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Abstract

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Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

Abstract

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Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

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Article

T. Oishi, M. Kaneyasu and A. Ikegami

An integrated sensor with three elements (zinc oxide, tin oxide and tungsten oxide) was fabricated by thick film techniques in order to develop a smell sensor. Using this…

Abstract

An integrated sensor with three elements (zinc oxide, tin oxide and tungsten oxide) was fabricated by thick film techniques in order to develop a smell sensor. Using this sensor and pattern recognition method, the possibility of identifying 15 chemical compounds which belong to the alcohol, ester, ketone, benzene and hydrocarbon group was examined. The following results were obtained: All 15 compounds have different patterns, so they can be individually identified; compounds which have the same functional groups have similar patterns; and, when gas sensitivity of three elements is displayed in a three‐dimensional space, the compounds with the same functional group form a specific closed space. This indicates that the sensor can identify functional groups of chemical compounds.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Kimiko Tanaka and Deborah Lowry

Japanese women’s life courses have changed dramatically in recent history. Yet, transformation of the meanings and experiences of childlessness did not follow a linear…

Abstract

Japanese women’s life courses have changed dramatically in recent history. Yet, transformation of the meanings and experiences of childlessness did not follow a linear, one-dimensional path. Childlessness in Japan today – strongly influenced by Western, modern education after the World War II – can indeed be interpreted as a form of liberation from a restrictively gendered life-course. However, in Japan’s pre-modern period, there were in fact alternative paths available for women to remain childless. As Japan became nationalised and the meanings of Japanese womanhood shifted, childlessness became increasingly stigmatised and notably, stigmatised across social classes.

This chapter provides concise accounts of the social meanings of marriage and fertility from the Tokugawa period through the Meiji period and continues with analysis of pressures faced by contemporary Japanese women who are childless. Also highlighted are the particular socio-demographic contexts which have brought involuntary childlessness, too, into the realms of public discussion and expected action on the part of the government. Through its account of the Japanese context, this chapter emphasises the larger theoretical, sociological argument that the historically placed social construction of childlessness – and thus, of the experiences and identities of childless women – always occurs through particular intersections of cultural, political-economic and demographic conditions.

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Voluntary and Involuntary Childlessness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-362-1

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Article

Hiroshi Okuda, Shinobu Yoshimura, Genki Yagawa and Akihiro Matsuda

Describes the parameter estimation procedures for the non‐linear finite element analysis using the hierarchical neural network. These procedures can be classified as the…

Abstract

Describes the parameter estimation procedures for the non‐linear finite element analysis using the hierarchical neural network. These procedures can be classified as the neural network based inverse analysis, which has been investigated by the authors. The optimum values of the parameters involved in the non‐linear finite element analysis are generally dependent on the configuration of the analysis model, the initial condition, the boundary condition, etc., and have been determined in a heuristic manner. The procedures to estimate such multiple parameters consist of the following three steps: a set of training data, which is produced over a number of non‐linear finite element computations, is prepared; a neural network is trained using the data set; the neural network is used as a tool for searching the appropriate values of multiple parameters of the non‐linear finite element analysis. The present procedures were tested for the parameter estimation of the augmented Lagrangian method for the steady‐state incompressible viscous flow analysis and the time step evaluation of the pseudo time‐dependent stress analysis for the incompressible inelastic structure.

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Engineering Computations, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Book part

Jeffrey W. Lucas, Carmi Schooler, Marek Posard and Hsiang-Yuan Ho

To investigate two explanations for how variations in social network structure might produce differences in cognitive and perceptual orientation. One explanation is that…

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate two explanations for how variations in social network structure might produce differences in cognitive and perceptual orientation. One explanation is that the extent to which structures lead people to feel strong social bonds encourages holism. The other is that the extent to which a network leads individuals to be concerned about distal network relations leads to holistic thinking.

Methodology

An experimental study in which participants interacted in three-person networks of negotiated (with or without a one-exchange rule), generalized, or productive exchange before being administered the framed-line test, a common measure of cognitive and perceptual orientation.

Findings

Participants in network structures more likely to lead participants to be concerned about what was happening in relationships in the network of which they were not part performed relatively more holistically on the framed-line test. However, these effects did not extend to both modules of the test, and a check on the ordering of networks as reflecting concern with distal network relationships failed.

Research limitations and implications

The experimental design was structured such that only one of the presented explanations could possibly be supported, whereas they both could be correct. Nevertheless, results do indicate that cognitive orientation did respond to variations in network structure.

Value

Explanations for cultural differences typically implicate social structure, although the explanations often cannot be directly tested. Results show that social structure can produce effects that mirror differences thought to reflect profound cultural variations.

