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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Yasin Şöhret and T. Hikmet Karakoc

It is essential to develop more environment-friendly energy systems to prevent climate change and minimize environmental impact. Within this scope, many studies are…

Abstract

Purpose

It is essential to develop more environment-friendly energy systems to prevent climate change and minimize environmental impact. Within this scope, many studies are performed on performance and environmental assessments of many types of energy systems. This paper, different from previous studies, aims to prove exergy performance of a low-emission combustor of an aero-engine.

Design/methodology/approach

It is a well-known fact that, with respect to previous exergy analysis, highest exergy destruction occurs in the combustor component of the engine. For this reason, it is required to evaluate a low-emission aero-engine combustor thermodynamically to understand the state of the art according to the authors’ best of knowledge. In this framework, combustor has been operated at numerous conditions (variable engine load) and evaluated.

Findings

As a conclusion of the study, the impact of emission reduction on performance improvement of the aero-engine combustors exergetically is presented. It is stated that exergy efficiency of the low-emission aero-engine combustor is found to be 64.69, 61.95 and 71.97 per cent under various operating conditions.

Practical implications

Results obtained in this paper may be beneficial for researchers who are interested in combustion and propulsion technology and thermal sciences.

Originality/value

Different from former studies, the impact of operating conditions on performance of a combustor is examined from the viewpoint of thermodynamics.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Isil Yazar, Emre Kiyak, Fikret Caliskan and T. Hikmet Karakoc

This paper aims to present a nonlinear mathematical model of a small-scale turbojet aeroengine and also a speed controller design that is conducted for the constructed…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a nonlinear mathematical model of a small-scale turbojet aeroengine and also a speed controller design that is conducted for the constructed nonlinear mathematical model.

Design/methodology/approach

In the nonlinear mathematical model of the turbojet engine, temperature, rotational speed, mass flow, pressure and other parameters are generated using thermodynamic equations (e.g. mass, energy and momentum conservation laws) and some algebraic equations. In calculation of the performance parameters, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) method is preferred in related components. All calculated values from the mathematical model are then compared with the cycle data of the turbojet engine. Because of the single variable control need and effect of noise factor, modified proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller is treated for speed control. For whole operation envelope, various PID structures are designed individually, according to the operating points. These controller structures are then combined via gain-scheduling approach and integrated to the nonlinear engine model. Simulations are performed on MATLAB/Simulink environment for design and off-design operating points between idle to maximum thrust levels.

Findings

The cascade structure (proposed nonlinear engine aero-thermal model and speed controller) is simulated and tested at various operating points of the engine and for different transient conditions. Simulation results show that the transitions between the operating points are found successfully. Furthermore, the controller is effective for steady-state load changes. It is suggested to be used in real-time engine applications.

Research limitations/implications

Because of limited data, only speed control is treated and simulated.

Practical implications

It can be used as an application in the industry easily.

Originality/value

First point of novelty in the paper is in calculation of the performance parameters of compressor and turbine components. ANFIS method is preferred to predict performance parameters in related components. Second novelty in the paper can be seen in speed controller design part. Because of the single variable control need and effect of noise factor, modified PID is treated.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Yasin Şöhret, Selcuk Ekici, Onder Altuntas and T. Hikmet Karakoc

This study aims to introduce an approach to evaluate environmental impact of a piston-prop engine from the view point of life cycle assessment (LCA).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to introduce an approach to evaluate environmental impact of a piston-prop engine from the view point of life cycle assessment (LCA).

Design/methodology/approach

In the aviation industry, safety is an important issue. For reliable and safe flights, the maintenance of aerial vehicles and engines is mandatory. Additionally, regular and correct maintenance plays a key role in keeping efficiency at a high level. With this in mind, a LCA of a regular 50 hourly maintenance process of Cessna type training aircraft is conducted. During the assessment, the starting of the engine before maintenance, replacement of the oil filter, test procedure of the spark plugs, a compressor test, engine cleaning and engine starting following maintenance are taken into account.

Findings

At the end of the study, normalization and characterization values for the maintenance, electricity consumption during maintenance and used fuel are obtained.

Practical implications

Regarding the number of this type aircraft worldwide, the current study offers a valuable contribution to the literature. The authors also intend to introduce an approach which may be useful for the assessment of large body aircraft still in service.

Originality/value

The present paper is a pioneer for future applications of LCA methodology to piston-prop engines and training aircraft.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Utku Kale, Michael Herrera and András Nagy

The purpose of this research is to investigate the pragmatic failure and other language-related risks between pilots and air traffic controllers in intercultural aviation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate the pragmatic failure and other language-related risks between pilots and air traffic controllers in intercultural aviation communication. The paper attempts to provide recommendations for the minimization of these risks, thereby improving aviation safety by reducing the rate of aviation incidents and accidents. Pragmatic failure refers to the miscomprehension of intended pragmatic meaning. As opposed to semantic meaning, it depends on the context and is highly influenced by culture.

Design/methodology/approach

The risk of pragmatic failure in aviation is presented hypothetically, and examples of language-related communication failure in air-to-ground communication between pilots and air traffic controllers (ATCOs) involving language are examined, including an example involving pragmatic failure. A questionnaire has been developed to survey pilots and ATCOs who communicate over radiotelephony. Results from 212 respondents are presented and conclusions are drawn.

