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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Rafael Currás‐Pérez, Carla Ruiz‐Mafé and Silvia Sanz‐Blas

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of interactivity with television (TV) personalities and audience members as mediating variables between teleshopping genre…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of interactivity with television (TV) personalities and audience members as mediating variables between teleshopping genre dependency and teleshopping behavior, and to identify the moderating effects of televiewers' instrumentalist behavior on teleshopping.

Design/methodology/approach

The Media Dependency Theory has been used as the conceptual framework of this study to explain teleshopping in terms of the relations of the individual with the teleshopping genre, TV personalities and audience members.

Findings

Data analysis performed using a sample of 432 Spanish teleshoppers shows that genre dependency has an indirect influence on teleshopping exposure, which in turn has a direct and positive effect on teleshopping behavior. The individual‐media relationships proposed are, in all cases, greater for high instrumentalist televiewers.

Practical implications

This research provides managers suggestions to increase teleshopping behavior. Managers responsible for TV content design should encourage specific viewing and purchase objectives so that they will attract an audience with instrumentalist motivations. They should also design attractive sales programs to retain the audience's attention and promote relationships with program hosts to increase relationships with TV personalities.

Originality/value

Previous research focused on individual media dependency has analyzed the antecedents and consequences of individual media‐genre dependency, but despite dramatic differences between instrumentalist and ritualist televiewers, very limited research has been conducted to examine them. This paper explains teleshopping in terms of the relations of the individual with the teleshopping genre, TV personalities and audience members, focusing on the moderating influence of televiewer's instrumentalist behavior.

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2010

Sabine Bachmayer, Artur Lugmayr and Gabriele Kotsis

TV changes in several disciplines concurrently: from analogue to digital, from scheduled broadcasts to on‐demand TV on the internet, from a lean‐back (passive) to a…

Abstract

Purpose

TV changes in several disciplines concurrently: from analogue to digital, from scheduled broadcasts to on‐demand TV on the internet, from a lean‐back (passive) to a lean‐forward (active) media, from straight watching to the consumption of content connected to additional services, from the sole TV viewer to the viewer being part in social networks and communities regarding to the TV content, etc. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the adaptation of design and realization of TV program formats to the changes that happen to television. In addition, the paper would like find out how to support the design of interactions, dynamic narrations and content types as well as the role of the internet within these processes and this application area.

Design/methodology/approach

Currently, there exist many approaches towards the development of social, collaborative, and interactive TV program formats and systems. Within the scope of this paper, the authors present latest case studies and example program formats for each case. The paper examines them concerning their interaction possibilities and architecture as well as the influence and utilization of the web. Finally, the paper provides a simple categorization according to the narration character, content, and interactivity types of the listed TV program formats.

Findings

Caused by the collaborative and interactive characteristic of the web, a big influence of the web concerning the hardware‐ and content‐sided development of TV is discovered. Nevertheless, the web's potential is absolutely not exploited in this area, neither to give more dynamic to the narration, nor to appreciate the content type or the interactivity. Finally, the paper identifies a high effort, occurrence and development in the interactivity, in contrary to the narration characteristic and content types.

Research limitations/implications

Only one representative, example TV program format enabling interactions by the viewer for each case in the paper, has been chosen. The authors make no claim to be complete, in covering all genres, possibilities of interaction or TV program formats existing for the field of interactive/social/collaborative TV.

Originality/value

This paper presents an extension of a previous paper presented at the MoMM2009.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 26 May 2015

Yvonne D. Newsome

This study compares filmic and televisual representations of fictional black presidents to white Americans’ reactions to the advent of the United States’s first African…

Abstract

Purpose

This study compares filmic and televisual representations of fictional black presidents to white Americans’ reactions to the advent of the United States’s first African American president. My main goal is to determine if there is convergence between these mediated representations and whites’ real-world representations of Barack Obama. I then weigh the evidence for media pundits’ speculations that Obama owes his election to positive portrayals of these fictional heads of state.

Methodology/approach

The film and television analyses examine each black president’s social network, personality, character traits, preparation for office, and leadership ability. I then compare the ideological messages conveyed through these portrayals to the messages implicated in white Americans’ discursive and pictorial representations of Barack Obama.

Findings

Both filmic and televisual narratives and public discourses and images construct and portray black presidents with stereotypical character traits and abilities. These representations are overwhelmingly negative and provide no support for the argument that there is a cause–effect relationship between filmic and televisual black presidents and Obama’s election victory.

Research implications

Neither reel nor real-life black presidents can elude the representational quagmire that distorts African Americans’ abilities and diversity. Discourses, iconography, narratives, and other representations that define black presidents through negative tropes imply that blacks are incapable of effective leadership. These hegemonic representations seek to delegitimize black presidents and symbolically return them to subordinate statuses.

