Search results

1 – 10 of 43
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

T.N. Fagbemi

The purpose of this paper is to provide information on how processing technique affects some of the nutrient in cashew nut. It aims to guide processors of the nut on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide information on how processing technique affects some of the nutrient in cashew nut. It aims to guide processors of the nut on the processing techniques that can retain or minimize losses of nutrients during processing.

Design/methodology/approach

Cashew nuts were obtained from commodity support service that procure cashew for export. Standard methods and techniques of processing (boiling, fermentation, germination, roasting) were employed. Standard Association of Official Analytical Chemist methods were used for analysis.

Findings

Cashew nut is low in deleterious elements and processing methods (boiling and fermentation) techniques reduced them. The energy values ranged from 25‐27.38 kJ/g. The nut contains micro‐ and macronutritive elements that can effectively supplement daily requirement of man especially potassium. Processing reduced some of the essential mineral elements. Cashew nut may be used to improve low protein diet.

Research limitations/implications

Processing was carried out using locally available materials. Fermentation was not controlled.

Practical implications

Cashew nut can be included in low protein diet, it can improve mineral intake and deleterious elements pose no threat to its consumption.

Originality/value

The paper provides information on processing effect on cashew nuts which had not been reported in literature, hence, provides data base information.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Timilehin David Oluwajuyitan, Oluwole Steve Ijarotimi and Tayo Nathaniel Fagbemi

This study was aimed to develop and evaluate nutritional efficacy and bio-efficacy of food products from plantain, soycake, rice-bran and oat-bran flour.

Abstract

Purpose

This study was aimed to develop and evaluate nutritional efficacy and bio-efficacy of food products from plantain, soycake, rice-bran and oat-bran flour.

Design/methodology/approach

The flour samples were blended as follows: plantain 70% and soycake 30% (PS); plantain 65%, soycake 30% and rice bran 5% (PSR); plantain 65%, soycake 30% and oat bran 5% (PSO); and plantain 60%, soycake 30%, rice bran 5% and oat bran 5% (PSRO). Antioxidant and nutritional properties of the blended foods and controls (100% plantain and Cerolina) were determined.

Findings

Protein (16.2–19.4 g/100g) and biological values (98.5–99.3%) of the food samples were significantly (p = 0.03) higher than 100% plantain (5 g/100g, 31.6%) and Cerolina (17.9 g/100g, 98.3%). Pack cell volume (36.2–42%), serum protein (7.3–9.3 mg/dL), urea/creatinine (1.1–2.8) and aspartate-aminotransferase/alanine-aminotransferase ratio (0.9–1) of the foods were significantly (p = 0.03, 0.01, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively) higher than 100% plantain (28%, 1.6 mg/dL, 4.6 and 0.8) and Cerolina (46%, 4.9 mg/dL, 3 and 0.73). In vivo antioxidant activity of the food samples decreased from PSRO to PSO, PSR and PS, respectively and were higher than control samples. Nutritional performance of formulated foods in rats was similar to that of Cerolina, but higher than in 100% plantain. Cerolina and 100% plantain were rated higher in overall acceptability than formulated foods; however, PSO was most preferred followed by PSRO for the formulated foods.

Originality/value

The study established that PSRO was rated best in terms of nutrition, growth performance and antioxidant activities. Hence, this food may be suitable as functional food to prevent malnutrition and oxidative stress.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Veronica Obatolu and Sidi M. Osho

The study aims to investigate the potential of green immature soybean among Nigeria soybean varieties as human food.

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate the potential of green immature soybean among Nigeria soybean varieties as human food.

Design/methodology/approach

Five Nigeria soybean varieties were harvested at 90 days old. The fresh green immature soybean seed were evaluated for chemical composition, physical and sensory characteristics. The physical characteristics looked into seed size (breadth and length), weight, seed colour, hull thickness and percentage of hydration. The chemical composition was compared to mature soybean seeds while the sensory attributes were compared to fresh green peas.

