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THE remarkable strides made by designers of commercial and military aircraft during recent years have been most strikingly evidenced by the ever‐increasing performance of…
THE remarkable strides made by designers of commercial and military aircraft during recent years have been most strikingly evidenced by the ever‐increasing performance of their products. This progress has been gained, to a great extent, in two ways: by improving the aerodynamic cleanness of the aeroplane and by increasing the specific power output of the engine. However, the successful utilisation of both methods has been complicated by the difficulty of providing the higher‐powered engines with proper cooling and accessibility while retaining the cleanness of the aeroplane. Each addition to the power‐plant output has not only further complicated that unit and made necessary more controls and accessories, but has also made the engine harder to cool. Designing the cowl to favour the cleanness of the aeroplane has often proved to be detrimental to both proper cooling and accessibility.
LAST October a paper was presented to the Royal Aeronautical Society entitled “ Practical Airscrew Performance Calculations,” by F. M. Thomas, F. W. Caldwell, and T. B. Rhines.
1. IN R. & M. 2596 and another report, the I latter concerned mainly with compressibility effects, the writer has considered the aerodynamic loading due to incidence of a…
1. IN R. & M. 2596 and another report, the I latter concerned mainly with compressibility effects, the writer has considered the aerodynamic loading due to incidence of a number of wings of varying aspect ratio and sweep‐back. The information given in these reports was obtained by the use of a lattice of vortices for the computation of downwash and by the subsequent determination of the constants in the equation representing the vortex sheet. It is well known that the potential solutions obtained by this simplified representation are not necessarily of more than moderate accuracy when applied to problems in which wing thickness and viscosity are present, and those published have not been carried to a degree sufficient to give accurate detailed pressure distribution in the region of a discontinuity. It has, however, been shown in a later report on the measurement of pressure distribution at the surface of a sweptback wing that the accuracy as regards spanwise load grading and local aerodynamic centre is surprisingly good and it has been thought well worth while to extend the range of information provided in the above reports before proceeding to the more complex task of computing the detailed pressure distribution at the surface of a wing with allowance for viscosity.
Despite the scholarly attention for the integration of sustainability within business strategy and processes, little is known about how strategic orientations of companies…
Despite the scholarly attention for the integration of sustainability within business strategy and processes, little is known about how strategic orientations of companies influence this integration. Drawing on stewardship theory, this paper aims to analyse the influence of strategic orientation of companies on their environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) performance and the moderating effect of three different political models of economy (Rhine, British and American).
This paper creates a measurement for strategic orientations by using a coding scheme with a five-category evaluation matrix. The main empirical analysis is done by a fixed-effect model with a panel data set covering 179 publicly traded companies over the 2009-2016 period.
The conclusions of this paper present that – consistent over time – a stronger orientation on stewardship positively associates with higher ESG performance. Additionally, the political model of economy significantly alters the relationship indicating the effect of strategic orientation on ESG performance. The relationship is significantly stronger in the Rhine model and significantly weaker in the British model, when both compared to the American model.
The implications of this paper are vital to understanding corporate strategic orientation and its relationship to actual corporate behaviour and long-term performance. Implementing the elements of focus, motivation, commitment, support and communication linked to a stewardship orientation is fundamental to achieve higher levels of sustainability performance.
In the southern hemisphere, the Antarctic continent is also experiencing a net loss in ice from the extensive glaciers and ice sheets that cover it. However, the connection between changes in Antarctic ice sheets and the global warming trend are much more uncertain than in the Arctic. The complex of changes in the Antarctic climate and the ice sheets are described in a later section of this chapter.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) IPCC (2007) projects that greater precipitation intensity and variability will increase the risks of flooding in many…
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) IPCC (2007) projects that greater precipitation intensity and variability will increase the risks of flooding in many areas because of climate change. With climate change already happening, societies worldwide face the parallel challenge of having to adapt to its impacts as a certain degree of climate change is inevitable throughout this century and beyond, even if global mitigation efforts over the next decades prove successful (European Commission, 2007).
Aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to that of long‐term solar…
Aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to that of long‐term solar conditions – long term meaning decades or centuries. The model is based on the postulate that since in a previous analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and some aspects of geospheric phenomena are powered by energy from the sun, now or in the past, the long‐term behaviour of such phenomena is ultimately “connected” to long‐term changes occurring in the sun itself. Proposes and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long‐term solar activity; introduces a transfer‐function for modelling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection; and probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely non‐linear. Presents the theory of the concept, and demonstrates its pertinence to terrestrial phenomena.
Presents anecdotes in the development of aspects of the field of management, relating to Lawrence J. Henderson, Chester I. Barnard, Peter Drucker, Kurt Lewin and J.B. Rhine. These suggest that history needs to be viewed in a hermeneutical philosophy where it is seen as presenting the Zeitgeist of its period rather than describing facts or causal relations.
The substitution of an imitation of some kind for the article actually asked for or desired by the purchaser is a particularly mean form of deception which is practised nowadays to an almost incredible extent. It is astonishing and mournful that so many persons should be concerned in the deliberate initiation, fostering, and carrying on of so shameful a system, and that others are to be found who in speech and print seem willing to lend to it either their countenance or condonation. One must suppose that there exists a form of moral obliquity or distortion—at first accentuated and ultimately rendered incurable by the acquirement and contemplation of illegitimate gains—which makes the sufferer incapable of grasping the fact that the proceedings in question are utterly degrading and iniquitous. However this may be, the circumstances are such that a strong endeavour ought to be made to get the public to appreciate them, and to expose and, as far as may be possible, to punish those who are guilty, at any rate of the worst types of fraudulent dealing referred to. The Daily Mail and, in a lesser but important degree, the Daily News, have rendered excellent service by directing attention to the matter. The articles which have been published up to the present in these newspapers have been reprinted in pamphlet form under the title of “ The Fraud of the Label,” and a study of this brief but telling exposé may be strongly recommended to all and sundry. A most appropriate quotation from Sir WALTER SCOTT'S “Kenilworth ” appears on the title page: “ Some … plainly admitted they had never seen it; others denied that such a drug existed … and most of them attempted to satisfy their customer by producing some substitute … which, they maintained, possessed in a superior degree the self‐same qualities.”
Given that the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) calls for the management of water resources at the river basin level, the German water sector, which has…
Given that the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) calls for the management of water resources at the river basin level, the German water sector, which has historically been dominated by the federal states and has been organized along administrative borders, is now challenged to be reorganized. The article introduces the German water sector, reviews past experiences with river basin management such as North Rhine–Westphalia's water associations, the river basin organizations of the former German Democratic Republic, and international river commissions, and addresses current challenges in connection with the implementation of WFD.