Details

Race in the Age of Obama: Part 2
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-982-9

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Jyoti Vohra and Pavleen Soni

Marketers try to influence food shopping behaviour of children through various in-store food promotional strategies (FPS). These in-store FPS comprise of attractive…

Abstract

Purpose

Marketers try to influence food shopping behaviour of children through various in-store food promotional strategies (FPS). These in-store FPS comprise of attractive packaging, accessibility, availability of foods in wide varieties and presence of helpful and friendly sales personnel. However, little is known about how children buy and the extent to which these marketing strategies are successful. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate food shopping behaviour of children in retail stores and to study the effectiveness of in-store FPS and demographic factors (age and gender of child and monthly family income) on food shopping behaviour of children.

Design/methodology/approach

Data have been collected from 473 mothers of children in age category four to 11 years. Data have been analysed through descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations), bivariate correlations, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

The study explores and validates four factor structure of food shopping behaviour of children in retail stores in Indian settings. These factors include children’s active assessment of foods, impact of availability and variety on children’s purchases, influence of TV food ads on children’s purchases and influence of packaging on children’s food purchases. Further, the findings also reveal that in-store FPS are truly effective in influencing food shopping behaviour of children.

Practical implications

Marketers may highlight packaging attributes in food advertisements as they can help escalate food purchase requests of children in retail stores. In addition to this, food advertising is strongly associated with assessment of foods in retail stores and looking for availability of advertised foods in retail stores. This suggests that food advertising as a medium of communication should not be ignored. However, sales personnel can also be used more effectively as they are seen to help children in identifying availability and variety of foods in retail stores.

Originality/value

As no such study has been conducted so far (to the best of researcher’s knowledge), this study potentially helps in bridging gaps in literature.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Carmen Spanò

My analysis is structured as a comparative study between two countries – New Zealand and Italy – and focuses on the relationship between national audiences and the…

Abstract

My analysis is structured as a comparative study between two countries – New Zealand and Italy – and focuses on the relationship between national audiences and the trans-media structure of the popular television series Game of Thrones (HBO, 2011– present). Game of Thrones’ narrative is characterized by elements that emphasize its fictitious world, since these elements belong to the fantasy genre, which, by definition, deals with the supernatural. From this standpoint, the fantastic universe of the series functions as an escape route from everyday life. However, instead of following the genre rules, “Game of Thrones articulates a striking refusal of the hopeful mythologies of high epic fantasy” (Tasker & Steenberg, 2016, p. 189) by focusing on the brutal, the extreme, and the overall injustice and chaos that permeate a society in which war and death appear to be inescapable. In this chapter, the textual schematic of Game of Thrones is examined through the emotional reactions, during focus group sessions, of national fan groups to themes and events of the show. In particular, the analysis of Italian and New Zealand followers’ comments on Game of Thrones will be instrumental to illustrating the reasons for their passion for the series as well as the main concerns that arise during the viewing. This ambivalent attitude in fans’ responses and engagement will emerge as significantly dependent on the media text’s capacity to transcend the boundaries of a simple categorization, to stand as a notable example of a program that manages to appeal to diverse audiences beyond the country of origin.

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Chae Mi Lim and Youn-Kyung Kim

The purpose of this paper is to identify the emotional factors that affect older consumers’ satisfaction with TV shopping and examined the relationships among these factors.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the emotional factors that affect older consumers’ satisfaction with TV shopping and examined the relationships among these factors.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 285 consumers aged 60 years and older who had watched a TV home shopping channel was used. Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined the relationships among emotional factors that affect satisfaction.

Findings

This study found that loneliness was an antecedent of both gratification shopping motivation and telepresence and that telepresence positively affected consumer satisfaction with TV shopping.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study validate social-compensation motive of media consumption and deficiency paradigm in the context of TV shopping. The relationship between telepresence and satisfaction also supported transportation theory. However, the findings of the current study should be interpreted with caution due to the non-random sampling method. Constructs other than those employed in this study could be examined regarding outcomes of loneliness.

Practical implications

This study suggested that telepresence and shopping for self-gratification are effective ways to alleviate older consumers’ loneliness. In addition, the findings from relationships among emotional variables suggested potential marketing strategies for shaping positive consumer attitudes toward and satisfaction with TV shopping networks.

Originality/value

This study extended knowledge on loneliness by demonstrating how it related to attitudinal outcomes such as satisfaction and knowledge on telepresence by examining it in the context of TV shopping.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Stefano Pace

The aim of the paper is to discuss a possible extension of narrative analysis to a new medium of expression of consumer behaviour, specifically YouTube.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the paper is to discuss a possible extension of narrative analysis to a new medium of expression of consumer behaviour, specifically YouTube.

Design/methodology/approach

Marketing and consumer behaviour studies often apply narrative analysis to understand consumption. The consumer is a source of introspective narratives that are studied by scholars. However, consumption has a narrative nature in itself and consumers are also storytellers. YouTube is a new context in which subjects tell stories to an audience through self‐made videos and re‐edited TV programs. After defining the pros and cons of different approaches to the study of YouTube, narrative analysis is presented as a possible means of understanding YouTube.

Findings

Some preliminary evidence is presented by discussing several YouTube videos. These indicate that YouTube content can be better understood as stories, rather than example of other approaches, such as visual analysis, media studies, videography, and others.