Findings

The raw mature soybean (RMS) was significantly higher and lower in chemical composition and anti‐nutritional factors respectively. The highest moisture content ranges from 62.8 per cent in TGX 1019‐2EB to 65.4 per cent in TGX 1485‐1D. The protein content (15.3 per cent) was highest in TGX1485‐1D and lowest value in TGX1448‐2E. The level of tannin was significantly higher in TGX1448‐2E and 923‐2E while trypsin inhibitor was significantly (p<0.05) higher in TGX1440‐1E and TGX1485‐1D. TGX1485‐1D had superior physical characteristics to other immature varieties with significant (p<0.05) higher value for breadth, length and height. The hull thickness of the seeds was within 0.01 to 0.05 and the percentage of hydration ranges within 5.5 to 6.8 per cent. All varieties had a green colour for the seed coat. Overall sensory acceptability of TGX TGX1440‐1E, 1485‐1D and 1019‐2EB compared favourably well with green peas used as control for sensory evaluation.

Originality/value

This study could help to identify the potential of some Nigerian soybean cultivars for production for use as a source of vegetable in the diet and also provided valuable information for further improvement of soybean for food uses.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

O.S. Ijarotimi and F. Ashipa

The objectives of this study are to develop low cost weaning food for the economically disadvantaged nursing mothers and also to prevent protein energy malnutrition among…

Abstract

Purpose

The objectives of this study are to develop low cost weaning food for the economically disadvantaged nursing mothers and also to prevent protein energy malnutrition among the infants in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The blends (sweet potato and soybean flour) were prepared (homogenously) in the ratio of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 of sweet potato and soybean respectively. Triplicate samples of each blend were analyzed for moisture, fat, protein (N × 6.25), crude fiber and ash. Total lipid was estimated by petroleum ether extraction. Carbohydrate content was estimated by difference. Gross energy was determined. Water absorption capacity and bulk density were determined using standard procedures. The pasting characteristics of the flours were evaluated using a standard procedure. The sensory evaluation was carried out on the following parameters: taste, appearance, aroma, mouth (texture), colour and overall acceptability by a panel of ten members using a nine‐point hedonic scale.

Findings

The results of nutritional composition of the supplements showed protein 11.2–33.72 per cent, carbohydrates 42.91–76.51 per cent, fat 3.10–12.78 per cent, energy values 329.5–366.74 kcal/100 g and appreciable quantities of P, Zn, Fe, Mg, Ca, K and Na. The soy‐sweet potato flours had peak viscosity values between 180–365 BU. These values increased when cooled to 50°C, (420–760 BU). Results of this study showed that at 30 per cent soy flour supplementation, the meal could meet satisfactorily the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for children of 1–3 years old, and that the developed soy‐sweet potato diets were nutritious, inexpensive and can easily be prepared from locally available raw food materials by using simple domestic processing techniques.

Originality/value

Evidence has shown that the cost of commercial weaning formula is very high and most of the low‐income family cannot afford to purchase this commercial weaning food and for such people an alternative low cost weaning formula is helpful.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Mofetoluwa Fagbemi, Mario G. Perhinschi and Ghassan Al-Sinbol

The purpose of this paper is to develop and implement a general sensor model under normal and abnormal operational conditions including nine functional categories (FCs) to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and implement a general sensor model under normal and abnormal operational conditions including nine functional categories (FCs) to provide additional tools for the design, testing and evaluation of unmanned aerial systems within the West Virginia University unmanned air systems (UAS) simulation environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The characteristics under normal and abnormal operation of various types of sensors typically used for UAS control are classified within nine FCs. A general and comprehensive framework for sensor modeling is defined as a sequential alteration of the exact value of the measurand corresponding to each FC. Simple mathematical and logical algorithms are used in this process. Each FC is characterized by several parameters, which may be maintained constant or may vary during simulation. The user has maximum flexibility in selecting values for the parameters within and outside sensor design ranges. These values can be set to change at pre-defined moments, such that permanent and intermittent scenarios can be simulated. Sensor outputs are integrated with the autonomous flight simulation allowing for evaluation and analysis of control laws.

Findings

The developed sensor model can provide the desirable levels of realism necessary for assessing UAS behavior and dynamic response under sensor failure conditions, as well as evaluating the performance of autonomous flight control laws.

Research limitations/implications

Due to its generality and flexibility, the proposed sensor model allows detailed insight into the dynamic implications of sensor functionality on the performance of control algorithms. It may open new directions for investigating the synergistic interactions between sensors and control systems and lead to improvements in both areas.

