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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1982

Stahrl W. Edmunds

Ever since the days of Sir Thomas More and Robert Owen, people have been engaged in studying and predicting the future. Today's futurist has refined the art to such a high…

Abstract

Ever since the days of Sir Thomas More and Robert Owen, people have been engaged in studying and predicting the future. Today's futurist has refined the art to such a high degree that futures studies have important implications for business strategic planning.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Jeffery D. Houghton, T.W. Bonham, Christopher P. Neck and Kusum Singh

This study examined the relationship between self‐leadership and personality through an analysis and comparison of hierarchical factor structures. Structural equation…

8713

Abstract

This study examined the relationship between self‐leadership and personality through an analysis and comparison of hierarchical factor structures. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to examine several competing models combining the hierarchical factor structures of self‐leadership and personality. Model fit increased significantly through a progression of models that reflected increasingly greater distinction between self‐leadership skill dimensions and key personality traits. The best fitting model consisted of a hierarchical factor structure with three first‐order self‐leadership factors, three first‐order personality factors, and two correlated second‐order factors. Unexpectedly, the general second‐order factors of self‐leadership and personality were statistically indistinguishable. Nevertheless, these results seem to provide some initial evidence that self‐leadership dimensions are distinct from, yet related to, certain key personality traits. The implications of these results for future self‐leadership research and practice are discussed.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1998

Seleshi Sisaye

Contingency models have enabled researchers to develop system‐based decision‐making approaches to organizational studies. Two contingency decision‐making models ‐ rational…

2519

Abstract

Contingency models have enabled researchers to develop system‐based decision‐making approaches to organizational studies. Two contingency decision‐making models ‐ rational and political choice ‐ have been applied to identify those organizational characteristics and strategic leadership qualities associated with acquisitive growth through “absorption” and “diversification”. A study of the International Telephone and Telegraph Company (ITT) organizational growth strategies from 1920 to 1997 reveals that senior managers adopt the rational decision‐making model when organizational growth through acquisition involves absorption, and the political model when organizational growth calls for diversification. A contingency historical study of ITT demonstrates two important periods in ITT’s organizational life cycles ‐ one of growth (1920‐early 1970s) and one of consolidation/stability (from mid‐1970 to the present time). Contingency models indicate that differences in organizational growth strategies arise due to differences in environmental factors characterizing each period as organizations pass through several stages of growth in their life cycles.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1979

John T. Mentzer and Stephen C. Cosmas

The application of computer modelling and simulation to logistics networks has been quite common. The primary reason is that logistical systems possess inherent…

Abstract

The application of computer modelling and simulation to logistics networks has been quite common. The primary reason is that logistical systems possess inherent characteristics which are compatible to computer modelling and simulation. One such technique which provides modelling and simulation capabilities and has yet to be applied to logistical networks is GERT (Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique). This article discusses the application of GERT to the area of logistics. The first section presents a brief background on the applicability of computer simulation in logistics. The second section presents an overview of the GERT simulation model. The third section describes an application of the GERT model to a logistics problem. Finally, the fourth section discusses areas of potential research in logistics utilising GERT.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Materials Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0269-8218

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2008

Antonia Ruiz‐Moreno, Víctor J. García‐Morales and Francisco Javier Llorens‐Montes

The goal of this paper is to examine how firms employ slack resources to enhance the relationship between organizational climate and perceptions of support for innovation…

2676

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this paper is to examine how firms employ slack resources to enhance the relationship between organizational climate and perceptions of support for innovation to obtain sustainable competitive advantages.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the different contributions to the study of the relation between dimensions of the organizational climate, perceptions of support for innovation and organizational slack. Building on previous research, a series of hypotheses are formulated on the influence of the dimensions of organizational climate on perceptions of support for innovation and on how organizational slack moderates these relations. In contrast to earlier studies, the paper's work is based on managers' perceptions. A sample of 202 quality managers is then used to verify empirically the hypotheses which have been proposed. Finally, the main conclusions of the research are presented.

