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Book part
Publication date: 20 January 2011

Yonggui Wang, Shenghui An and Peng Luo

Through comparative analysis, this study attempts to uncover the differences and similarities among transnational company (TNC) investments in various host countries…

Abstract

Through comparative analysis, this study attempts to uncover the differences and similarities among transnational company (TNC) investments in various host countries. After empirically analyzing the panel data collected from the US and Japanese TNCs' foreign R&D investments, it looks into the influences of the host countries' economies, technologies, and institutional factors on absorbing TNCs' foreign R&D investment from different countries. The host countries' market size and potential are still the main influencing factors in making the choice. The US TNCs focus mainly on host countries' scientific and technological capabilities and potentials, whereas those of Japan are concentrated more on the scientific and technological capabilities and personnel, so as to improve R&D. Moreover, the US TNCs show more attention to host countries' intellectual property protection than do those from Japan.

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International Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-448-2

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

David Koffman

To explore how the rise of Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) may affect paratransit.

Abstract

Purpose

To explore how the rise of Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) may affect paratransit.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of published material and interviews with paratransit managers.

Findings

TNCs, typified by Uber and Lyft, are having a significant impact on the taxi industry, which is affecting some US paratransit programs for people with disabilities because it limits the ability of those programs to partner with taxis for a portion of their service. However, some programs have avoided these negative impacts by contracting with taxi companies in a way that provides guaranteed work for some number of drivers.

Paratransit programs might be able to partner with TNCs much as they do now with taxis. However, a number of significant issues would have to be addressed including the lack of any way to schedule a trip in advance, little or no monitoring or dispatching assistance provided to drivers at the time of service, insurance coverage that does not meet typical public agency requirements for contracts, limited screening of drivers or inspection of vehicles, lack of specialized driver training, lack of any provision to negotiate rates, and lack of wheelchair accessible vehicles.

US civil rights legislation applies to TNCs and requires them to serve individuals with disabilities who can use the service; assist with the stowing of mobility devices; not charge higher fares or fees for people with disabilities; and allow service animals.

Originality/value

The value is to help paratransit programs and policy makers adapt to changes in the market for transportation services brought on by technology.

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Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Mahommad Rafiqul Islam

This article examines the application of "resource dependency theory" to transnational corporations (TNCs) operating in host countries like Bangladesh to explain the…

Abstract

This article examines the application of "resource dependency theory" to transnational corporations (TNCs) operating in host countries like Bangladesh to explain the relationship between the TNCs and Bangladesh. Data indicate that while the TNCs' participation in a third world host country is encouraged primarily for promoting its economic development, TNCs are mainly attracted by market size, purchasing capacities (determined mainly by GNP) of the population, and stable political condition of the country. Although examination of the application of resource dependency theory provides some insights into understanding the complicated relationship between TNCs and Bangladesh, several other factors, not explained by resource dependency theory, help explain the behavior of TNCs in a host country

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International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1994

Christos Pitelis

Aims to examine the issue of industrial strategy (IS), paying particularattention to the case of Britain. Sets out to assess the possibility andnature of an industrial…

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2328

Abstract

Aims to examine the issue of industrial strategy (IS), paying particular attention to the case of Britain. Sets out to assess the possibility and nature of an industrial strategy for Britain, in Europe, and within the global scene, taking into account the world we live in as we see it. Accordingly, the perspective is driven and shaped by a quest for a realistic, feasible and sustainable industrial strategy. In order to achieve these objectives, first examines the theoretical arguments behind much of British, and more generally, Western industrial policies. Following this, outlines and assesses British industrial policy post‐Second World War then compares and contrasts British industrial policy with that of Europe, the USA, Japan and the newly industrialized countries. Then examines recent developments in economics and management which may explain the “Far Eastern” miracle, and points to the possibility of a successful, narrowly self‐interested, IS for Europe and Britain, based on the lessons from (new) theory and international experience. To assess what is possible, develops a theoretical framework linking firms in their roles as consumers and/or electors. This hints at the possibilities and limits of feasible policies. All these ignore desirability which, in the author′s view, should be seen in terms of distributional considerations, themselves contributors to sustainability. Accordingly, discusses a desirable industrial strategy for Britain in Europe which accounts for distributional considerations, and goes on to examine its implications for the issue of North‐South convergence. Concludes by pointing to the limitations of the analysis and to directions for developments.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1982

Neil Dias Karunaratne

Since the Second World War the Transnational Corporations (TNCs) have emerged as powerful engines of growth and development in the world economy. Much controversy…

Abstract

Since the Second World War the Transnational Corporations (TNCs) have emerged as powerful engines of growth and development in the world economy. Much controversy surrounds the issues of TNCs' benign and malign effects on the development aspirations of host developing countries (HDCs). The TNCs exert immense economic power over HDCs by virtue of their proprietary control over a package of ingredients much sought after by HDCs. This TNC package comprises capital, technology, managerial talent, marketing networks, information and know‐how. The TNCs carefully safeguard their ownership of this package by patents, licences, trade‐marks and a variety of other legal devices. The ownership of the package enables TNCs to extract monopoly rents from HDCs.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 9 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Kamil Omoteso and Hakeem Yusuf

The purpose of this paper is to contend that the dominant voluntarism approach to the accountability of transnational corporations (TNCs) is inadequate and not…

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15625

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contend that the dominant voluntarism approach to the accountability of transnational corporations (TNCs) is inadequate and not fit-for-purpose. The authors argue for the establishment of an international legal mechanism for securing the accountability of TNCs, particularly in the context of developing countries with notoriously weak governance mechanisms to protect all relevant stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts insights from the fields of management and international law to draw out synergies from particular understandings of corporate governance, corporate social responsibility and international human rights. The challenges to governance in developing countries with regard to securing the accountability of TNCs are illustrated with the Nigerian experience of oil-industry legislation reform.