Research limitations/implications

From the analysis conducted, preliminary managerial implications can be drawn. It seems unlikely that normal TV broadcasters will be substituted by YouTube videos. For the most part, YouTube content draws its sense and shared meaning from the major TV shows and series. The discursive nature of YouTube is also an indication of how to deal with this new medium as a company or researcher.

Originality/value

The paper is an attempt to open up new applications of interpretive market research in the form of narrative analysis. It explores a new context that is gaining relevance in both the marketing literature and managerial practice.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

Donna Winham and Jeffrey S. Hampl

Social cognitive theory (SCT) suggests that the observation of role models prompts the formation of beliefs that will govern future behaviors. The paper's objective is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Social cognitive theory (SCT) suggests that the observation of role models prompts the formation of beliefs that will govern future behaviors. The paper's objective is to explore the perceived influence of television media on feelings about eating habits, body image, clothing styles, and physical attractiveness attributes by high schools students in terms of SCT.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on attitudes and perceptions were collected using an online survey of a convenience sample of high school students (n=467) to determine influence of television media characters on behaviors.

Findings

The results of this survey suggest that high school students do not indiscriminately model behaviors depicted by television programs, but may selectively incorporate some views that fit with their reality such as the importance of attractiveness in romantic partners, but not influences of clothing styles or eating habits.

Research limitations/implications

Recognition of the fictional quality of television characters does not refute that they have influence on the high school respondents, but it does suggest some degree of cognitive recognition about the lack of reality of television characters. The convenience sample of adolescents may be more media‐savvy than others because of associations with high‐school journalism programs.

Originality/value

High school students do not indiscriminately model behaviors depicted by television programs, but may selectively incorporate some views that fit with their reality in accordance with SCT.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Ian Towers

The transfer of management knowledge is usually seen as a formal process involving business schools, training courses and books. This paper aims to investigate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The transfer of management knowledge is usually seen as a formal process involving business schools, training courses and books. This paper aims to investigate the managerial content of TV drama programmes, considering the mechanisms that determine this and showing how this changes over time. The paper also shows how the content forms part of management discourse and how it may be used by viewers to understand what good and bad managers do and to modify their behaviour accordingly.

Design/methodology/approach

Two links are discussed: between the economic system and cultural products and between cultural products and the individual. Police drama series are used as an example to show how current management practices are mediated through popular culture and how they are legitimised.

Findings

The management styles and practices observed in police drama series have changed over the past 40 years to reflect the most recent trends. Bureaucratic management styles are shown in a negative light, whereas teamwork is shown positively. New trends such as the heavy use of consultants are also represented in recent programmes, providing evidence of how popular culture can make management practices part of managerial discourse.

Originality/value

Films and TV programmes are analysed by management scholars, but usually to illustrate a particular theme. This paper does not take the managerial content as a given but identifies mechanisms through which it is determined and shows how it changes. Additionally, it shows the relationship between content and viewer. It provides evidence of the role of popular culture in the transfer of management knowledge and of how management related contents change over time.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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Abstract

Subject area

International business or International marketing.

Study level/applicability

The case is recommended for undergraduate and graduate courses in the fields of international business and international marketing. The aim is to show students the problems that a family business in the animation industry faces while growing and internationalizing. Specifically, the case discusses the entry mode selection and market selection challenges faced by an emerging market company in the comic book and animation industry to operate overseas and compete with entertainment giants such as Disney and DC Comics. The case enables the instructor to discuss international market selection theories and evaluate entry modes. For graduate students, the international market selection can be further developed by using more robust concepts such as psychic and cultural distance.

Case overview

This case examines the trajectory of a pioneering company in the comic book and animation industries, and in the licensing of trademarks in Brazil. Mauricio de Sousa Productions was founded in 1959 and is considered to be one of the most successful cultural producers in the country. According to a leading Brazilian public opinion research agency, 97 per cent of Brazilian children and 96 per cent of their parents are familiar with the Monica and Friends characters. As one of the main players in the publishing market, with 86 per cent of market share, Mauricio de Sousa Productions has a product portfolio that goes beyond Monica and Friends comic strips: the company’s show on the Cartoon Network ranks third in audience viewing in the country and the company has produced animated movies, books, shows and games. However, despite its experience in publishing comic books in several countries, Mauricio de Sousa Productions (MSP)’s worldwide operations have not been as profitable and sustainable as expected. Aiming at expanding its global presence, MSP’s top management decided in 2014 to review the company’s internationalization strategy and operations to enhance the firm’s performance.

Expected learning outcomes

The case highlights the key factors facing firms when expanding from an emerging markets. Students are expected to discuss and evaluate options, thus developing their knowledge and decision processes related to family-owned business challenges and opportunities, international market selection theories and international market entry mode. Developing strategies to face challenges as those presented by competitors such as Disney should bring opportunities to students to think outside models and weigh risks. Finally, the case gives students opportunity to base their decision processes and evaluations on logistics problems as well as psychic and cultural distances. It also compels the students to appreciate the various challenges involved in exploiting international market with animation content and intellectual properties as a service.

Supplementary materials

Company presentation to use in the discussion introduction can be found in: www.monicaandfriends.com/content/video.php

Subject code

CSS 5: International business.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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