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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2019

María Montenegro

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the underlying meanings, effects and cultural patterns of metadata standards, focusing on Dublin Core (DC), and explore the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the underlying meanings, effects and cultural patterns of metadata standards, focusing on Dublin Core (DC), and explore the ways in which anticolonial metadata tools can be applied to exercise and promote Indigenous data sovereignty.

Design/methodology/approach

Applying an anticolonial approach, this paper examines the assumptions underpinning the stated roles of two of DC’s metadata elements, rights and creator. Based on that examination, the paper considers the limitations of DC for appropriately documenting Indigenous traditional knowledge (TK). Introduction of the TK labels and their implementation are put forward as an alternative method to such limitations in metadata standards.

Findings

The analysis of the rights and creator elements revealed that DC’s universality and supposed neutrality threaten the rightful attribution, specificity and dynamism of TK, undermining Indigenous data sovereignty. The paper advocates for alternative descriptive methods grounded within tribal sovereignty values while recognizing the difficulties of dealing with issues of interoperability by means of metadata standards given potentially innate tendencies to customization within communities.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to directly examine the implications of DC’s rights and creator elements for documenting TK. The paper identifies ethical practices and culturally appropriate tools that unsettle the universality claims of metadata standards. By introducing the TK labels, the paper contributes to the efforts of Indigenous communities to regain control and ownership of their cultural and intellectual property.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 75 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

Howard T. Moncarz and Y. Tina Lee

Identifies a set of manufacturing data interfaces that could be standardized for the effective computer integration of the information required to operate an apparel…

Abstract

Identifies a set of manufacturing data interfaces that could be standardized for the effective computer integration of the information required to operate an apparel manufacturing enterprise. The interfaces are called Application Protocols. Describes a method using pieces of information, referred to as Units of Functionality, as building blocks for designing Application Protocols.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 5 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2008

Martin Plant

The adverse effects of alcohol consumption are massive. Alcohol is deemed to be the major factor in four per cent of the global burden of disease mortality (World Health…

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181

Abstract

The adverse effects of alcohol consumption are massive. Alcohol is deemed to be the major factor in four per cent of the global burden of disease mortality (World Health Organisation, 2004). It has been suggested that there are two quite separate approaches to alcohol control policies. These supposedly different approaches are called the ‘public health approach’ and ‘harm minimisation’ or ‘harm reduction’. In fact, while there has been a clear difference in emphasis between some expressions of these two approaches, so much of what their exponents advocate is the same that there would appear to be no merit in continuing to regard them as mutually exclusive or in conflict. The public health approach emphasises curbing the level of alcohol‐related problems by reducing the per capita alcohol consumption (eg. Bruun et al, 1975; Edwards et al, 1995; Babor et al, 2003). Harm minimisation or harm reduction is intended to reduce the level of alcohol's adverse effects without necessarily reducing per capita alcohol consumption (Plant et al, 1997).

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Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2018

Shannon Lucky and Craig Harkema

To describe how academic libraries can support digital humanities (DH) research by leveraging established library values and strengths to provide support for preservation…

Abstract

Purpose

To describe how academic libraries can support digital humanities (DH) research by leveraging established library values and strengths to provide support for preservation and access and physical and digital spaces for researchers and communities, specifically focused on cultural heritage collections.

Design/methodology/approach

The experiences of the authors in collaborating with DH scholars and community organizations is discussed with references to the literature. The paper suggests how research libraries can use existing expertise and infrastructure to support the development of digital cultural heritage collections and DH research.

Findings

Developing working collaborations with DH researchers and community organizations is a productive way to engage in impactful cultural heritage digital projects. It can aid resource allocation decisions to support active research, strategic goals, community needs and the development and preservation of unique, locally relevant collections. Libraries do not need to radically transform themselves to do this work, they have established strengths that can be effective in meeting the challenges of DH research.

Practical implications

Academic libraries should strategically direct the work they already excel at to support DH research and work with scholars and communities to build collections and infrastructure to support these initiatives.

Originality/value

The paper recommends practical approaches, supported by literature and local examples, that could be taken when building DH and community-engaged cultural heritage projects.

