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Article

Tomi Oinas, Petri Ruuskanen, Mari Hakala and Timo Anttila

In this study, the authors examine whether social capital embedded in individuals' social networks is connected to employees' long-term income development in Finland.

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, the authors examine whether social capital embedded in individuals' social networks is connected to employees' long-term income development in Finland.

Design/methodology/approach

Analyses are based on 25–35-year-old employees from the Finnish Living Conditions Survey of 1994 combined with register data on earned incomes from 1995 to 2016. The authors used questions addressing the frequency of meeting parents or siblings, spending free time with co-workers and participation in associational, civic or other societal activities as measures of the extent of network capital. Ordered logistic model was used to examine whether the size and composition of social networks differ by gender and socio-economic status. Linear growth curve models were employed to estimate the effect of social capital on long-term income development.

Findings

Results indicate minor differences in network composition according to gender, but large differences between socio-economic groups. The authors found that income development was faster for those who participated in civic activities occasionally or who met their relatives or co-workers on a monthly basis, that is, for the “middle group”.

Research limitations/implications

Results are generalizable only to Finnish or Nordic welfare state context. The authors’ measures of social capital come from cross-sectional survey. Thus, the authors are not able to address the stability or accumulation of social capital during life course. This restriction will probably cause the authors’ analysis to underestimate the true effect of social capital on earned incomes.

Practical implications

Moderate-level investments to network capital seem to be the most beneficial with regard to the long-term income development.

Social implications

The study results give support to the idea that social capital can be transformed into economic capital. The results also imply that in economic terms it is important to balance diverse forms of social capital. At the policy level, a special emphasis should be directed to employees with low-socio-economic position. These people are especially vulnerable as their low level of income is combined with network composition that hinders their further income development.

Originality/value

The combined survey and register data give unique insight on how the social capital embedded in individuals' social networks is connected with long-term income development.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article

JOUKO NÄTTI and TIMO ANTTILA

This article examines experiments with shorter working hours in Finnish municipalities between 1996 and 1998. The article focuses on the effects of different working time…

Abstract

This article examines experiments with shorter working hours in Finnish municipalities between 1996 and 1998. The article focuses on the effects of different working time experiments on employees (work ability), on working units (quality of services) and substitutes recruited during the experiments. The results indicate that shorter working hours reduce job exhaustion, with respect to both 6‐hour shifts and other forms of reduced hours. The participants reported positive changes the quality and availability of services, especially in the case of 6‐hour shifts. In addition, during the experiment, new employees (substitutes) reported improved chances to obtain work in the future; after the experiment, however, only small a proportion of these employees were able to procure a new job. The analysis was based on three kinds of questionnaire data. First, in the three municipalities (Jyväskylä, Naantali and Espoo) — supported by the European Social Fund (ESF) — three‐phased panel data included 75 experimental and 42 control group participants. The second set of data was gathered in the other 14 municipalities implementing different working time experiments with a two‐phased questionnaire (panel data without control groups, n = 567). The third set of data included new employees (substitutes) recruited during the experiment in the three ESF municipalities and in Saarijärvi (n = 66).

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

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Article

Satu Ojala, Jouko Nätti and Timo Anttila

– The authors aim to compare how formal flexibility, such as telework, differs from informal overtime work at home regarding the work-family interface.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors aim to compare how formal flexibility, such as telework, differs from informal overtime work at home regarding the work-family interface.

Design/methodology/approach

By using data from the Finnish Quality of Work Life Surveys from 2003 and 2008, the positive and negative measures concerning the work-family interface are examined through logistic regression analysis.

Findings

Employees doing informal overtime at home are more likely to be affected by negative emotions concerning work disrupting family lives. Additionally, negotiations between couples over the allocation of time become areas of conflict. Only weak evidence is provided for both telework and informal work at home supporting family life.

Research limitations/implications

In studying homeworking, it is important to separate between formal and informal flexibility at work. The data exceptionally enable that. The limitations of the data are cross-sectionality and only a few measures for assessing the positive work-family interface.

Originality/value

The contribution of the study is to show how informal overtime at home is related with stronger negative implications for work-family interface, when separated from telework. The article discusses how well-intentioned working schedule flexibility results in family life being infringed upon. Informal work may help attain a better work-family interface, but, with dual-earner employment being predominant in Finland, informal overtime work can increase pressures on families. The authors encourage the policy- and organisation-level recognition of informal overtime risks.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 34 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article

Petri Ruuskanen, Kirsikka Selander and Timo Anttila

The purpose of this paper is to study the perceived job quality and job satisfaction among third-sector employees and compare job quality in the third, public and private…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the perceived job quality and job satisfaction among third-sector employees and compare job quality in the third, public and private sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on the quality of work life (QWL) survey data gathered by Statistics Finland. The QWL data are complemented with data set collected among third-sector employees. In the sector comparisons percentage shares were used to compare different dimensions of job quality between the sectors. Regression analysis was used to control the structural labour market differences between the sectors.

Findings

The results show that job quality in the third sector differs substantially from that in both the public and private sectors. Employees in the third sector are less satisfied with their jobs than others. They perceive their work more autonomous than others. Compared to private-sector employees, third-sector employees perceive their jobs as less insecure. They also report more intensity and qualitative insecurity than employees in other sectors.

