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IT is indeed an honour to appear before you to address you on the subject “American Methods of Aircraft Production.” We in America have long held the Royal Aeronautical Society in high regard, amply justified by the excellence of its published papers and the example it has set in organisation and in the conducting of an aeronautical society. Indeed, a few years ago when several of us in America decided that we, too, should have an aeronautical society, we planned our own organisation very largely on yours. We are very much pleased that the relationship which has existed between your Society and the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences in America throughout the brief career of the latter has been so close and friendly and I can assure you that we intend to do everything possible on our part to continue this highly desirable condition.
For decades, since at least the famous Hawthorne studies, the happy/productive worker thesis has forcefully captured the imagination of management scholars and human…
For decades, since at least the famous Hawthorne studies, the happy/productive worker thesis has forcefully captured the imagination of management scholars and human resource professionals alike. According to this “Holy Grail” of management research, workers who are happy on the job will have higher job performance, and possibly higher job retention, than those who are less happy. But what is happiness? Most typically, happiness has been measured in the management sciences as jobsatisfaction. This viewpoint is unnecessarily limiting. Building upon alittle remembered body of research from the 1920s, we suggest a twofold, expanded view of this thesis. First, we suggest the consideration of worker happiness as psychological well-being (PWB). Second, incorporating Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build model ofpositive emotions as the theoretical base, we suggest that the job satisfaction to job performance and job satisfaction to employee retentionrelationships may be better explained by controlling for the moderating effect of PWB. Future research directions for human resource professionals are introduced.
THE seventh annual meeting of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences had a somewhat different character from previous meetings, with greater emphasis on the…
THE seventh annual meeting of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences had a somewhat different character from previous meetings, with greater emphasis on the instrumentation, meteorology and other problems of air transport technique and less emphasis on the more advanced phases of aerodynamics and structures. It is impossible to say whether this was accidental or the result of the fact that owing to extreme pressure on the research departments of the government and of the industry, and owing to the feeling that greater secrecy must be observed in view of the international situation, less of the really advanced research was disclosed. At any rate Mr. T. P. Wright, the retiring President of the Institute struck the key‐note of the meeting in an address in which he warned the United States that they were perhaps lagging in research behind European countries, who under threats of war were making feverish advances. “A few years ago,” Mr. Wright said, “the United States was well in the lead in research, development and production of aircraft,” a fact attested to by all who had the opportunity of visiting European countries at that time and of witnessing the scope of developments there. Little could be learned from abroad at that time. Recently, however, visitors abroad have witnessed a great change. Many huge aeronautical laboratories have been established and are occupied in intensive research investigations. Experimental development has likewise progressed. It is definitely established that the relative position of this country is reversed from 1934. We believe, however, that the situation is fully realized by governmental authorities and that American research will not lose its position in the van so readily.
The purpose of this paper is to study the prevalence of human learning in the order picking process in an experimental study. Further, it aims to compare alternative…
The purpose of this paper is to study the prevalence of human learning in the order picking process in an experimental study. Further, it aims to compare alternative learning curves from the literature and to assess which learning curves are most suitable to describe learning in order picking.
An experimental study was conducted at a manufacturer of household products. Empirical data was collected in the order picking process, and six learning curves were fitted to the data in a regression analysis.
It is shown that learning occurs in order picking, and that the learning curves of Wright, De Jong and Dar‐El et al. and the three‐parameter hyperbolic model are suitable to approximate the learning effect. The Stanford B model and the time constant model led to unrealistic results.
The results imply that human learning should be considered in planning the order picking process, for example in designing the layout of the warehouse or in setting up work schedules.
The paper is the first to study learning effects in order picking systems, and one of the few papers that use empirical data from an industrial application to study learning effects.
THE eleventh annual meeting of the Institute was for the first time held simultaneously in three centres—in New York City at Columbia University, in Detroit at Rackham Educational Memorial, and in Los Angeles at the University of Southern California—from January 25 to 29. The purpose of the three simultaneous meetings was to minimize travel by executives and engineers from important war jobs in the present emergency. The same programme was offered at all three centres, papers being sometimes presented by proxies—experts in the same field as far as possible. In spite of the fact that attendance was divided between three centres, there was splendid representation at each place and a wide range of subjects was covered in the many papers. Naturally these were restricted more to analysis, and technology and information as to the latest design or production features of current aircraft or engines was withheld. The same ban applied to striking developments in accessories, instruments and armaments. All papers had to be approved by the Army or Navy and to be read substantially as written. While off‐the‐record discussions were permitted, these discussions were not made public. In particular there was a ban on comparisons between foreign and American materials, equipment or methods. The formula for control of comparison performance stated that the manufacturer's smooth curve calibrations and performance figures might be quoted, but no Wright field performance figures or data could be revealed. In spite of such restrictions a tremendous amount of valuable technical information was presented to the assembled engineers.