Details

Digital Library Perspectives, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5816

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Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2014

Tatyana Kleyn and Jan Valle

In an effort to better prepare pre-service candidates to work with all students and to respond to the current collaborative team teaching trend within New York City public…

Abstract

In an effort to better prepare pre-service candidates to work with all students and to respond to the current collaborative team teaching trend within New York City public schools, the authors who are professors of bilingual education and inclusive education/disability studies, respectively, combined their student teaching seminars in bilingual education and childhood education, in order to: (1) provide a model of co-teaching as well as an experience and perspective of being a student in a classroom with two teachers; (2) provide pre-service candidates with ongoing access to the expertise of two professors during their student teaching experience; (3) engage pre-service teachers in critical conversations about identifying and resisting deficit constructions of both emergent bilingual students and students with disabilities; (4) engage in a self-study of teaching practice within this collaborative context; (5) consider how well our respective programs currently prepare pre-service teachers. The Self-Study of Teacher Education Practices approach gleaned data from the co-instructors’ weekly reflective journals and student evaluations to reveal multiple benefits of a collaborative classroom context for pre-service teachers as well as the professors. These benefits included a rethinking of academic structures, spaces for interconnectedness across fields, and increased professor and student learning. The findings challenge teacher educators to consider whether or not a traditional approach to teacher preparation truly offers pre-service teachers the tools to serve diverse students. The authors call on schools of education to transgress traditional academic boundaries to adequately prepare pre-service teachers for the 21st century classroom.

Details

Research on Preparing Preservice Teachers to Work Effectively with Emergent Bilinguals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-265-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

Edmund Burke, the 18th century Irish orator said … ‘those who propose change should work hard to persuade a rational man that innovations or reforms would not end in…

Abstract

Edmund Burke, the 18th century Irish orator said … ‘those who propose change should work hard to persuade a rational man that innovations or reforms would not end in damage or absurdity’.

Details

Work Study, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Lesley Crane and Nick Bontis

The purpose of this viewpoint paper is to question the widely adopted tacit-explicit distinction of knowledge, arguing that this is based on a misappraisal of the original…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this viewpoint paper is to question the widely adopted tacit-explicit distinction of knowledge, arguing that this is based on a misappraisal of the original source of the “tacit” phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

It is argued that Michael Polanyi’s theory of personal knowledge and philosophical grounds have been misinterpreted. The tacit problem is approached from three different directions: knowledge management, cognitive psychology and discursive psychology. The first offers an imperative to regard the tacit as vital to organizational success and an underplayed “implicit” perspective on the tacit. The second offers empirical evidence for the formulation of the tacit as acquired automatically and unconsciously through implicit learning and as influencing action. The last offers a theory and methodology for studying what is argued as being the primary site of knowledge work – discourse.

Findings

A novel aspect of the tacit – “tacit knowing” – is shown to be action-orientated and influential, and while it is a hidden aspect of a person’s knowledge, it can be revealed through the study and analysis of discourse.

Originality/value

This is the first known paper in the extant literature to examine the tacit knowledge challenge from these combined directions. Implications for practice and study are discussed, and new directions for research proposed.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2019

Gabriel Ignacio Penagos-Londoño and Felipe Ruiz-Moreno

The purpose of this paper is to characterize the situation in the Spanish banking industry through the identification of strategic groups based on a set of variables.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterize the situation in the Spanish banking industry through the identification of strategic groups based on a set of variables.

Design/methodology/approach

To do so, the authors use a 13-year data set and a time inhomogeneous hidden Markov model (HMM) in which the time variable transition matrix captures institutions’ group switching behavior to identify these strategic groups. In fact, the authors consider a mixture model is the data generation process.

Findings

Two groups are identified. These groups are primarily characterized by size and other strategic variables. The probability of remaining in a group is generally high: 87.28 per cent for SG1 and 61.84 per cent for SG2. The probability of switching groups is low: 12.72 per cent probability of switching from SG1 to SG2 and 38.16 per cent probability of switching from SG2 to SG1. Banks in SG1 seem more stable over time; they have low levels of switching behavior and well-defined long-term behavior. Banks in SG2 seem to evolve in terms of group membership.

Originality/value

Using an inhomogeneous HMM with time-variable transition matrix, this paper allows for time-varying parameters in the distributions to analyze the evolution of strategic group membership in this industry to detect changes in group strategy, changes in membership and the stability of groups over time.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Abstract

Details

Legal Protection for Traditional Knowledge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-066-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

Charbel Farhat and Edward Wilson

Computational algorithms for finite element dynamic analysis of large‐scale structural problems that exploit both concurrent and parallel features of multiple instruction…

Abstract

Computational algorithms for finite element dynamic analysis of large‐scale structural problems that exploit both concurrent and parallel features of multiple instruction multiple data streams computers are presented. A new computer program architecture is used in which large finite element domains are automatically divided into subdomains. The number of subdomains generated is equal to the number of available processors. The spatial solution is obtained using a basis of orthogonal vectors. The temporal solution is computed exactly. Discussion is focused on the concurrent generation of global Ritz vectors. Examples run on a hypercube multiprocessor confirm the potential of the proposed scheme.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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