Findings

The specific context of the experiences of developing countries in Africa on the operations of TNCs particularly commends the need and expedience to create an international legal regime for ensuring the accountability of TNCs.

Originality/value

Mainstream research in this area has focused mainly on self and voluntary models of regulation and accountability that have privileged the legal fiction of the corporate status of TNCs. This paper departs from that model to argue for an enforceable model of TNC’s accountability – based on an international mechanism.

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critical perspectives on international business, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Sheikh F. Rahman

This paper presents the results of a complex but challenging investigation into the global power play at the United Nations (UN) over the issue of international accounting…

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3469

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a complex but challenging investigation into the global power play at the United Nations (UN) over the issue of international accounting regulation. It specifically attempts to explain why the host developing nations of most transnational corporations (TNCs), despite controlling a significant majority vote at the UN and thus possessing the necessary “political” power, conspicuously failed to impose their accounting disclosure agenda on the TNCs and on the (minority) developed nations. The political concept of power is used in examining the accounting standard setting process at the UN, in the context of regulatory reforms of the TNCs. While alternative models of power are considered, Robert Dahl’s decision‐oriented pluralistic model was adopted in the study because it proved to be the most consistent with the events, objectives and the empirical data presented. The research findings indicate that organized pressures from the TNCs, co‐ordinated under the joint forum of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and the International Organisation of Employers (IOE), coupled with the economic and diplomatic manoeuvring of the developed market economy nations, had succeeded in overriding the rule of “one‐nation‐one‐vote” and securing a de facto veto over the majority view at the UN. The pioneering efforts of the UN in setting international reporting standards had been curbed and frustrated through the construction and use of such “veto” by the minority representation.

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Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1994

Wan Aziz Wan Abdullah

Explores the behaviour of transnational corporations (TNCs) in Malaysianmanufacturing firms in relation to employment absorption, human capitalformation and technological…

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2511

Abstract

Explores the behaviour of transnational corporations (TNCs) in Malaysian manufacturing firms in relation to employment absorption, human capital formation and technological change, based on a survey of 60 firms randomly selected within the major manufacturing establishments in Malaysia. Argues that TNCs exert an influence in promoting employment, training and innovation and adopt a much more proactive policy towards HRD than the local firms in Malaysia. However, their reluctance to participate and invest substantially in local R&D could result in a gradual reduction of technology flow and stifle the development of domestic innovative capacity. Policy measures are therefore required to induce TNCs to undertake greater R&D activities in Malaysia, and such measures should be conceived in the broader context of the indigenous technological development policy of the country.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2011

Alice de Jonge

This paper aims to highlight the disparity between the huge global influence and reach of transnational corporations, on the one hand, and the lack of international legal…

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5336

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight the disparity between the huge global influence and reach of transnational corporations, on the one hand, and the lack of international legal infrastructure for regulating TNC activity, on the other. Existing avenues for holding TNCs accountable for breaches of international standards are woefully inadequate. After rejecting the idea of subjecting TNCs to potential criminal liability, the paper then proposes a set of principles for international TNC responsibility modelled on the 2001 Draft Articles on State Responsibility. The potential future role of regional human rights courts and the International Labour Organisation in holding TNCs accountable is also explored.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of existing legal texts and secondary scholarship was undertaken to determine the existing coverage of the regulatory infrastructure for holding TNCs to account, and to identify gaps in that coverage.

Findings

Significant governance gaps in the existing institutional infrastructure were identified, creating a permissive environment within which blameworthy acts by TNCs may occur without adequate sanctioning or reparation. Potential regulatory and institutional avenues for filling these gaps were identified.

Research limitations/implications

The author lacks hands‐on experience of the political barriers which may exist and may make the proposed reforms unrealistic. Those in the field are encouraged to consider whether the proposed reforms are feasible/desirable.

Practical implications

The paper contains implications for the future of international law, the regional human rights courts and the International Labour Organisation.

Originality/value

The paper contains original proposals for the future evolution of international law in its application to TNCs.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2010

Emily F. Carasco and Jang B. Singh

The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of international efforts to hold transnational corporations (TNCs) responsible for human rights. It tracks the…

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1848

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of international efforts to hold transnational corporations (TNCs) responsible for human rights. It tracks the evolution of international conventions related to TNCs and human rights and assesses their effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes and analyzes efforts over the last four decades by the United Nations (UN), the Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development, the International Labour Organization and non‐governmental groups to provide guidelines and encourage TNCs to aspire to international standards in human rights.

Findings

The early attempts to regulate TNCs internationally lacked any form of the robust compulsion, systemic monitoring and effective enforcement mechanisms necessary to deal with the magnitude of the global investment arena. However, during the last decade, there has been explicit recognition on the part of the UN that action is necessary and the most recent convention emanating from the UN, the Norms, may evolve into a binding instrument on TNCs.

Originality/value

This paper, by mapping the development of global ethical conventions up to the UN Norms on the responsibilities for TNCs and other business enterprises with regards to human rights, informs corporate officers of the state of global discussions on this issue and lays the groundwork for further scholarly analysis of the Norms in the future.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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