Findings

The results of the investigation reveal first, that the relation between the dimensions of organizational climate, perceptions of support for innovation and performance is moderated by organizational slack. Second, that a strong connection exists between the different dimensions of organizational climate. Finally, the results of the research also show that a strong connection exists between the different dimensions of organizational climate and perceptions of support for innovation.

Research limitations/implications

The conclusions of this study may be subject to several limitations that suggest further possibilities for empirical research. First, survey data based on self‐reports may be subject to social desirability bias. Second, the cross‐sectional nature of the research allows us to analyze only a specific situation in time of the organizations studied, not their overall conduct through time. Future research should place more emphasis on longitudinal studies.

Practical implications

This paper maintains that the relation between the different dimensions of organizational climate, perceptions of support for innovation and performance are determined and limited by the nature and variety of resources that the organization can bundle and apply to the maintenance and development of competitive advantages, according to the availability of organizational slack to be applied directly to organizational climate and perceptions of support for innovation.

Originality/value

The paper has provided evidence of how managers, depending on the presence or absence of slack, combine the dimensions of organizational climate differently to create the perception of support for innovation necessary to implement innovations, which in both cases means improvement in the organization's performance.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Yi‐Chia Chiu and Yi‐Ching Liaw

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to reconcile previous views of the relationship between organizational slack and performance by examining the influences of…

2749

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to reconcile previous views of the relationship between organizational slack and performance by examining the influences of heterogeneous corporate strategy and different slack resources. Differences in performance resulting from variations in slack can also be moderated by strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model was tested by examining operating and financial information from 529 Taiwan high‐tech companies during the period 1997‐2005. Owing to the study, data were both cross‐sectional (across firms) and time series (over years), a panel data approach were applied for hypothesis testing.

Findings

The results broadly demonstrate that relationships differ based on strategy and organizational slack. Additionally, this study is the first to empirically identify a U‐shaped relationship between slack and performance, indicating that, in certain circumstances, either more or less slack is better for performance.

Originality/value

The results support a dynamic perspective regarding the slack‐performance relationship was proposed for different strategy and different types of slack resources. Moreover, the authors argue that not only resource heterogeneity, but also firm strategic orientation, should be considered when performing change activities. Restated, the authors believe the best interest for a firm aspiring to conduct organizational change behaviors is to maintain the “fitness” among the environment, strategy orientation, and slack resources will induce higher performance. This study, thus demonstrates how organizational change behaviors are influenced by slack resources and strategy heterogeneity.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Giacomo Laffranchini and Mike Braun

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between available slack and firm performance in Italian family-controlled public firms (FCPFs) from 2006 to 2010…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between available slack and firm performance in Italian family-controlled public firms (FCPFs) from 2006 to 2010. In addition the authors analyze the moderating effects of specific board structure variables on the relationship between slack resources and firms’ performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A pooled cross-section of family and non-family publicly traded firms was drawn from COMPUSTAT global and matched with corporate governance and family firm variables hand-collected from companies’ standard profiles from Italy's primary stock exchange, Borsa Italiana. The hypotheses were tested using the feasible generalized least square method in order to analyze the data from 583 firms-observations, controlling for self-selection bias and reverse causality.

Findings

The study shows that FCPFs with available slack experience less than proportionate increases in performance, suggesting a concave curvilinear slack-performance relationship. However, the slack-performance relationship is contingent on board independence and board size: greater board independence and larger boards in FCPFs relate to higher performance when the firm lacks or has too much slack available. The findings suggest that a balanced approach of oversight and stewardship helps families to make better resources allocation, to the benefit of outside shareholders as well.

Research limitations/implications

The slack measure was restricted to available slack. Future studies can expand this research inquiry with other forms of slack, including potential and recoverable slack. The sample included only publicly traded family and non-family firms, thereby limiting the generalizability of the findings to other types of family enterprises. Lastly, the results only attend to the slack-performance relationship by controlling whether the firm's performance is below or above the industry average.

