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Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2016

Colin Thor West, Carla Roncoli and Pascal Yaka

This chapter presents a case study on smallholder vulnerability and adaptation to long-term desiccation in the West African Sahel. Climatologists recognize Sahelian…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter presents a case study on smallholder vulnerability and adaptation to long-term desiccation in the West African Sahel. Climatologists recognize Sahelian desiccation as a long-term multi-decadal dry period that persisted from roughly 1968 to 1995. This study draws on fine-scale ethnographic and daily rainfall data to elucidate local perspectives on this broad regional process. As such, this provides a window on the local lived experience of regional climate variability.

Methodology/approach

This study draws on multiple periods of ethnographic fieldwork in two different Mossi areas in north-central Burkina Faso (West Africa). Fieldwork consisted of key informant interviews, household surveys, and participant observation. The authors incorporate daily precipitation data from two meteorological stations provided by the General Directorate of Meteorology of Burkina Faso. Researchers assembled this data and graphed daily rainfall totals for individual rainfall seasons in the years preceding each period of fieldwork. The qualitative and quantitative data are analyzed by using a Sustainable Livelihoods (SL) framework.

Findings

The study finds that local perceptions of increased rainfall variability correspond to patterns evident in daily rainfall records for individual stations. Additionally, the authors document how rural producers are negatively affected by both intra-seasonal and multi-decadal rainfall variability. Mossi smallholders have adapted through new cropping patterns, livelihood diversification, and investments in agricultural intensification. These adaptations have been largely successful and could be adopted by other Sahelian groups in their efforts to adapt to climate change.

Research limitations

Fieldwork took place over several years in two different departments and five localities. The two anthropologists used a common livelihoods analytical framework but different research protocols over this time span. Thus, the data collection was not systematic across all locations and time periods. This limits the degree to which results are representative beyond surveyed localities at their respective points in time.

Originality/value

This study presents local views and perceptions of regional climate variability and ecological change. It is a rare bottom-up perspective supplemented with precipitation data.

Details

The Economics of Ecology, Exchange, and Adaptation: Anthropological Explorations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-227-9

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Book part
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Judy Rollins

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‘Purpose-built’ Art in Hospitals: Art with Intent
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-681-5

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2014

Abstract

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Local Disaster Risk Management in a Changing Climate: Perspective from Central America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-935-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2008

P.D. Erasmus

This study implements inflation adjustments, as proposed by International Accounting Standard 15 (IAS15), to determine an inflation‐adjusted version of Economic Value…

Abstract

This study implements inflation adjustments, as proposed by International Accounting Standard 15 (IAS15), to determine an inflation‐adjusted version of Economic Value Added (EVA). The relationships between the nominal (EVAnom) and inflation‐adjusted (EVAreal) versions of EVA, and market‐adjusted share returns are investigated, and compared with those of residual income, earnings and operating cash flow. Relative information content tests suggest that earnings have the strongest relationship with share returns, while the results of the incremental tests indicate that the EVAnom and EVAreal components do not provide statistically significant information content beyond that provided by residual income.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2014

Community perception of climate change is a factor in increasing local awareness of climate disaster risk. This encourages more disaster risk reduction actions by the…

Abstract

Community perception of climate change is a factor in increasing local awareness of climate disaster risk. This encourages more disaster risk reduction actions by the communities themselves, and thus, provides a driver for sustainable community disaster risk management (DRM) initiatives. Using these hypotheses, this chapter assesses whether the communities’ climate change perceptions, awareness of climate hazardous risk, and subsequent actions on DRR enable local DRM capacity to reduce the increasing climate disaster risk. The study conducts household surveys with an original questionnaire in four communities in Cartago City, Costa Rica.

Details

Local Disaster Risk Management in a Changing Climate: Perspective from Central America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-935-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Rainald Löhner and Fernando Camelli

Develop a method for the optimal placement of sensors in order to detect the largest number of contaminant release scenarios with the minimum amount of sensors.

Abstract

Purpose

Develop a method for the optimal placement of sensors in order to detect the largest number of contaminant release scenarios with the minimum amount of sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

The method considers the general sensor placement problem. Assuming a given number of sensors, every release scenario leads to a sensor input. The data recorded from all the possible release scenarios at all possible sensor locations allow the identification of the best or optimal sensor locations. Clearly, if only one sensor is to be placed, it should be at the location that recorded the highest number of releases. This argument can be used recursively by removing from further consideration all releases already recorded by sensors previously placed.

