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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

W.I. Al Mannai and T.G. Lewis

The purpose of this paper is to present a competitive defender‐attacker risk model that assumes a dual exponential relationship between defender (Ci) and attacker (Ai

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a competitive defender‐attacker risk model that assumes a dual exponential relationship between defender (Ci) and attacker (Ai) resource allocation: vi(Ai,Ci)=eαici−eαiCiγiAi.

Design/methodology/approach

Network risk is defined in terms of degree sequence, g, node/link damage, d, and probability of failure, v: R=∑gividi. The paper finds the optimal allocation of resources (Ai, Ci) that minimizes R from the defender's point of view, and maximizes R from the attacker's point of view.

Findings

The effectiveness of the optimal min‐max strategy is compared with three allocation strategies: random, non‐network, and network. It is shown that total network risk is minimized by the non‐network strategy, because this strategy considers damage values and ignores network topology in the definition of risk.

Originality/value

The method is illustrated by applying it to critical infrastructure – a hypothetical water‐and‐power network.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1910

A discussion “ On the Neglect of Science in Commerce and Industry ” seems to involve the assumption that this neglect is general if not total. As this would be an…

Abstract

A discussion “ On the Neglect of Science in Commerce and Industry ” seems to involve the assumption that this neglect is general if not total. As this would be an exaggeration, I prefer to speak of the inadequate appreciation of science in the British commercial and industrial world. During the last thirty years immense efforts have been made to provide instruction in physical science for all classes in the community, and with some success. Every British university is provided with laboratories and gives degrees in science; the number of colleges and technical schools has increased enormously, and the quality of the teaching provided has greatly improved, while there are but few secondary schools which are not furnished with good laboratories in which physical science is taught up to a comparatively advanced stage. Out of these universities, colleges, and schools proceed annually many hundreds of young people with a tincture of scientific knowledge, some of them possessing even a certain amount of practical skill and experience. I do not refer to engineers whose training and professional qualifications require separate discussion.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 12 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2014

James M. Kauffman, Shanna Eisner Hirsch, Jeanmarie Badar, Andrew L. Wiley and Brian R. Barber

Special education in the USA is, in most respects, a 20th century phenomenon and is now governed primarily by federal legislation first enacted in 1975. The federal law in…

Abstract

Special education in the USA is, in most respects, a 20th century phenomenon and is now governed primarily by federal legislation first enacted in 1975. The federal law in its most recent reauthorization (2004) continues to require a free appropriate public education (FAPE) for all students with disabilities, a full continuum of alternative placements (CAP) ranging from residential or hospital care to inclusion in general education, an individual education plan or program (IEP) for each student identified as needing special education, and placement in the least restrictive environment (LRE) that is thought best for implementing the IEP. Parents must be involved in the special education process. Approximately 14 percent of public school students were identified for special education in 2004–2005, but the number and percentage of students identified in most high-incidence categories as needing special education have declined in recent years (the total for all categories was about 8.5 percent of public school students in 2010). A variety of evidence-based interventions can be used to address the wide range of instructional and behavioral needs of students with disabilities and their families, including transition to further education or work, family services, and teacher education. Special education in the USA may find new sources of support and thrive or may become less common or be abandoned entirely due to criticism and withdrawal of support for social welfare programs of government.

Details

Special Education International Perspectives: Practices Across the Globe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-096-4

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2014

Christian Faupel and Rolf Michels

The goal of this paper is to develop a model which may be used to demonstrate costs and benefits of risk management investments in the context of value-based management.

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this paper is to develop a model which may be used to demonstrate costs and benefits of risk management investments in the context of value-based management.

Approach

This paper answers the question of how to quantify changes in company value caused by risk management measures on a theoretical basis. First, a review of empirical studies allowing assertions about the cost and utility of risk management investments is presented. The results of these studies point to a nonlinear shape of the curve and form a basis for the development of a seemingly plausible cost/utility correlation.

Findings

In this paper, a model will be developed which can be used to demonstrate costs and benefits of risk management investments in the context of value-based management. It is assumed that at first, risk management expenditures without measurable monetary utility will have to be made. Furthermore, it is assumed to increase more than proportionally, then less than proportionally, until further investments in risk management activities yield only minimal increases in utility and cannot improve company value any further.

Practical implications

By inserting the yet-to-be-determined actual cost/benefit relationship for a company or industry sector into the EVA equation, it is possible to display the effects of risk management measures on the company value. This procedure is principally combinable with the analysis of other value-based control parameters, that is, the Discounted Cash Flow concept or the Cash Value Added methodology.

Originality

Risk management is increasingly gaining scientific and public interest, especially since the global financial crisis. Scientists and practical users espouse the benefits of risk management systems in this context. However, the extent to which investments in risk management systems can improve the value of a company remains still unclear.

We could determine that at first risk management expenditures will not result in a monetarily measurable benefit. The remaining slope of the curve is derived as increasing more than proportionally at first, then less than proportionally, until further investments into risk management activities yield almost no additional increase in benefits. In this paper, three different functions are offered to describe the shape of the curve identified. They differ in regard to their free parameters and hence in their flexibility of application. The higher flexibility of functions #2 and #3 is balanced by the disadvantage of increasing formal complexity, possibly leading to an increased effort for implementation and application.

Research limitations

To harness the relationships developed in this paper for practical use, further research should target the identification and empirical verification of dependencies between the parameters and principal company index values.