Practical implications

Policy makers and non-family stakeholders may rely on the findings better understand the factors that can alter the family's propensity for risks and its related strategic decisions in the Italian context. Procedures to fully monitor family management's decision making or, at the other extreme, to give the family free reign are likely to disadvantage families, their business, and their outside stakeholders.

Originality/value

The study reconciles the debate on the role of slack on firms’ performance by proposing a curvilinear relationship. The study is one of only a handful of research inquiries centrally addressing the role of slack in family-owned businesses, and the only analysis focussed on Italian FCPFs.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Luis Filipe Lages and David B. Montgomery

This paper argues that performance should be investigated as an independent variable. Using survey data of over 400 managers responsible for the main export ventures of…

7491

Abstract

This paper argues that performance should be investigated as an independent variable. Using survey data of over 400 managers responsible for the main export ventures of Portuguese SMEs (small and medium exporters), this paper shows that past performance plays a crucial role in building SMEs' commitment to exporting and to the determination of their current marketing strategy. Findings also show that marketing strategy adaptation to the foreign market is particularly noted in firms exporting to the most developed markets, rather than in firms exporting to the most competitive environments. Future international marketing research is encouraged to focus on understanding both the direct and indirect relationships among past performance, firm's commitment to exporting, and current marketing strategy under the influence of external forces. Such a focus has the potential to enrich the theory and generate relevant managerial and public policy implications.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 38 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

Said Elbanna and Rabia Naguib

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of two aspects of firm performance: financial and business performance and organizational effectiveness, on three…

4144

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of two aspects of firm performance: financial and business performance and organizational effectiveness, on three dimensions of the strategic decision‐making process, rationality, intuition, and political behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical study goes well beyond the common anecdotal observations or reflections on strategic decision‐making by utilizing a mixed‐methods approach. Based on a multi‐method field study, 286 Egyptian managers who participate in making strategic decisions are surveyed; and 36 semi‐structured interviews are conducted.

Findings

The results suggest that strategic decision‐making in high‐performing firms is more rational and less intuitive and political. Interestingly, they also show that organizational effectiveness is a stronger predictor of strategic decision‐making process dimensions than of financial and business performance.

Research limitations/implications

In Egypt, a widespread suspicion of academic research adds to the frequent difficulty of obtaining completed questionnaires from more than one senior manager in a company. Moreover, because of the difficulty of collecting objective financial data, subjective measures are used to gauge performance. Further research should test the generalizability of our results in narrowly defined samples, e.g. the banking industry or the automotive industry.

Practical implications

The results highlight the importance of performance in strategic decision making and seem to support the “culture free” argument advancing the position that cultural differences may not have a significant impact on the influence of performance on the strategic decision‐making process.

Originality/value

Although scholars have posited organizational performance as an important contextual variable influencing the process of strategic decision making, this influence is not well understood or articulated, especially in the Egyptian setting. This paper contributes to filling this gap.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 58 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Barbara Francioni, Fabio Musso and Marco Cioppi

The purpose of this paper is to explore how characteristics of decision-makers influence internationalization strategies within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)…

6203

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how characteristics of decision-makers influence internationalization strategies within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with a particular focus on the strategic decision-making process (SDMP).

Design/methodology/approach

This work is based on a sample of 165 decision-makers of SMEs, using hierarchical multiple regression to examine the relationship between the dimensions studied.

Findings

The results of a regression analysis suggest that decision-makers tend to follow a more rational SDMP depending on their education level and risk attitude, and the firm’s past international performance. At the same time, the political behaviour of the decision-maker emerges as a character associated with their risk attitude and need for achievement, and it is negatively influenced by age.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the growing literature on SMEs, combining the field of analysis of SDMP with that of international strategy. Moreover, unlike previous studies, which have focused on the top management team, managers, CEOs, or entrepreneurs, this study analyses the characteristics and behaviour of decision-makers.

1 – 10 of 158