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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Khalid Al-Amri

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of the Takaful insurance firms in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and do a relative analysis for its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of the Takaful insurance firms in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and do a relative analysis for its different units.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes the technical, pure technical, cost and allocative efficiency of Takaful firms in the GCC countries using data envelopment analysis (DEA) methodology.

Findings

The Takaful insurance industry in GCC is highly technical and pure technical efficient. However, it is moderately cost efficient, and there is a large opportunity for improvement. UAE and Qatar score the highest technical efficiency, while Saudi Arabia and UAE are the most cost efficient among the GCC countries.

Originality/value

The primary contribution of this paper is to provide the first DEA analysis of the Takaful industry in the GCC countries. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first study on the Takaful insurance industry that uses different types of efficiency measures, namely technical, pure technical, allocative and cost efficiency, in the GCC countries. This paper also contributes in the literature of the inputs and outputs selection for the Takaful insurance efficiency calculation.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2021

Nourhen Sallemi, Rim Zouari Hadiji and Ghazi Zouari

This paper aims to examine the effect of governance mechanisms (board size, board independence, duality, the Sharia board size, Sharia board meetings and ownership…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of governance mechanisms (board size, board independence, duality, the Sharia board size, Sharia board meetings and ownership concentration) on the performance of insurance providers of distinguishable Muamalah contracts (wakalah and hybrid), moderated by the length of senior leaders’ servicing time.

Design/methodology/approach

The full sample includes 21 listed Takaful companies divided into two subsamples – 12 insurance wakalah contracts offered in the South East Asian (SEA) countries and 9 insurance hybrid contracts offered in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries over the period of 2012–2018. The methodology is informed by Baron and Kenny’s (1986) moderation process approach.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that the larger the size of directors’ board and the higher the number of outside directors, the greater the SEA wakalah Takaful insurance performance. Nondual functions and a larger size of Sharia board along with a highly-concentrated ownership structure have a positive effect on the Takaful insurance performance in both the SEA and GCC regions. Furthermore, the higher the Sharia board meetings, the higher performance of all types of Takaful insurance providers in the sample. As for the moderating effect of the director’s seniority, it is found to negatively moderate the relationship between the governance mechanisms and the Takaful performance in both regions.

Originality/value

This paper highlights that the leader’s entrenchment stands as an obstructing factor impeding the governance mechanisms from enhancing Takaful performance. Thus, it serves to contribute to clearly understanding the appropriate governance mechanisms usefully fit for a Takaful insurance effective performance, applying the wakalah and hybrid contract types. Such a contribution should be appreciated by the concerned regulators engaged in setting up limited serving periods for the directors whereby the Takaful insurance practice could be efficiently managed and supervised.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2014

Nesrine Bouzaher, Okba Necira and Sabrina Kerdoudi

The purpose of this chapter is to provide a description of the integration of Takaful in the domestic market, based on experiences in regional markets, focusing on the…

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of this chapter is to provide a description of the integration of Takaful in the domestic market, based on experiences in regional markets, focusing on the explanation of factors that could enhance the position of Takaful in certain areas.

Methodology

The chapter describes the evolution of Takaful insurance in international and regional markets, and explains the articulation of this product in these markets. The chapter also provides an analysis of the Algerian market characteristics related to the Takaful product.

Value

This work will be based on an analytical research of emerging markets and their success factors; then it will be necessary to provide an overview of the product containing Takaful; and finally we will try to follow the experience of the national insurance market with the new product, supplied by the Salama Company, and determine the potential of Algeria in this area.

Findings/Prospects

This work offers an opportunity to understand the mechanisms needed to activate the local market and opens the prospects for effective integration of Islamic financial products gradually, in order to prepare for changes that would provide more financial products suited to the requirements of social development in the Algerian economy.

