Kuwait's banking system has experienced considerable difficulties in the past two decades due to financial and political shocks. In the aftermath of the Gulf War…
Kuwait's banking system has experienced considerable difficulties in the past two decades due to financial and political shocks. In the aftermath of the Gulf War, government financial support re‐established confidence in the financial system, allowing banks to restore their balance sheets and increase profitability starting in the mid 1990s. This paper examines the performance of banks in Kuwait during the period of financial renaissance, 1994–1997. We provide an empirical assessment of the efficiency, productivity, and technological progress of banks on the basis of the Data Evelopment Analysis and the Malmquist Index. The empirical results suggest that Kuwaiti banks fail to optimally utilize a significant proportion of their resources. The sources of bank inefficiency appear to be both allocative (regulatory) and technical (managerial) in nature. The results also indicate that smaller banks in Kuwait are more efficient than larger ones, although all banks have improved their efficiency‐levels and experienced some gains in productivity.
To vindicate whether or not there are signs of social and developmental role in the current practice of Islamic banking in Sudan, a criterion required by the rules guiding…
To vindicate whether or not there are signs of social and developmental role in the current practice of Islamic banking in Sudan, a criterion required by the rules guiding the Islamic circulation of money and investment.
The objective of the paper is to draw attention to this important, but neglected aspect of Islamic finance, by assessing some indicators of Islamic banking in Sudan such as: the geographical distribution of Islamic banks (ISBs), short vs long‐term investment, credit by modes of financing used, sectoral distribution of financing, role in poverty alleviation, harmonization of the Shari’aa rules with economic thinking to cope with today's modern and global world development constraints, and the developmental role of ISBs within globalization.
Many banking indicators in Sudan are signs of the weak size of the financial sector and financial liquidity, low confidence in the banking system, and low and poor credit performance. Banks are also characterized by unti‐developmental signs of regional inequality of distribution of branches, use of sales modes; uneven, short‐term and modern‐sector‐biased distribution of investment, high share of demand deposits and shortages of long‐term funds.
The developmental role of ISBs needs to entwine economic development with social development by gearing production priorities towards common needs, via specialized branches, partnership modes, short and long term investment plans. It also requires the renewal of fiqh in the course of Ijtihad to devise new rules, or to change rules in accordance with globalization, and harmonization of economic and fiqh thinking.
The analysis here is valuable in drawing attention to Islamic banking practitioners that the link between Islamic finance and development objectives (including social development) is still under trial, and some work needs to be undertaken despite the many years which have elapsed since the introduction of Islamic finance.
Since the early days of Cliometrics (the application of economic theory and quantitative methods to the study of economic history) in the 1960s, Jeffrey Williamson has…
Since the early days of Cliometrics (the application of economic theory and quantitative methods to the study of economic history) in the 1960s, Jeffrey Williamson has been one of its most active contributors and his output shows no immediate signs of letting up. Furthermore, he has continued throughout to employ the basic cliometric tools of applied economic theory and quantitative analysis. In contrast, Douglass North and Robert Fogel, recognized with the 1993 Nobel Prize in Economics for their contributions in founding the field of cliometrics, have gone subsequently in more interdisciplinary directions. North has increasingly emphasized the importance of institutions and cultural norms while also incorporating perspectives from cognitive science. Fogel has increasingly incorporated biological approaches in his work and indeed by his own admission has left the field of economic history for an interest in health economics and a field he terms bio-demography. Throughout his career, Williamson has had numerous students and collaborators of considerable distinction in their own right. And this festschrift in his honor incorporates the work of several generations of cliometricians and can thus be regarded as providing an overview of developments in cliometrics over the past 40 years as well as the current state of play in the field.
The paper investigates relative efficiency of the banking industry in Bahrain by employing a panel of 31 banks for the years 1998 and 2000. We employ non‐parametric (Data…
The paper investigates relative efficiency of the banking industry in Bahrain by employing a panel of 31 banks for the years 1998 and 2000. We employ non‐parametric (Data Envelopment Analysis) to examine five efficiency measures, namely, cost, allocative, technical, pure technical and scale efficiency scores. We also investigate the conventional accounting measures of performance, and correlate them with five measures of efficiency to investigate whether higher accounting performance impact the bank cost efficiency. Our results show that, on the average, the banking industry in Bahrain is profitable with average ROE and ROA being 10.36% 1.622% in 1998 while 13.49% and 2.097% in 2000 respectively. The average allocative efficiency (inefficiency) is about 73% (37%), whereas the average technical efficiency (inefficiency) is about 56% (78%). This indicates that the dominant source of inefficiency in Bahrain banks is due to technical inefficiency rather than allocative inefficiency, which is mainly attributed to diseconomies in scale. Overall, average scale efficiency (inefficiency) is about 79% (26%), and average pure technical efficiency (inefficiency) is about 71% (41%), suggesting that the major source of the total technical inefficiency for Bahrain banks is pure technical inefficiency (input related) and not scale inefficiency (output related). The results also indicate that all banks have improved their efficiency levels and experienced some gains in productivity. Finally, regression analysis is used to investigate the determinants of the overall efficiency scores. We find that larger and profitable banks are more likely to operate at a higher level of efficiency. Also, another finding reveals that market power plays an important role in cost and technical efficiencies. Notably, banks with greater contribution from shareholders tend to be more technical efficient