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Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-192-8

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Article

Yarine Fawaz

The purpose of this paper is to use the Health and Retirement Study to examine the social security (SS) claiming decision of older Americans, with a focus on the behavior…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use the Health and Retirement Study to examine the social security (SS) claiming decision of older Americans, with a focus on the behavior of the unemployed.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a duration model first, and a bivariate probit framework then, the author investigates whether older unemployed individuals lacking liquidity use SS benefits as a safety net in order to finance consumption during an unemployment episode, even if they do not retire at the same time. In this way, SS might be thought as a form of unemployment insurance (UI) which would allow them to maintain their standard of living during their job search.

Findings

The author finds evidence of a claiming pattern specific to the unemployed: they claim sooner than full-time workers, even when they do not retire at the same time. They also seem to discontinue this behavior when their access to UI is extended, which gives support to the author’s hypothesis that the unemployed workers, who lack liquidity, claim their SS benefits even if they do not wish to retire, as a source of alternative unemployment benefits.

Originality/value

By focusing on the SS claiming behavior of the unemployed rather than on their retirement patterns, this paper sheds light on the social insurance role of SS retirement benefits for unemployed workers who are not willing to retire, but need a new source of income while they continue looking for a job.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article

Yuki Yano, David Blandford, Atsushi Maruyama and Tetsuya Nakamura

The purpose of this paper is to investigate Japanese consumer perceptions of the benefits of consuming fresh leafy vegetables.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate Japanese consumer perceptions of the benefits of consuming fresh leafy vegetables.

Design/methodology/approach

An online bulletin board survey was conducted in Japan to collect responses to an open-ended question about reasons for consuming fresh leafy vegetables. A total of 897 responses were analysed using word co-occurrence network analysis. A community detection method and centrality measures were used to interpret the resulting network map.

Findings

Using a community detection algorithm, the authors identify six major groups of words that represent respondents’ core motives for consuming leafy vegetables. While Japanese consumers view health benefits to be most important, sensory factors, such as texture, colour, and palatability, and convenience factors also influence attitudes. The authors find that centrality measures can be useful in identifying keywords that appear in various contexts of consumer responses.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to use a quantitative text analysis to examine consumer perceptions for fresh leafy vegetables. The analysis also provides pointers for creating visually interpretable co-occurrence network maps from textual data and discusses the role of community structure and centrality in interpreting such maps.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Darek Gondor and Hideka Morimoto

Drawing on original and published research this paper seeks to examine the current situation of eco‐labelling in Japan, and the possible roles of two connected…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on original and published research this paper seeks to examine the current situation of eco‐labelling in Japan, and the possible roles of two connected non‐governmental organizations (NGOs) – the Marine Stewarship Council (MSC) and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) – may have in future decision making.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed‐method survey approach is used. Two quantitative surveys are followed by unstructured interviews of stakeholders in fisheries and eco‐labelling policy.

Findings

Environmental values of Japanese seafood consumers are complex and not explained by any one demographic factor. Environmental problems are becoming complex, and solutions are being sought from beyond the bureaucratic circles, including NGOs. However, neither WWF nor MSC are important stakeholders in policy decisions, but their influence is growing, particularly through relationships with private sector.

Research limitations/implications

Interviews do not offer a representative sample; important inferences but not causative conclusions can be made.

Originality/value

The paper contributes new findings on environmental values, MSC products, and the decision making situation surrounding seafood eco‐labels in Japan.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article

Li Jun Ji, Ya Shuai Jiang, Ge Liang, Zhu Qing Liu, Jian Zhu, Kai Huang and Ai Ping Zhu

The purpose of this paper was to synthesise a thermally expandable microsphere (TEMS) with fast thermal response property and small expansion temperature range, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to synthesise a thermally expandable microsphere (TEMS) with fast thermal response property and small expansion temperature range, and investigate the factors affecting the expansion properties of the microspheres.

Design/methodology/approach

A new kind of TEMS with fast thermal response property was synthesised by suspension polymerisation method, using acrylonitrile, ethyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid as the main monomers; Mg(OH)2 as the main dispersing agent; and isooctane or n-hexane or n-pentane as the blowing agent.

Findings

The TEMS possessed the best expansion capacity when encapsulated isooctane and n-hexane were about 18.5 Wt.%. The expansion process of the TEMS could be finished by raising the temperature to 18°C from the expansion onset, much less than the reported 30-50°C. The morphology of the TEMS turned from sphere to irregular concave shape following the content increase of the blowing agent.

Originality/value

A new kind of TEMS composed of acrylonitrile/ethyl methacrylate/methacrylic acid as the polymer shell was synthesised. These TEMS showed the fastest thermal response speed reported.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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