Findings

The authors propose, based on linguistic theory and the results of this survey, that native English-speaking aviation operators gain more familiarity with the inner workings of the English language, in particular regarding the difference between semantic and pragmatic meaning. They benefit from this awareness whenever communicating with people of other cultures to develop the valuable skill of focusing on semantic meaning while avoiding adding pragmatic meaning. This minimizes the potential of misunderstanding when an emergency arises that cannot be dealt with through the International Civil Aviation Organization standard phraseology and when the listener of this message is someone from a different culture.

Practical implications

Language and communication are the main tools that play a vital role in reducing the rate of aircraft incidents and accidents. In aviation, pilots and ATCOs are neither in face-to-face contact nor have a video speech interface between them while communicating with each other. Their communications are conducted entirely through radio messages using a specialized language designed to make communication as accurate and efficient as possible. This study, therefore, is important in terms of investigating the risks of pragmatic failure and of language errors in general between pilots and air traffic controllers. This research will be a useful guide for designing training for operators (pilots and ATCOs) as well.

Originality/value

The main focus of the study is to investigate reasons for pragmatic failure and other language-related causes of misunderstanding between pilots and air traffic controllers over air-to-ground communication. To illustrate these roles, a questionnaire has been developed for pilots and ATCOs who communicate over aeronautical radiotelephony and examples of aircraft accidents were given.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Eralp Sener, Irem Turk, Isil Yazar and Tahir Hikmet Karakoç

The aviation industry has started environment friendly and also conventional energy independent alternative energy dependent designs to reduce negative impacts on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aviation industry has started environment friendly and also conventional energy independent alternative energy dependent designs to reduce negative impacts on the nature and to maintain its future activities in a clear, renewable and sustainable way. One possible solution proposed is solar energy. Solar-powered aerial vehicles are seen as key solutions to reduce global warming effects. This study aims to simulate a mathematical model of a solar powered DC motor of an UAV on MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a critical term in photovoltaic (PV) array systems to provide the maximum power output to the related systems under certain conditions. In this paper, one of the popular MPPT techniques, “Incremental Conductance”, is simulated with solar-powered DC motor for an UAV design on MATLAB/Simulink.

Findings

The cascade structure (PV cell, MPPT, buck converter and DC motor models) is simulated and tested under various irradiance values, and results are compared to the DC motor technical data. As a result of that, mathematical model simulation results are overlapped with motor technical reference values in spite of irradiance changes.

Practical implications

It is suggested to be used in real time applications for future developments.

Originality/value

Different from other solar-powered DC motor literature works, a solar-powered DC motor mathematical model of an UAV is designed and simulated on MATLAB/Simulink environment. To adjust the maximum power output at the solar cell, incremental conductance MPPT technique is preferred and a buck converter structure is connected between MPPT and DC motor mathematical model. It is suggested to be used in solar-powered UAV designs for future developments.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 December 2020

Ali Dinc and Murat Otkur

The purpose of this study is to perform the preliminary design, flight performance and exhaust emissions calculations of a piston engine powered unmanned aerial vehicle…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to perform the preliminary design, flight performance and exhaust emissions calculations of a piston engine powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) during a flight cycle which consists of multiple flight altitudes and airspeeds.

Design/methodology/approach

A genuine computer model in Matlab/Simulink was developed to predict the size and weight of UAV and piston engine (using Avgas 100LL fuel) performance together with exhaust emissions in an iterative process.

Findings

The amount of emitted exhaust gases including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides were calculated in a typical UAV mission profile as a whole and also divided into mission flight segments.

Research limitations/implications

Emissions were calculated based on fuel flow and engine speed inputs based on ground test data for emission indices. Test data for emission indices was very limited.

Practical implications

As UAV utilization has been increasing around the world, this study presents important and noticeable results on the emissions that need to be considered for environmental purposes.

Originality/value

In literature, emission prediction studies for UAVs are very rare. In fact, UAVs typically have quite different flight speeds and altitudes than regular manned aircraft and emissions change with speed and altitude. Additionally, unlike manned aircraft, UAVs can fly more than 24 h with different operation characteristics. The originality of this study presents the emission predictions of a piston engine UAV which flies with a significantly different mission profile than a manned aircraft.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Lesia Pavliukh, Sergii Shamanskyi, Sergii Boichenko and Artur Jaworski

This paper aims to evaluate of the microalgae potential for commercial application, in particular to conduct experimental study of biogenic compounds removal from sewage…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate of the microalgae potential for commercial application, in particular to conduct experimental study of biogenic compounds removal from sewage waters by microalgae, and to calculate economical benefits from biofertizers and biofuel production.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental study in the concentration change of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the cultivation of Chlorella Vulgaris microalgae in various types of sewage water was carried out.

Findings

The efficiency wastewater treatment by microalgae was confirmed. The economic benefit from the biomass utilization as biofuel production was calculated.

Practical implications

Implementation of wastewater treatment technology with biomass recycling for biofuel and biofertilizers production will minimize the impact on the environment.

Originality/value

As a results of experimental studies, the ability of microalgae to reduce biogenic elements in wastewater was confirmed. Microalgae can be used both for wastewater treatment to biogenic elements removal, such as phosphorous and nitrogen compounds, and biofuel, biofertilizers production. Prospects of the commercial use of microalgae are obvious. They are specially adapted to an environment dominated by viscous forces.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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