Search results

1 – 10 of 36

Abstract

Details

Monetary Policy, Islamic Finance, and Islamic Corporate Governance: An International Overview
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-786-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Muhammad Rizky Prima Sakti, Mohamad Ali Tareq, Buerhan Saiti and Tahir Akhtar

This paper aims to critically evaluate theoretical and empirical research into capital structure practices in Islamic banks (IBs) from four perspectives, namely…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to critically evaluate theoretical and empirical research into capital structure practices in Islamic banks (IBs) from four perspectives, namely, theoretical aspect and its nature, determinants of capital structure in IBs, links between capital structure and risk management and nexus between capital structure and performance of IBs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors will review and examine past studies on IBs’ capital structure from both theoretical and empirical research.

Findings

The paper concludes that most of the literature on IB capital structure is largely theoretical than empirical. The existing studies on IB capital structure have various limitations, which suggest a need for detailed empirical work. Detailed empirical research in the field of capital structure will support bank managers and policymakers in making decisions about improving capital structure.

Originality/value

This research will make several noteworthy contributions to address literature gaps for IB capital structure. Furthermore, this paper will identify areas for future research into capital structure practices and IB financing decisions. Lastly, this paper will equip regulators with guidelines for establishing sound capital requirements for IB.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Tahir Akhtar, Mohamad Ali Tareq, Muhammad Rizky Prima Sakti and Adnan Ahmad Khan

This study aims to provide a review of corporate governance and cash holdings because strong corporate governance is necessary for the efficient utilization of firm’s…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide a review of corporate governance and cash holdings because strong corporate governance is necessary for the efficient utilization of firm’s liquid resources such as cash, to minimize the agency cost of high cash holdings and to improve the value of cash.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors provide a literature review of corporate governance and cash holdings through a conceptual and theoretical argument rather than empirical research.

Findings

The authors review an empirical and theoretical work surrounding key corporate governance variables and identify avenues for future research. The authors find that corporate governance mechanisms and cash holdings have received much attention during the past two decades. However, the significant role of corporate governance (both country-level and the firm-level) in controlling the entrenched behaviour of the managers is discussed separately in the literature. The combined effect of both country-level and the firm-level governance is lacking in the cash holdings literature. Additionally, this study has found that much attention is paid to the developed markets, while only a few focused on the developing markets regarding cash holding literature, although the agency problems are high in developing markets.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the growing literature on corporate governance and cash holdings and provides a further understanding of the role of governance in minimizing the agency cost to increase value by assuring that firms’ assets are used efficiently and productively in the best interests of investors and other stakeholders. In addition, it provides a new idea to the policymaker and future researchers where they need to do more work.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 December 2020

Naeem Akhtar, Umar Iqbal Siddiqi, Wasim Ahmad, Muhammad Usman, Xianglan Chen and Tahir Islam

The present study unveils the service encounter barriers – interactional and instructional – faced by foreign consumers at food and beverage restaurants in China. It…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study unveils the service encounter barriers – interactional and instructional – faced by foreign consumers at food and beverage restaurants in China. It builds a conceptual framework and examines (1) how service encounter barriers create situational abnormality, (2) how situational abnormality engenders foreign consumers' felt discomfort that influences their revisit intentions and (3) how expectations disconfirmation moderates situational abnormality.

Design/methodology/approach

Convenience sampling using the survey method was employed to collect data from 517 foreign consumers – who stay in Beijing (China) – at food and beverage restaurants. The study used IBM SPSS 25.0 and Amos Graphics 24.0 to analyze the data and interpret results.

Findings

Findings reveal that interactional and instructional barriers positively create situational abnormality, which ultimately leads to foreign consumers' felt discomfort and their negative revisit intentions. Expectations disconfirmation significantly aggravates situational abnormality as a moderator.

Research limitations/implications

This study investigates foreign consumers' behavior at food and beverage restaurants in China and cautions its generalizability. It suggests corroborating the foreign consumers' behavioral intentions in the context of other countries to generalize the findings and unleash other factors additive to comprehend their behavior in the wake of restaurant industry.

Originality/value

The extant literature has not examined the service encounter barriers faced by foreign consumers at food and beverage restaurants in China. The present study, responding to the previous calls, incorporated the service encounter barriers and their downstream effects on foreign consumers' behavioral responses. By doing so, it adds value to the domestic food and beverage restaurants and service firms in China, in particular, and paves the way to understand the interactional and instructional barriers in the global context, in general, by engaging the foreign consumers.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Naeem Akhtar, Xianglan Chen, Umar Iqbal Siddiqi, Guojun Zeng and Tahir Islam

To address critical research gaps in the extant literature, the present study develops a model that links language constraints in hotel attributes—core and…

Abstract

Purpose

To address critical research gaps in the extant literature, the present study develops a model that links language constraints in hotel attributes—core and facilitating––with consumers' offendedness (CO) and examines the consequent behavioral intentions of an offended consumer. For this purpose, it investigates (1) the role of language constraints in core and facilitating attributes in shaping CO, (2) how CO relates to adverse behavioral outcomes and (3) the moderating role of attribution of service failure (ASF) between language constraints and CO.