Findings

The method developed works well. Examples showing the effect of different wind conditions and release locations demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure.

Practical implications

The method can be used to design sensor systems for cities, subway stations, stadiums, concert halls, high value residential areas, etc.

Originality/value

The method is general, and can be used with other physics‐based models (puff, mass‐conservation, RANS, etc.). The investigation also shows that first‐principles CFD models have matured sufficiently to be run in a timely manner on PCs, opening the way to optimization based on detailed physics.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2018

Jeffrey W. Alstete, Nicholas J. Beutell and John P. Meyer

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Evaluating Scholarship and Research Impact
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-390-2

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2009

Dimitrios I. Maditinos, Željko Šević and Nikolaos G. Theriou

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the explanatory power of two value‐based performance measurement models, Economic Value Added (EVA®) and shareholder value…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the explanatory power of two value‐based performance measurement models, Economic Value Added (EVA®) and shareholder value added (SVA), compared with three traditional accounting performance measures: earnings per share (EPS), return on investment (ROI), and return on equity (ROE), in explaining stock market returns in the Athens Stock Exchange (ASE).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the Easton and Harris formal valuation model and employs both a relative and an incremental information content approach to examine which performance measure best explains stock market returns; and the explanatory power of the pairwise combinations of one value‐based performance measurement model and one traditional accounting performance measure in explaining stock market returns. For this purpose, pooled time‐series, cross‐sectional data of listed companies in the Athens Stock Exchange (ASE) over the period 1992‐2001 have been collected and modelled.

Findings

Relative information content tests reveal that stock market returns are more closely associated with EPS than with EVA® or other performance measures. However, incremental information content tests suggest that the pairwise combination of EVA® with EPS increases significantly the explanatory power in explaining stock market returns.

Practical implications

The results suggest that the market participants in the Greek stock market should pay additional attention to EVA® but they should also consider other determinants to develop their investment strategies.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the first studies on the value relevance of traditional accounting (EPS, ROI, and ROE) and value‐based (EVA® and SVA) performance measures in explaining stock market returns in the ASE. The results extend the understanding of the role of EVA® and SVA in explaining stock market returns in the ASE, and, moreover, whether they may affect investors' decisions in a continental European market with market characteristics similar to that of Greece.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Book part
Publication date: 22 September 2015

Olivia Barnett-Naghshineh

This paper describes the different ways in which people in the highlands of Papua New Guinea are talking about climate change. It demonstrates that people locate…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper describes the different ways in which people in the highlands of Papua New Guinea are talking about climate change. It demonstrates that people locate themselves in this process of change in terms of food production and exchange, and that some of the changes being witnessed are also related to the impacts of a growing cash economy on social relations.

Methodology/approach

This ethnography involved 12 months fieldwork including participant observation and interviews.

Research limitations/implications

This is a qualitative study that recognises the perspective of local people for understanding culturally mediated experiences of climate change. However, data regarding rainfall and temperatures over time would be a useful addition for thinking about the extent to which the climate has in fact changed in recent years.

Practical implications

The implications of this paper are that the predictions made in 1990 about increases in production as a result of climate change are apparently coming true, with benefits for some food and coffee producers. But that there are complex social processes occurring at the same time as climate change that mean people’s ability to adapt is dependent on other social conditions. Maintaining ecologically sustainable methods of production and local cultural practices may enable more resilience to the impacts of climate change.

Originality/value

The experiences of people living in the Eastern Highlands and the ways in which people use the discourse of climate change are yet to be acknowledged in policy circles or socio-cultural anthropology literature. This paper presents a partial account of how people in Papua New Guinea are experiencing and talking about change.

Details

Climate Change, Culture, and Economics: Anthropological Investigations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-361-7

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2014

Drawing on the results of the previous chapters, this chapter looks at current progress in terms of climate disaster risk incorporation into development planning and…

Abstract

Drawing on the results of the previous chapters, this chapter looks at current progress in terms of climate disaster risk incorporation into development planning and practice at three levels (national government, municipalities, and communities) and analyzes gaps, challenges, and opportunities. The chapter also discusses potential factors for enhancing local disaster risk management (DRM) capacity by collaborating with three levels of stakeholders.

Details

Local Disaster Risk Management in a Changing Climate: Perspective from Central America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-935-5

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