Practical implications

The implementation of the proposed sensor model provides a valuable and flexible simulation tool that can support system design for safety purposes. Specifically, it can address directly the analysis and design of fault tolerant flight control laws for autonomous UASs. The proposed model can be easily customized to be used for different complex dynamic systems.

Originality/value

In this paper, information on sensor functionality is fused and organized to develop a general and comprehensive framework for sensor modeling at normal and abnormal operational conditions. The implementation of the proposed approach enhances significantly the capability of the UAS simulation environment to address important issues related to the design of control laws with high performance and desirable robustness for safety purposes.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Fisayo Fagbemi and Opeoluwa Adeniyi Adeosun

The main goal of the study is to explore the long run relationship between public debt and domestic investment in West Africa. Essentially, a study of this nature is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The main goal of the study is to explore the long run relationship between public debt and domestic investment in West Africa. Essentially, a study of this nature is to proffer major inroads into addressing low investment levels plaguing the region and securing critical fiscal policy measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines the long-run relationship between public debt and domestic investment in 13 West African countries between 1986 and 2018 with the use of Panel Dynamic Least Squares (DOLS) and Panel Fully Modified Least Squares (FMOLS), and causality test based on Toda and Yamamoto.

Findings

Public debt (% of GDP) and external debt stocks have an insignificant effect on domestic investment in the long run, suggesting the negligible effect of public debt on the level of investments in the region. Further evidence shows that domestic investment Granger causes public debt indicators, implying that there is unidirectional causality. This suggests that any investment-generation policy could engender a rise in public borrowing, although such public loans might not be effective when there is pervasive mismanagement of public funds, as public debts need to be well managed for ensuring improved investment.

Research limitations/implications

The study suggests that maintaining a strong and effective debt-investment nexus requires fiscal consolidation efforts across countries, as such could lead to enhanced institutional capacity and sustainable investment-generation policy.

Originality/value

Since panel regression techniques used by the previous studies (Fixed and Random effects) could be susceptible to possible statistical errors due to endogeneity issue and might not be well suited for explaining long-run effect or capturing the part of investment sustainability, their conclusions could be misleading and remain untenable in West Africa' s context. Hence, the study adopts techniques (DOLS and FMOLS) which could account for endogeneity issue and provide better elucidations for long-term effects.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Opeoluwa Adeniyi Adeosun, Monica Adele Orisadare, Fisayo Fagbemi and Sikiru Adetona Adedokun

This study explores the asymmetric linkage between public investment and private sector performance in Nigeria. This is due to the presence of nonlinear structures in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the asymmetric linkage between public investment and private sector performance in Nigeria. This is due to the presence of nonlinear structures in the behavior of domestic investment series with evidences of structural time breaks, which fall within periods of global financial crises and oil shocks.

Design/methodology/approach

Main data on gross capital formation, gross fixed capital formation, domestic credit to private sector, domestic credit to private sector by banks are used for the study span through 1986 to 2017. Evidence of asymmetry spurs the study to adopt the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag, asymmetric generalized impulse response and variance decomposition and asymmetric granger causality techniques.

Findings

It is shown that positive (negative) investment shocks exhibit a non-negligible and substantial stimulating (dampening) influence on the long-run performance of private sector in the economy. However, there is evidence that negative investment shocks portend a positive influence on the performance of private sector in the short run. This suggests that negative shocks to investment may not dampen the effectiveness of private sector in the short run, and this thus brings to bear the debate on the tenability of public investment as a potent counter cyclical tool in enhancing short-run private sector growth. The nonlinear granger causality also shows a unidirectional nonlinear causality from public investment to private sector performance. However, there is no evidence of bidirectional nonlinear causality.

Originality/value

This study provides quantitative evidence that Nigeria still depends exclusively on public investment, and as an oil-based rentier economy its economic diversification drive still remains bleak.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Ezekiel Olufunke Oluseyi and Oyesiku Morenike Temitayo

– This paper aims to focus on the effect of fermentation, roasting and germination on tamarind seed flour.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the effect of fermentation, roasting and germination on tamarind seed flour.

Design/methodology/approach

Tamarind seeds were treated using three different methods, namely, fermentation, roasting and germination. Fermentation was allowed for four days, roasting was carried out at 180°C at three time regimens of 10, 15 and 20 min and germination was done at 10, 15 and 20 days. Samples were analysed at intervals for proximate composition, antinutritional factors and functional properties using standard methods.