This study aims to explore social media capabilities for recruitment in the context of SMEs from the recruiters’ perspective. The conceptual framework is based on a…
This study aims to explore social media capabilities for recruitment in the context of SMEs from the recruiters’ perspective. The conceptual framework is based on a perspective of the RBV that aims to concentrate specifically on the development of IT capabilities in the use of social media for recruitment purposes. In doing so, this study focuses on the following research questions: How do SMEs use social media for recruitment and what are their particularities? What are the capabilities needed to take advantage of social media for recruitment in SMEs? Have these social media capabilities been developed in SMEs? To answer these questions and build an emergent theory about these specific challenges of the digital era, we conducted an interpretive multiple case study in three Canadian SMEs using social media in their HR practices for at least three years.
It was found that there are four main patterns that explain the use of social media for recruitment in SMEs. First, social media is not the first choice when it comes to choosing a recruitment tool. Second, the use of social media for recruitment is not a structured activity. Third, recruiters use social media the same way they do in their own life. Finally, marketing people are often involved in recruitment practices on social media. These patterns stem from the fact that SMEs have shortcomings in their social media capabilities in general and more specifically in recruitment where gaps exist in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to explore the use of social media for recruitment and to propose an integrated framework to evaluate social media capabilities. Through the identification and the discussion of a series of practices concerning e-HRM, our results are also helpful in a digital context where SMEs are struggling to keep up with the pace of adoption and use of IT in general.
This article reviews the extensive history of dynamic performance research, with the goal of providing a clear picture of where the field has been, where it is now, and…
This article reviews the extensive history of dynamic performance research, with the goal of providing a clear picture of where the field has been, where it is now, and where it needs to go. Past research has established that job performance does indeed change, but the implications of this dynamism and the predictability of performance trends remain unresolved. Theories are available to help explain dynamic performance, and although far from providing an unambiguous understanding of the phenomenon, they offer direction for future theoretical development. Dynamic performance research does suffer from a number of methodological difficulties, but new techniques have emerged that present even more opportunities to advance knowledge in this area. From this review, I propose research questions to bridge the theoretical and methodological gaps of this area. Answering these questions can advance both research involving job performance prediction and our understanding of the effects of human resource interventions.
This study aims to explore the relationship between IT and HRM in the context of manufacturing SMEs, more specifically the relationship between strategic HRM and e-HRM as…
This study aims to explore the relationship between IT and HRM in the context of manufacturing SMEs, more specifically the relationship between strategic HRM and e-HRM as well as the performance effects of this relationship. The conceptual framework is founded upon the resource-based view (RBV), specifically upon the strategic HRM and e-HRM capabilities of SMEs and upon the strategic alignment of these capabilities in the form of capability configurations or “gestalts.”
To answer the research questions, a questionnaire was constructed and mailed to 1854 manufacturing SMEs in the province of Quebec, Canada, producing 216 valid responses that were used for statistical analysis purposes. Capability configurations were identified through a cluster analysis of the e-HRM and strategic HRM capabilities developed by these firms.
Using structural equation modeling to validate the research model, a causal analysis confirmed a positive influence of the sampled SMEs’ strategic orientation upon their development of strategic HRM capabilities. More importantly, a higher level of alignment between the SMEs’ strategic HRM and e-HRM capabilities was associated to a higher level of strategic HRM performance.
To our knowledge, ours is the first study to show interest in the effect of the strategic alignment of HRM and IT capabilities upon HRM performance, by adopting a configurational perspective and considering organizational IT from a functional point of view. Given the specific context of SMEs, the focus was on e-HRM capabilities related to the IT infrastructure of these organizations and the IT competencies of individuals related to HRM.
IN the 1940 Wilbur Wright memorial lecture on the future of British Civil Aviation Dr. Roxbec Cox has stated that the study of passenger convenience leads to consideration…
IN the 1940 Wilbur Wright memorial lecture on the future of British Civil Aviation Dr. Roxbec Cox has stated that the study of passenger convenience leads to consideration of over weather flying and that the study of improvements in safety leads to consideration of flutter prevention. He has stated also that all aviation authorities recognize the danger of flutter and warns that the chief danger to be guarded against in the future is a sense of security. It has, therefore, been thought worth while to examine the effect on wing flutter speed of flying at great heights. The effects have already been briefly considered by Williams, Pugsley and Duncan in this country and by Kassner and Fingado in Germany.