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Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2012

Paul Mooney, Joseph B. Ryan, Philip L. Gunter and R. Kenton Denny

In addressing positive general education teaching practices for use with students with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), the chapter emphasizes…

Abstract

In addressing positive general education teaching practices for use with students with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), the chapter emphasizes teacher behavior change research that has been informed by applied behavior analytic (ABA) principles. Its central theme is that general education teachers can access research informed by ABA in developing prosocial instructional and management practices. Highlighted teaching practices include fostering correct academic responses from students, increasing active student response, and using contingent praise with regularity. The chapter also discusses functional behavioral assessment, positive behavioral interventions and supports, and controversial behavior change issues surrounding seclusion and restraints and medication, topics related to teaching students with or at risk for EBD in general education settings.

Details

Behavioral Disorders: Identification, Assessment, and Instruction of Students with EBD
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-504-4

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 18 June 2014

Marjorie C. Feinson and Adi Meir

Although childhood abuse is internationally recognized as a major problem, there is a dearth of data concerning potentially protective resources, including religiosity…

Abstract

Purpose

Although childhood abuse is internationally recognized as a major problem, there is a dearth of data concerning potentially protective resources, including religiosity. While studies document religiosity’s positive association with general health outcomes, little is known about its relevance to abuse in childhood. A unique opportunity to explore the relationship is provided by a community-based study of religiously diverse, adult women within a single religious denomination, Judaism. A distinctive aspect of this research, which places women’s voices and experiences center stage, is the context within which it was conducted. Israel is a deeply gendered society dominated by two patriarchal institutions, the military and religious establishments.

Methodology

Detailed telephone interviews with a large, demographically diverse sample assess a broad range of women’s health issues including childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse. Prevalence rates are compared for observance groups at opposite ends of the religiosity spectrum, rigorously devout ultra-Orthodox (Haredi) (n = 261) and nonreligious Secular Jews (n = 181).

Findings

Unexpectedly, no significant differences between observance groups are found for any childhood abuse (45%), physical abuse (24%), or emotional abuse (40%). Childhood sexual abuse has the lowest frequency (4.8%) of all abuse categories with more reported by Secular than Haredi respondents (7.7% vs. 3.1% p = .05).

Research implications

This study addresses a critical research gap with empirical evidence from adult women within a single religious denomination. To enhance generalizability, replication with other denominations and the inclusion of males is warranted.

Social implications

More religious involvement apparently does not mitigate the most prevalent forms of childhood maltreatment. These preliminary, yet persuasive findings warrant more policy and prevention efforts focused on childhood abuse in all families, religious as well as nonreligious.

Details

Gendered Perspectives on Conflict and Violence: Part B
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-893-8

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2007

Johannes Lohner and Norbert Konrad

This article reviews the international literature of the last two decades on self‐injurious behaviour in prisons and jails and introduces the risk factors associated with…

Abstract

This article reviews the international literature of the last two decades on self‐injurious behaviour in prisons and jails and introduces the risk factors associated with this behaviour. Studies from a variety of countries investigated different samples (e.g. in jails or prisons; female or male inmates). We only chose those studies using a control group of inmates without self‐injurious behaviour. The findings on potential risk factors for self‐injurious behaviour are largely contradictory because of the differences in sample selection and dependent variables (deliberate self‐harm without suicidal intent vs. suicide attempts). We also discuss some methodological problems in predicting self‐injurious behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2014

Elina Pernu, Tuija Mainela and Vesa Puhakka

The present study approaches multinational corporations as internal networks that are constantly newly organized on the basis of relationships, operations, activities, and…

Abstract

The present study approaches multinational corporations as internal networks that are constantly newly organized on the basis of relationships, operations, activities, and tasks at hand. It combines MNCs-as-networks view with the research on supplier–customer relationship development to conceptualize the relational dynamics in the MNCs. The dynamics are seen created as the interplay of organizing within internal networks and managing of the global customer relationships. Through an empirical study on a project business MNC and analysis of the events in its global customer relationship the study defines strategies of political compromising in MNC internal networks.

Details

Orchestration of the Global Network Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-953-9

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1976

C.J. VAN RIJSBERGEN

Items of information that have been stored in a computer normally need to be accessed via their contents. In principle this is always possible by doing an exhaustive scan…

Abstract

Items of information that have been stored in a computer normally need to be accessed via their contents. In principle this is always possible by doing an exhaustive scan of the entire file of information, but to achieve the access efficiently we use some sort of organizing principle, a file organization or file structure, to reduce the amount anning. Typically the items retrieved are a response to a request which fully or partially specifies their contents. Often the file organization requires pre‐processing of the body of information so that a secondary body of information (an index or directory) may be created which in some sense reveals the contents of the file. So, ultimately file structures are time saving devices, where we pay for the time saved by extra storage. They enable us quickly to find items of information by completely or partially specifying their contents.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1982

John Adams and Robin Adams

Today an estimated 500,000 personal computers have been purchased by Americans who use them at home and in a variety of small business applications. (Note: We define a…

Abstract

Today an estimated 500,000 personal computers have been purchased by Americans who use them at home and in a variety of small business applications. (Note: We define a personal computer as a small, relatively inexpensive, microprocessor‐based device which can be taken out of its box, plugged in and begin working immediately, as opposed to large computers which must be permanently installed, and/or require professional programming. We exclude microprocessor‐based devices whose only function is limited to the playback of packaged games.) Many market research services believe that personal computer sales will continue to grow rapidly, perhaps as fast as a 50 percent annual growth rate for the next several years. The impact of this new interactive information technology coming into the possession of perhaps millions of people can only be guessed at at this early juncture. To us, as librarians, one of the more perceivable results of the growing wave of interest in personal computers has been the proliferation of literature addressed to the personal computer user.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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