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1 – 10 of 873
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1990

T.T. Hitch

The paper describes two well‐known and occasionally confused mechanisms for degradation of electronic circuitry. Intended as a tutorial for individuals working in electronic…

Abstract

The paper describes two well‐known and occasionally confused mechanisms for degradation of electronic circuitry. Intended as a tutorial for individuals working in electronic packaging who have limited background in materials and little experience with these mechanisms, the paper defines and describes the two latent shorting phenomena. Major papers and conferences dealing with the phenomena are cited. Electrolytic or electrochemical shorting is an electrical field‐induced mechanism that can destroy the integrity of modern, densely packed circuits operated in the presence of moisture and ionic contaminants. Examples of copper migration to form electroplated shorts in both thick film hybrid multilayer and printed circuit multilayer boards are discussed, and common features to both systems are outlined. Related mechanisms that may occur with the simple electrochemical (metal plating) mechanisms to produce a broad array of electrical isolation breakdowns are also described. The closing of this part of the paper is a brief review of the Sarnoff‐developed RCA/GE multilayer copper materials system. By design this system solves the problems raised regarding thick film copper multilayer latent failure mechanisms. The discussion of whisker growth is limited to proper whiskers, including those that grow without the application of external stress, squeeze whiskers, and whiskers that result from classic electromigration. All of these grow from solid sources in contact with the whisker. The whisker growth direction is not electrical field related. Identification is made of Sn, Cd, Sb and Zn as the materials classically found to grow whiskers at room temperature. Avoiding the use of electroplated films of Cd, Sb and Zn in close proximity to electronic circuitry is encouraged, and the modern requirements that Sn films be used only after melting, or be alloyed with lead, and not on brass substrates are discussed. In more recent literature indium alloys have been identified as room temperature whisker growth systems. Finally, mechanical design to eliminate squeeze whisker shorting that can result from fasteners in contact with the above and other metals is briefly treated.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Abstract

Details

Strategies for Facilitating Inclusive Campuses in Higher Education: International Perspectives on Equity and Inclusion
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-065-9

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1901

MRS. — receives neither honourable nor other mention in annual reports, yet she cannot be unknown to every librarian. The assistant at the issue desk could probably give a very…

Abstract

MRS. — receives neither honourable nor other mention in annual reports, yet she cannot be unknown to every librarian. The assistant at the issue desk could probably give a very interesting account of her habits and instincts, of which he must perforce make a daily study. In a temple of literature issuing 100,000 volumes annually there will probably be twenty of her class, and each morning ten at least of “the old familiar faces” may be seen, apparently worshipping mystic, symbolic figures for awhile, and then offering and receiving gifts from the messenger of their goddess. From remarks passed by these devotees, we gather that they worship not Truth, but Fiction. Their saints are Miss Braddon, Mrs. Wood, Marie Corelli, and others. Many of their saints' good works are “not in,” “read long ago,” &c. Mrs. —'s reading may produce no apparent effect upon herself, but it has such an influence upon the tabulated results of Public Library work that it is worth while giving the matter some attention. It is most unfortunate that those judging the influence of a Public Library upon a community should rely solely upon the statistics usually given in annual reports. Pro and con may take the same statistics, and by most flawless logic each will prove the arguments of the other to be absurd, and in many cases it is done quite conscientiously; the conclusion arrived at quite depending upon the point of view. In this library issuing 100,000 volumes a year the percentage of fiction is, let us say, 60. Mrs. — comes at least every other day for a novel, and, as we may safely multiply Mrs. — by 20, we find she borrows 3,000 novels a year, or 3 per cent. Then, again, we never consider the many novels taken away and brought back next day because they were “not nice.” If there are 20 daily, we would now gladden the heart of the librarian by showing the percentage of fiction borrowed from his library to be 51, instead of 60. Should the issue in the class containing magazines and reviews be counted with fiction or not, certainly a large assortment of attractive magazines falsifies the record if not placed amongst fiction. Think of a classification which places in the same column—as is very frequent—the Strand Magazine and Mathew Arnold's “Essays”! Juvenile literature is surely fiction, and yet many reports totally ignore this fact, although it often amounts to 25 per cent. of the issues. For example, I find in the thirtieth Annual Report of the Borough of Tynemouth that the issue of fiction is 53 per cent. of a total issue of 85,625; but, if we take into account the 16,121 juvenile literature and 15,531 magazines and reviews, we will find the percentage of Fiction to have jumped up to 90 !

Details

New Library World, vol. 3 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2007

Ann Rippin

The purpose of this paper is to re‐examine a celebrity CEO account using a variety of literary forms to uncover discourses of colonisation. Focuses on the probanza de mérito and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to re‐examine a celebrity CEO account using a variety of literary forms to uncover discourses of colonisation. Focuses on the probanza de mérito and the wonder tale or traveller's tale. Ideas of Non‐Place (Augé) and spatial practices (Lefebvre) conclude the analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

A close reading of the account of the building of the Starbucks retail empire, given in the CEO account: Pour Your Heart into It: How Starbucks Built a Company One Cup at a Time against the text, gives insights into the strategy and internal logic of the company founder which might otherwise be missed.