Design/methodology/approach

The present research used convenience sampling and collected data from 398 inbound tourists in Beijing through a survey questionnaire. The study performs measurement and structural evaluation by employing Amos Graphics 24.0 and moderation analysis through IBM SPSS 25.0.

Findings

The study examines language constraints in China's hospitality context, which restricts its generalizability. However, it serves as a better approach to examine the tourists who visit other Western hotels in China and unveils the factors contributing to CO.

Research limitations/implications

The study examines language constraints in Chinese hotels, which restrict its generalizability. It serves as a better approach to examine the tourists who visit other Western hotels in China and unveils the factors contributing to CO.

Originality/value

Few studies validate communication barriers in service encounters in hotel services and apprehend related outcomes. The present study takes a unique initiative in the context of China and examines the role of language constraints in core and facilitating hotel attributes in service encounters at Chinese hotels. This study informs the Chinese hotel industry and international destination firms to understand the language constraints in service encounters to further their strategies to overcome threats and tap potential opportunities.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Akhtar Bibi, Muhammad Adnan Khalid and Amina Hussain

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS), organizational commitment and job satisfaction among special…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS), organizational commitment and job satisfaction among special education teachers in Pakistan. The data were collected from 85 special education teachers from different special education centers in Punjab, Pakistan. POS was measured using a survey of POS developed by Eisenberger et al. (1986). Affective continuance and normative commitment are measured by affective continuance and normative commitment scales developed by Meyer and Allen’s (1984) and Allen and Meyer (1990), respectively. Results of the current study show that POS and job satisfaction are positively correlated with affective and normative commitment. POS and job satisfaction are not associated with continuance organizational commitment. This suggests that a teacher’s commitment can be improved by increasing organizational support, underprivileged working environment and job satisfaction. Limitations and implication of the study are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

In the current study, cross-sectional research design and non-probability purposive sampling technique were used. A sample of 85 special education teachers was collected from different special education institutes of Punjab and federal, Pakistan. Inclusion criteria were teacher with specialization in all disabilities (mentally challenged, deaf, blind, physical handicapped and slow learners), informed consent and age range 20‒55 years, at least 6-month teaching experience in special education. Exclusion criteria were teaching experience less than 6 months and age less than 20 or more than 55 years. The demographic characteristics of teachers are presented in Table II.

Findings

Findings of the present study suggest a positive association between POS, affective commitment, normative commitment and job satisfaction, whereas there is no association between POS and continuance commitment as well as between job satisfaction and continuance commitment among special education teachers in Pakistan. Organization should consider the exclusive support of the special education teachers.

Research limitations/implications

The current study also has some limitation. The sample size is very small. In the current study, data are collected from 85 special education teachers from federal and few cities of Punjab, Pakistan. Hence, data are not true representative. Data for current study are collected through self-reported scales and only collected from academic staff.

Practical implications

In the current study, special education teachers have identified factors that promote organizational support, commitment and job satisfaction, such as reasonable workloads, sound working environment, unbiased and fair working conditions, and administrative support. It has been found that decreased level of POS, commitment and job satisfaction damage the organization, special educators and special students. Therefore, special education department should develop and implement policies that strengthen these dimensions. A broad recommendation can be made on the basis of these findings: affective and normative commitment increases when individuals have satisfying experience with organization. Thus, this may be improved by providing special educators with the opportunity to work in a better work environment, with proper work load, as it would increase emotional and normative attachment of the individuals with their institutes. The current study would be helpful for policy makers in the field of education and administration in order to work on these dimensions to increase the teacher’s job satisfaction and organizational commitment. It would also create awareness among the general public about the potential problems of special education teachers in Pakistan affecting the quality of life of children with special needs. Results suggest that by providing organizational support, appropriate work load and unbiased attitude, a teacher’s commitment can be improved.

Social implications

The current research helps academics and administration to improve social functioning of special education teachers by improving their job satisfaction and organizational support.