Details

The Developing Role of Islamic Banking and Finance: From Local to Global Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-817-4

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2020

Syed Ahmed Salman and Rusni Hassan

The purpose of this study is to examine the perception and acceptability of insurance policyholders to introduce takāful in India. The primary focus of this research is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the perception and acceptability of insurance policyholders to introduce takāful in India. The primary focus of this research is insurance policyholders because they currently have insurance policies and it is believed that they are familiar with the concept of insurance, compared to the people who do not have any insurance policy.

Design/methodology/approach

New product diffusion theory is used in developing the hypothesis and a questionnaire. In this research, the population is unknown, and hence, the non-probability sample is used. Quota sampling and snowball sampling methods are used in this survey, with a sample size of 909 respondents, including Muslim and non-Muslim policyholders. The external factors that motivate potential policyholders to participate in takāful are the independent variable here; while the respondents’ actual willingness to participate in takāful is the dependent variable. Regression analysis is performed to analyse the data.

Findings

Based on 909 respondents, it is found that the factors such as cost vs benefits, marketing and promotion and social and religion play a significant role in a consumers’ decision-making at 1% significant level overall. The attribute of agents can influence the consumers at a 10% significant level overall. However, other factors, namely, accessibility, availability and service quality, product features and reputation of the company cannot pursue the consumers in India.

Research limitations/implications

The questionnaires are distributed in 10 cities from nine states out of 28 states in India. Thus, it covers only one-third of the states. Future research can expand the respondents from other states that have not been researched.

Practical implications

India is opening to foreign investments in the Indian insurance industry, and thus, the findings are useful for industrial players, investors, policymakers for the development of takāful in India.

Originality/value

Limited research has been done in previous studies and this research is the pinnacle within-depth survey regarding takāful in India.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2019

Hafiz Ali Hassan

The concept of Takaful has a long history. It is linked with the era of Prophet Muhammad 1,400 years ago. The globalization and development of socio-economic systems have…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of Takaful has a long history. It is linked with the era of Prophet Muhammad 1,400 years ago. The globalization and development of socio-economic systems have made business activities more complex in response to emerging human needs and requirements. Similarly, Takaful insurance has fully commercialized and become an important indicator of the international financial market. The purpose of this study is to understand the Takaful mechanism and progression of its procedures to date since its inception.

Design/methodology/approach

This study seeks to examine the origin, evolution and historical developments of Takaful mechanism, operations, models and governing framework with extant literature review from previous studies and current practices.

Findings

The modern Takaful insurance first began in Sudan back in 1979. The Takaful operations must abide by the Sharia laws and work under the supervision of the Sharia Supervisory Board. Since its evolution, Sharia scholars have introduced various Takaful models that are going to be explained in this study. Moreover, several Islamic organizations, including the “Islamic Financial Services Board” and the “Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions,” have provided guidelines and supervision to develop and strengthen the Takaful industry further. The study acknowledges Takaful as a growing insurance industry with huge potential and promising future in both Pakistan and the international market.

Practical implications

During the analysis, various deficiencies and loopholes were identified, which are responsible for the unmatched growth of conventional insurance. They can be eliminated with the joint efforts of industrial players, Sharia scholars and Takaful insurance companies. Hence, Islamic scholars and academic researchers are encouraged to develop and modify the current practices of Takaful mechanism according to current market demands and consumer approach. The research efforts will help Takaful operators to develop more innovative Takaful products adhering Sharia compliance. Consequently, it will help to access more consumer market and further enhances the Takaful growth.

Originality/value

This study is an effort to provide a basic understanding of the mechanism of Takaful models. The study helps to comprehend how Takaful models have evolved and been modified over the course of time. Moreover, it provides a base for further development and improvement in current practices of Takaful models, which will result in increased progress for the Takaful industry.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2012

Waheed Akhter and Tajammal Hussain

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to see the effectiveness of operational and transformational standards raised by joint working group of Islamic Financial Services…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to see the effectiveness of operational and transformational standards raised by joint working group of Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) and International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) as well as respondents' perceptions about Takāful (Islamic insurance) practices in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of two questionnaires were designed for this purpose: one for Takāful operators in Pakistan and other for insurance customers. For the first questionnaire, three Takāful operators were visited at Karachi. For the second questionnaire, a sample of 150 insurance customers was surveyed at Rawalpindi. Descriptive statistics and Chi‐square test was used to analyze the data.