Findings

The account reveals the nature of the published account of the growth of the company as analogous to many of the accounts of the colonisation of the new world. The analysis of spatial practices at the company is used to explain some of the most successful resistance to its expansion.

Originality/value

Uses a wide range of theory to unpack celebrity success narrative and reveal counter‐narrative of practice.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Timur Sinuraya

The Russian Government is not only corrupt — it is a thief which steals money from its own citizens by imposing taxes, hard currency regulations and custom duties. Therefore the…

Abstract

The Russian Government is not only corrupt — it is a thief which steals money from its own citizens by imposing taxes, hard currency regulations and custom duties. Therefore the money which is made in Russia should be moved to safe places abroad. This is the, rather simplified, reasoning of the economic criminal, yet it carries some very serious consequences. The phenomenon of illegal capital flight was probably one of the major factors of the current economic crisis in Russia. Russian experts point out that the main flow of illegal capital from Russia is channelled through the so‐called offshore companies and accounts. This paper will look at the legality of business practices relating to the increase in off‐shore assets by Russian investors in regard to the major problem of government revenue collection in Russia.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1985

Marc Monneraye, Panizza, Brian Waterfield, John Knowles and P.L. Bainbridge

A month or so after the Stresa meeting, the French ISHM chapter, organising a session on ‘Gallic inks’ (!), summoned me to deliver some comments on the 5th European Hybrid…

Abstract

A month or so after the Stresa meeting, the French ISHM chapter, organising a session on ‘Gallic inks’ (!), summoned me to deliver some comments on the 5th European Hybrid Microelectronics Conference. Although it was only a matter of interlude during this technical session, I felt the task quite a difficult one. It became a hazardous project when Brian C. Waterfield kindly asked me to let what is in fact a personal opinion—my personal opinion, standing back from my daily work—appear in Hybrid Circuits. I'll do my best.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1929

H.V. MORTON

MONTHS ago I met the editor of this journal in Melrose, Scotland, where, sharing a meal of bread and cheese, I promised to do a thing which I have consistently declined to do for…

Abstract

MONTHS ago I met the editor of this journal in Melrose, Scotland, where, sharing a meal of bread and cheese, I promised to do a thing which I have consistently declined to do for years—write an article on books for the traveller.

Details

Library Review, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Content available

Abstract

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

Article
Publication date: 23 January 2024

Vincenzo Fasone, Giulio Pedrini and Raffaele Scuderi

The paper aims at assessing the role of the different stages of the employment process in gauging workers' willingness to upskill themselves at the end of a seasonal employment…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims at assessing the role of the different stages of the employment process in gauging workers' willingness to upskill themselves at the end of a seasonal employment contract by investing in further training.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses data from a dedicated survey administered to a sample of seasonal employees. Through a regression analysis it explores the different stages of the employment process (job search, selection on the job activities), making a distinction between monetary and nonmonetary components of the investment in training.

Findings

Results show that all stages matter, but they do not have the same importance. Ex-ante motivations and work experience, notably the level of perceived workload and organizational commitment, are the main factors affecting workers' willingness to acquire industry-specific skills through training.

Originality/value

So far, the literature has extensively dealt with the poor levels of training in seasonal employers, but it did not analyse worker’s willingness to invest in training over the different stages of the worker experience. This paper fills this gap by separately testing the relative importance of such stages and identifying the most important phases of the employment process.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2019

Jozef Čerňan, Karol Semrád, Katarína Draganová and Miroslava Cúttová

The purpose of this study is to improve life prediction of certain components. Fatigue of the high-stressed structural elements is an essential parameter that affects the lifetime…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to improve life prediction of certain components. Fatigue of the high-stressed structural elements is an essential parameter that affects the lifetime of such components. In particular, aviation engines are devices whose failure due to fatigue failure of one of the important components can lead to fatal consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, two analyses in the turbine disk of the jet engine during the simulated operating load were performed: The first one was the analysis of the heat-induced stresses using the finite element method. The goal of the second analysis was to determine the residual fatigue strength of a loaded disk by the software tool using the Palmgren - Miner Linear Damage Theory.

Findings

The results showed a high degree of similarity with the real tests performed on the aircraft engine and revealed the weak points in the design of the jet engine.

Research limitations/implications

It should be mentioned that without appropriate experiments, results of this analysis could not be verified.

Practical implications

These results are helpful in the re-designing of the jet engines to increase their technical feasibility.

Originality/value

Such analysis has been realized in the DV-2 jet engine research and development program for the first time in the history of jet engine manufacturing process in Slovakia and countries of Eastern Europe region.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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