Findings

Protein, crude fat, crude fibre contents and pH increased significantly (p < 0.05) as fermentation progressed, while ash content and carbohydrate reduced. Protein, crude fat and crude fibre contents decreased significantly (p < 0.05) as roasting progressed, while ash content, carbohydrate and pH increased. Protein and crude fibre contents increased significantly (p < 0.05) as germination progressed, while crude fat, ash content, carbohydrate and pH reduced. Processing resulted in significant reduction of the phytate, tannin and trypsin inhibitor.

Practical implications

Processed seeds of Tamarindus indica can be used to fortify local cereals (millet/maize) with other ingredients to produce complementary foods with good nutritional quality and consequently as a tool for meeting community nutritional needs.

Originality/value

The paper has demonstrated effect of fermentation, roasting and germination in enhancement of functional and nutritional properties of tamarind seed flour for utilization as a food ingredient.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Fadi Alasfour, Martin Samy and Roberta Bampton

This paper investigates how individuals determine their tax morale levels and tax compliance decisions. Using a questionnaire survey and a multivariate tests procedure…

Abstract

This paper investigates how individuals determine their tax morale levels and tax compliance decisions. Using a questionnaire survey and a multivariate tests procedure, the paper revealed that tax evasion is morally acceptable in Jordan under some circumstances, indeed there could be an affirmative duty to evade taxes since the government is perceived to be highly corrupted. The findings also show that while the extent of the governmental corruption has a positive (negative) effect on tax non-compliance (tax morale), the efficient expenditure of governmental tax revenues has a negative (positive) impact on tax non-compliance (tax morale). The individuals’ tax non-compliance decisions are likewise positively affected by the tax rates and by the taxation system’s being perceived as unjust, but decline with the increase of audit rates and the subsequent penalty rates. The degree and effectiveness of these determinants are dependent on the individual’s level of risk aversion, financial constraints and the surrounding referent groups. The results also confirm that individual factors play a significant role in determining the level of tax morale. Overall, the tax morale level and the compliance decision of an individual are greatly influenced by gender, age, educational level, occupational status and religious background.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-001-5

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Oluwatooyin Faramade Osundahunsi, Kudirat Titilope Seidu and Olubukola Victoria Oyerinde

The purpose of this paper is to explore the level of substitution of margarine with African pear that will be acceptable to consumers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the level of substitution of margarine with African pear that will be acceptable to consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

A recipe for cookies is modified by replacing margarine with African pear. Plantain composite flour is also used. Physical parameters and proximate composition are determined using standard methods. Sensory evaluation is carried out using sensory panelists.

Findings

The moisture content of the cookies ranges from 2.09 to 4.10 per cent, fat content and ash contents range from 21.40 to 22.90 per cent and 2.14 to 2.77 per cent, respectively. The ash content is higher than the value 1.43 per cent recorded for cookies made from 100 per cent margarine. The average value for energy 487 kcal/100 g will meet the recommended daily dietary allowance. There is no significant difference on the average weight, thickness, volume and density of the cookies made from 25 to 100 per cent African pear with either 25 or 50 per cent ripe/unripe plantain flour. Average weight, thickness, volume and density are 5.60 g, 058 mm, 9.72 cm3, and 0.574 g/cm3, respectively. Sensory evaluation reveals that composite flour at 25‐100 per cent with either ripe or unripe plantain shows significant difference (p < 0.05) in taste and overall acceptability. At 50 per cent unripe or ripe plantain composite flour, there is no significant difference in attributes except flavour.

Research limitations/implications

Up to 50 per cent level of substitution of wheat for plantain flour is found to be acceptable in the preliminary report and used.

Practical implications

Replacement of margarine with African pear at below and up to 50 per cent is acceptable. Overall acceptability reduces with increasing level of substitution.

Originality/value

African pear pulp substitution with as much as 50 per cent does not adversely affect the proximate composition, physical and sensory characteristic. At which level the protein and ash content increases, which is an indication of good nutritional quality. African pear could be processed into value‐added product which can be of interest in school‐children feeding programs and in combating malnutrition, which is still prevalent in Nigeria.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of 43