Findings

Reporting standards and internal controls were found to have low level of observance among Takāful operators in Pakistan. The survey of insurance customers revealed that majority of the respondents (91 percent) are unaware of Takāful concept. Education was found to be the single important factor affecting income of the respondents, their perceptions and level of Takāful awareness.

Research limitations/implications

The survey is conducted at one major city of the country based on convenient sampling technique and its results have been generalized for the entire country. However, actual results might differ when a sufficiently large sample is taken from all the main cities of the country.

Practical implications

The study would help the policy makers to focus on strengthening regulatory framework for Takāful. It will also help Takāful operators in understanding public perceptions about Takāful and devising strategies to promote Takāful business to the vast population of Pakistan.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical research conducted on Takāful in Pakistan that analyzes the Takāful practices both from managerial perspective as well as from regulatory perspective.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Meerna Mroueh and André de Waal

Islamic finance is an interesting field of research, as it represents an alternative to conventional finance for Muslims. It is a way of conducting finance based on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Islamic finance is an interesting field of research, as it represents an alternative to conventional finance for Muslims. It is a way of conducting finance based on the principles of Islam and prohibition of interest. Islamic finance can be divided into two areas: Islamic banking and Islamic insurance (Takaful). This paper aims to describe a research study on the applicability of the high-performance organization (HPO) framework on Takaful insurance companies and whether it can improve their performance in a sustainable way.

Design/methodology/approach

The factors and characteristics of the HPO framework are theoretically matched with the characteristics of the Takaful industry for evaluating whether these reinforce or weaken each other. The outcome of this matching process gives an indication of whether it is easier or more difficult for Takaful insurance companies, compared with conventional companies, to apply the HPO framework and transform themselves into HPOs.

Findings

It can be theoretically expected that, out of 35 HPO characteristics, 10 will be easier to strengthen in Takaful organizations compared with conventional organizations and 9 will be more difficult, and for 16 characteristics, there will be no difference. These results suggest that, most likely, it does not make a difference whether UAE Takaful organizations or conventional organizations implement the HPO framework, they will probably need roughly the same amount of effort to make a successful transition.

Research limitations/implications

In a follow-up study, the HPO framework will be applied at several Takaful insurance companies to evaluate the operation of the framework in practice.

Originality value

To date, no studies of the HPO framework and HPOs have been conducted at Takaful insurance companies in the UAE. Thus, by theoretically matching the HPO framework with Takaful organizations, the study fills a gap in the management literature regarding high-performance improvement techniques for Takaful organizations.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Sheila Nu Nu Htay, Nur Shazwani Sadzali and Hanudin Amin

This research aims to examine the viability of micro-health takaful in Malaysia. Current practices in the takaful industry in Malaysia reveal that takaful operators (TOs…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine the viability of micro-health takaful in Malaysia. Current practices in the takaful industry in Malaysia reveal that takaful operators (TOs) are keen on offering products that are affordable for middle- to high-income people. However, the concept of takaful is based on mutual help, and, hence, it is believed that TOs should offer products affordable by the poor and lower income people.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this objective, the interest of the poor to participate in this product is examined by sending the questionnaire. In addition, TOs were approached to understand why micro-health takaful products have not been offered as yet. The regulator was also interviewed to gauge whether the government is supportive of this scheme.

Findings

From the survey, it was noted that the poor people are interested to participate in such a scheme. However, most of them are only willing to contribute about RM5 per month, while some of the respondents, especially, zakat recipients are unable to afford to pay at all. The zakat authority when interviewed stated they were unable to contribute on behalf of the zakat recipients. To a certain extent, zakat authority is required to obtain an approval from the National Fatwa Council with regard to that issue. The regulator views that the micro takaful is still in an experimental stage. From the perspective of TOs, it might be viable if the product is offered as part of the corporate social responsibility, rather than by individual operators. Therefore, it could be summed up that micro-health takaful will be viable if and only if TOs collectively offer it as a part of their corporate social responsibility, and it must be subsidized by the zakat or waqf authorities.