Originality/value

The prevalence rate of children with disabilities is increasing rapidly in Pakistan. Since stigma is associated with individuals with disabilities, parents hide disabilities of their children so that other relatives may not face any problems, such as being doubted of carrying defective genes. Families have to cope with financial crises due to lack of institutional support, extra expense to deal with disabled person and loss of work. In such circumstances, special education institutions are only hopes for such people to assist them in dealing with their disabled children. However, the strength of teachers in these institutions is not enough to fulfill needs of such children. A number of researches have examined the role of organizational support, job satisfaction and organizational commitment of teachers in western countries (Makanjee et al., 2006; Alijanpou et al., 2013; Batool and Ullah, 2013). However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no study has yet investigated this serious issue in Pakistan. This study provides valuable information on organizational support, commitment and job satisfaction among special educators, and recommendation on how organizational commitment can be improved.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Case study
Publication date: 9 July 2019

Syed Shaan Abbas and Muhammad Akhtar

The paper has the following learning outcomes: to understand the historical and geographical aspect of Pakistan vis-à-vis other countries of South East Asia and the world;…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The paper has the following learning outcomes: to understand the historical and geographical aspect of Pakistan vis-à-vis other countries of South East Asia and the world; to be able to understand the different marketing strategies of the tourism company; to gather the knowledge of many unknown facts which remain out of sight and hardly surface; to boost economy if its facts and figures are given due weight age and followed with true letter and spirit; and to give a big boost to an industry which remains mostly dormant for many decades. The ratio analysis of service sector is explained. How finances can be arranged in shortest time and generates profitability for the company is also discussed.

Case overview/synopsis

The study provides an overview on the following topics: lack of interest by the Government in promotion; training of tour operators and guide; and managing the expected income from this industry. This study makes the masses aware that how much potential exist in the field of tourism in Pakistan. How the tour operators find huge potential in all segments of tourism and how the big force of trained manpower can be formed and creates employment. Service sector mostly run on equity finances because of lack of collateral, how efficiently they manage the finance for the business year. It gives details of extensive marketing strategy, the huge profit margin in foreign currency and cost volume profit systems of tourism companies.

Complexity academic level

BBA, MBA and MS.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 1: Accounting and Finance.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 July 2020

Segun Thompson Bolarinwa and Abiodun Adewale Adegboye

The paper investigates the determinants of capital structure and the speed of adjustment of capital structure decisions of Nigerian firms.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper investigates the determinants of capital structure and the speed of adjustment of capital structure decisions of Nigerian firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts three methods: difference GMM, system GMM and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA).

Findings

The empirical results show that firms' efficiency affects the capital structure decisions of Nigerian firms. At the same time, short-term debt has a higher speed of adjustment in the context of Nigerian firms. The roles of other control variables are established in the paper.

Social implications

Nigerian firms should adopt short-term debt in order to achieve their targeted debt levels. Managers of Nigerian firms are also advised to be more efficient in order to attract higher performance.

Originality/value

The paper is the first literature to measure the efficiency of firms using SFA method. Extant studies in the literature have neglected the determinant while four papers that adopt the determinant data envelope analysis (DEA) method. This is also the first study to document the speed of adjustment in capital structure decisions in the context of Nigerian firms.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 31 August 2010

Tahir Mukhtar, Muhammad Tariq Javed and Muhammad Ilyas

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the short and the long run wheat demand elasticities in Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the short and the long run wheat demand elasticities in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Using cointegration and vector error correction model (VECM) techniques, the main objective of the study has been achieved.

Findings

The estimated long run and the short run elasticities suggest that income is the most significant determinant of wheat consumption in the long run while price of wheat is the major affecting factor of wheat consumption only in the short run.

Practical implications

The estimated demand elasticites may be used for framing any future food security policy in Pakistan. The less elastic nature of wheat demand both in the short and the long run suggests that under the likely Doha Round agricultural trade liberalization, wheat price rise will harm the poor consumers.

Originality/value

Wheat demand elasticities are estimated within the framework of cointegration and VECM to differentiate short run and long run elasticities in Pakistan.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Imran Khan, Mehreen Khan and Muhammad Tahir

This study aims to investigate the performance differences of Islamic and conventional banks in Pakistan by using financial ratios.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the performance differences of Islamic and conventional banks in Pakistan by using financial ratios.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzed 5 Islamic and 19 conventional banks for the periods of 2007-2014. Two types of analyses were performed – sample t-test and logistic regression. Analysis was also performed on sub-sample considering crisis effects.

Findings

It was found that Islamic banks are relatively better in profitability, efficiency, risk and liquidity management, while conventional banks are superior in asset quality. Higher efficiency of Islamic banks contradicts with previous studies conducted in Pakistan. Probable reasons for this include phenomenal expansion of Islamic banking industry and its broad appeal to customers in Pakistan. Risk management practices of Islamic banks are superior to conventional banks, as Shariah rules restrict pure speculation in monetary terms. Better asset quality of conventional banks is attributed to their recognition and product diversity. During the crisis, Islamic banks were found less profitable than their counterparts.

Research limitations/implications

This study suggests that high operational efficiency of Islamic banks should be converted into technical efficiency by improving human resource, introducing innovative market-oriented products and prudent resource allocations. As operational efficiency does not promise returns in long term, to sustain ongoing phenomenal growth of Islamic banking, management needs to gain customer trust.

Originality/value

This is an original research that compares performance differences across Islamic and conventional banks by using financial ratios.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

1 – 10 of 36