and 60 were males (35%). Average age of participants was 41.65 (SD = 10.07). Average number of years being a teacher was 15.50 (SD = 9.88). There was a significant gender difference in the level of self-esteem. Significant differences in anxiety were found among varying grade levels taught. Regression analyses indicated that resiliency and self-esteem significantly predicted depression, anxiety and stress among school teachers in Okinawa.
This is the first study among school teachers in Okinawa that examined the impact of resiliency and self-esteem on their mental health. To reduce psychological distress common within the teaching profession, social and environmental support should be provided within the school to better foster the successful promotion of teacher resiliency and self-esteem.
Following the discussion at our recent Annual General Meeting, a questionnaire was sent out to all members. Almost half of them replied despite the fact that the time allowed for returning the questionnaire had been kept very short. Some members even provided detailed comments.