Research limitations/implications

The sample consist only trade union members. The generalisability of results to non-unionized employees may be limited.

Originality/value

Previously it has been stated that third-sector employees enjoy greater job satisfaction due to intrinsic work benefits related to non-profit work. There is, however, small number of empirical studies trying to compare systematically job quality between the sectors. The present analysis contradicts the previous findings of higher job satisfaction in the third sector.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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Article

Sakari Taipale, Kirsikka Selander, Timo Anttila and Jouko Nätti

The purpose of this paper is to examine the level and predictors of work engagement among service sector employees in eight European countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the level and predictors of work engagement among service sector employees in eight European countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The work seeks to discover if job demands and resources, i.e. job autonomy and social support, affect work engagement in differing ways in different countries when socio‐demographical variables and work‐related factors are controlled. The study is based on a statistical analysis of survey data from Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and the UK in 2007 (n=7,867). The data represent four economic sectors: retail trade, finance and banking, telecoms and public hospitals.

Findings

The results show that the level of work engagement varies not only between countries but also between those four economic sectors within each country. Additionally, the findings indicate that demands decrease work engagement, while autonomy and support increase it. Although the effects are mainly the same across the countries, the article also points out some exceptions in this regard.

Originality/value

Although the paper is built upon established theories about job demands and autonomy, it uses a newer work engagement approach, produces cross‐national knowledge about work engagement and its predictors. Cross‐national approaches to work engagement are still rare.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 31 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Content available
Article

Timo Gossler, Ioanna Falagara Sigala, Tina Wakolbinger and Renate Buber

The purpose of this paper is to determine best practices of aid agencies for outsourcing logistics to commercial logistics service providers (LSPs) in disaster relief…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine best practices of aid agencies for outsourcing logistics to commercial logistics service providers (LSPs) in disaster relief. Moreover, it evaluates the application of the Delphi method for research in humanitarian logistics.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a two-round Delphi study with 31 experts from aid agencies and a complementary full-day focus group with 12 experts from aid agencies and LSPs.

Findings

The study revealed 12 best practices for outsourcing logistics in disaster relief and a compilation of more than 100 activities for putting these practices into action. Experts consider a proper balance between efficiency and compliance, a detailed contract and a detailed service request most important. Additionally, the Delphi method was found to be a promising technique for research on humanitarian logistics.

Research limitations/implications

By critically examining the Delphi method, this study establishes the basis for a wider application of the technique in the field of humanitarian logistics. Furthermore, it can help to prioritize future research as the ranking of practices reflects the priorities of practitioners.

Practical implications

The paper provides guidance to practitioners at aid agencies in charge of outsourcing logistics.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first in the field of humanitarian logistics to apply the Delphi method. Moreover, it addresses the lack of literature dealing with approaches for building successful cross-sectoral partnerships.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

Keywords

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Article

Timo Seppälä, Martin Kenney and Jyrki Ali-Yrkkö

The purpose of this paper is to integrate the issue of transfer pricing and logistics costs to understand trade statistics and the operation of supply chains by using…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate the issue of transfer pricing and logistics costs to understand trade statistics and the operation of supply chains by using invoice-level data for a single globally sourced product of a multinational firm.Supply chains are central to understanding wealth creation and capture in an increasingly globalized production system. The increasing disaggregation and dispersal of supply chains is profoundly affecting the geographical distribution of value added, input costs and profits of multinational firms. This suggests that understanding supply chains and where the activities and accounting for these activities take place is crucial for understanding the causes and consequences of contemporary globalization.

Design/methodology/approach

By using a case study of a single product and invoice-level data, it was possible to capture the actual costs incurred by a firm using a relatively simple global supply chain. The authors show how corporate intra-firm transfer pricing determines which business unit and location captures profits. A single firm provided the core data in this paper, including product- and firm-level information on intermediate product prices and input costs for all internal transfers.

Findings

This paper advances interesting insights into trade in value added and shows that, though not often considered significant, transfer pricing is a critical issue for understanding the geographical distribution of value added. The authors conclude with some observations about the nature of global supply chains, the value of international trade statistics and a hidden advantage of an integrated firm operating on a global scale the ability to somewhat arbitrarily select the activities to which profits should be allocated. For nation states, as supply chains become more international and complex, critical measures, such as gross domestic product, worker productivity, etc., are becoming ever more imprecise. The economic geography of cost of inputs and profits continue to separate as multinational enterprises drive the disaggregation of value creation and value capture.

Research limitations/implications

The case study facilitates an understanding of complex supply chain issues, thereby extending and deepening findings from previous research. This case study of transfer pricing in supply chains will assist other scholars in better formulating testable propositions for their studies and sensitize them to the internal complexities corporate managers face when making operationalizing decisions.

Originality/value

The case study suggests that understanding the configuration of and accounting in supply chains is vital for accurately measuring any national economic statistics. This case study provides some bottom-up evidence that national accounts and international trade economics undertaken without a deep understanding of supply chain organization is likely to generate misleading results. The methodology of using invoice-level data can provide a more granular understanding of how supply chains are organized and where the value is added and captured. For practitioners, the data suggest that firms should think very carefully about which of their activities generate the most value, and value those accordingly.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

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