Research limitations/implications

Particularly, this study only considers a limited geography in Malaysia to understand the viability of micro-health. On the same note, the current focus of the study is on micro-health takaful in which it has not tapped other potential micro takaful products.

Originality/value

This study is a pioneering effort in understanding the viability of the micro health takaful in Malaysia.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Hairul Suhaimi Nahar

The purposes of this paper are threefold. First, it aims to argue normatively how Shari’ah precepts governing Takaful operations are translated into (rightfully) different…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this paper are threefold. First, it aims to argue normatively how Shari’ah precepts governing Takaful operations are translated into (rightfully) different accounting and reporting of Takaful operators. Second, it provides a critical review of the available and applicable accounting and reporting standards and guidelines related to Takaful in the Malaysian context. The third objective which constitutes the empirical piece of this paper centred on the basic numerical evidence obtained from the survey of final-year accounting students with regards to their ability in identifying the basic (dis)similarities in accounting and reporting between Takaful and insurance based on the published financial statements.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-mode research approach was adopted covering archival document reviews and focused group survey.

Findings

Findings are arguably informative and relevant to diverse stakeholders. First, the missing jigsaw puzzle representing accounting and reporting in the Takaful literature is uncovered by extending the explanations of Takaful-insurance conceptual and operational differences to that of accounting and reporting. The essence primarily lies on the different operational set-up attributed to the elements of gharar, maisir and riba. Second, the comparative analysis of accounting and reporting rules indicates that AAOIFI standards are less detailed in terms of accounting treatment over certain areas of Takaful operations (e.g. Re-Takaful), but these are more holistic, focused and specific in some other relatively important reporting areas reflecting the unique nature of Takaful operations. Third, findings based on the Malaysian Takaful accounting and reporting guideline suggest that accounting and reporting between Takaful and insurance are perceived to be a coin having monographic characteristics on both sides.

Originality/value

The research explicitly extends and highlights the impact of Shari’ah precepts governing Takaful’s operational nature on its accounting and reporting. It also provides empirical evidence on the nature of Malaysian-based Takaful accounting and reporting guidelines which mirror its insurance counterpart.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Hamim Syahrum Ahmad Mokhtar, Izwayu Abdul Aziz and Noraziyah Md Hilal

This study on corporate demand for general takāful (Islamic insurance) aims to identify potential growth areas and areas for improvement in takāful business practices in Malaysia.

Abstract

Purpose

This study on corporate demand for general takāful (Islamic insurance) aims to identify potential growth areas and areas for improvement in takāful business practices in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey on corporates’ protection needs, takāful/insurance coverage obtained and awareness on takāful/insurance was conducted for this paper.

Findings

The findings from the survey are as follows: There is potential for takāful operators to further penetrate the corporate sector, as the majority of respondents indicated willingness to spend on takāful/insurance. Emphasis on takāful value propositions apart from its Sharīʿah compliance status is needed to attract corporates, as respondents were found to be indifferent on Sharīʿah compliance status of their protection. Strong market presence, expanded product offerings and efficient services were key determinants to attract takāful subscription. Respondents’ heavy reliance on intermediaries warrants strong collaboration with intermediaries to widen market outreach. The small and medium enterprises segment appeared promising, as it is found to be underserved despite having higher propensity to obtain takāful/insurance coverage compared to the overall respondents.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to Malaysia’s experience. The findings are indicative (though they may not be conclusive) of the target segment as well as the takāful industry as a whole.

Originality/value

The insights on respondents’ considerations when obtaining takāful/insurance coverage and the correlation of these factors with respondents’ characteristics can assist takāful/insurance providers in structuring products and business strategies to better serve this market segment. The paper may also aid discussions among researchers and regulators on areas for further development of the industry.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

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