Search results

1 – 10 of over 187000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2018

Kari Kantasalmi and Juha Tuunainen

Close interaction between universities, industries, and governments has given rise to hybrid organizations incorporating economic development alongside scientific research…

Abstract

Close interaction between universities, industries, and governments has given rise to hybrid organizations incorporating economic development alongside scientific research and higher education. We will approach this phenomenon and the related organization-theoretical problems by looking at two cases of discipline making to discuss the potential of the concept of organizational field introduced by the neoinstitutionalist school of organization theory. As this concept presumes the Bourdieusian theory of social fields, we will consider possibilities of reflective contesting of the states of doxa in discipline making in regard to organizational aspects of disciplinary boundaries in the university-centered system of higher education, its demarcation to business and schooling, as well as to the related ideology of professionalism and science policy. We will also comment on the Bourdieusian conceptuality inscribed in the neoinstitutionalist metaphor of organizational field from the perspective of systems theory inspired by Luhmann. This is because we believe that further development of the semantic focus in the problem of disciplinary boundaries would benefit from Luhmannian tools designed to grasp organizations as social systems that facilitate interrelations of differentiated function systems relevant for discipline making in current technoscience.

Details

Toward Permeable Boundaries of Organizations?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-829-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 14 October 2010

David Seidl

Many recent studies have voiced the growing concern that the body of knowledge that springs from organization science is hardly taken notice of in management practice…

Abstract

Many recent studies have voiced the growing concern that the body of knowledge that springs from organization science is hardly taken notice of in management practice. This has given rise to urgent calls for making organization research more relevant to practitioners and an intensive debate on how to realize this aim has set in (e.g., Hodgkinson, Herriot, & Anderson, 2001; Rynes, Bartunek, & Daft, 2001; MacLean & MacIntosh, 2002; Baldridge, Floyd, & Markoczy, 2004; Van de Ven & Johnson, 2006). In most of the existing literature one can identify three main reasons for the observable lack of connection between organization research and practice: research is not sufficiently focused on the “real” problems of practitioners (e.g., Rynes, McNatt, & Breetz, 1999), research results are not properly disseminated to practitioners (e.g., Spencer, 2001), and the language of science is not properly translated into the language practitioners' use (e.g., Starkey & Madan, 2001; Van de Ven & Johnson, 2006). The underlying assumption is that if scientists redressed these shortcomings, their findings would be utilized by practitioners and thus the gap between theory and practice would be bridged.

Details

Advanced Series in Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-833-5

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Dmitry Brychkov and Christine Domegan

The purpose of this paper is to present retrospective, current and prospective aspects of social marketing and systems science integration.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present retrospective, current and prospective aspects of social marketing and systems science integration.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a periodization methodology, based on turning points of conceptual integration between social marketing and systems science.

Findings

The paper identifies three periods of integration between social marketing and systems science: initialization of marketing and systems science integration; further conceptualization of the link between marketing and systems science, coupled by permeation of systems thinking into social marketing; and deep integration of social marketing with systems science. The latter period is ongoing and focuses on the origination of strategic systems-based theories and practices for sustainable social change.

Research limitations/implications

The use of a periodization methodology might be biased by subjectivity, as chronological sequences of conceptualization-related events can be hard to decipher and can be reluctant to structural analysis. The necessity to examine the link between marketing and systems science, in so far as social marketing draws upon marketing theory regarding integration with systems science, has social marketing overshadowed by marketing at some points in time.

Practical implications

Historical research of social marketing and systems science integration provides a robust platform for large-scale practical manifestation of system-based strategic projects in social marketing.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates that the permeation of systems thinking into the social marketing paradigm is gaining momentum and describes the trends, prospects and complexities associated with the accelerating integration.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Janos Korn

Three problematic issues followed by paradigm changes over the recent history of human intellectual endeavour are identified as 1. mysticism/superstition to – conventional…

Abstract

Purpose

Three problematic issues followed by paradigm changes over the recent history of human intellectual endeavour are identified as 1. mysticism/superstition to – conventional science (of physics), 2. predominant use of qualitative/quantitative properties for analysis and design to – structural or systemic properties, and 3. current speculative/fragmented, multiple approaches to the “systemic view” to – a firmer knowledge-based approach reflecting the empirical and universal nature of this view. This paper aims to consider the problematic issues, to conclude that conventional science is inadequate to cope with the 2nd paradigm change and to introduce a “new science of systems” which can integrate conventional science and alleviate the 3rd problematic issue by suggesting three principles implemented by linguistic modelling as operational model.

Design/methodology/approach

The highly successful methodology of conventional science is followed with systemic content by suggesting three general principles of systems, namely, principle of existence (pervasiveness of structural description), principle of complexity (aggregates for emergence of outcomes) and principle of change (change by purpose or chance), and linguistic modelling of static and dynamic scenarios based on natural language as operational model. This language is processed to “elementary constituents”, of which complex structures can be constructed. These constituents are converted into reasoning schemes consisting of “ordered pairs” and “predicate logic statements” in static and dynamic states.

Findings

Stories of problematic scenarios are converted into the universal scheme of “management/producers” – “products” – “users/consumers” by constructing linguistic networks of products and semantic diagrams of organizations/user/consumers for investigating the emergence of outcomes in analysis and for designing prototypes. Problematic issues of individual objects in a scenario are resolved by methods of conventional science, which is thus integrated with systems science to form the “scientific enterprise”.

Research limitations/implications

Once the new approach is debated, further developments in the mathematics of ordered pairs, predicate logic and uncertainties are needed. The linguistic basis is to be further investigated. Connection with AI and “logical atomism of Bertrand Russell” is to be explored.

Practical implications

Further applications to large-scale scenarios by practitioners using the “universal scheme” and development of software are needed.

Social implications

The approach is rooted in accepted branches of knowledge, is highly teachable and should lead to be used by professionals and others once debated and accepted.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 July 2019

Janos Korn

The current field of systems thinking consists of a variety of views, methods and a number of organisations involved with these views which suggests a state of confusion…

Abstract

Purpose

The current field of systems thinking consists of a variety of views, methods and a number of organisations involved with these views which suggests a state of confusion and fragmentation of the field which fundamentally is supposed to be a uniform view of structures or systems. This can be interpreted as a “crisis situation”. A resolution of the crisis in the form of a “new science of systems” is proposed. Assuming this new science becomes part of the field of systems thinking, a debate of the elements of the field is suggested with a view to consider its current state and future developments. “Crisis - resolution - debate” is the central theme of the paper.

Design/methodology/approach

The field of current systems thinking is described in terms of views, methods and organisations and is seen as the “problematic issue”. A “new science of systems” strongly rooted in natural language as its primary symbolism and consisting of three general principles of systems and linguistic modelling is outlined to be considered as the resolution of the crisis. A set of criteria is discussed for use of judging the quality of models and element of the field of systems thinking including the “new science of systems”. To demonstrate a preliminary use of these criteria, the same example is worked out using both, the “soft systems methodology” and “linguistic modelling” for comparison.

Findings

The universal view of parts of the world as structures or systems is inconsistent with the multiple methods basically pursuing the same purpose: modelling aspects of systems which prevail in current systems thinking. To try to resolve this anomaly an equally universally applicable approach, the “new science of systems” is proposed which can also serve as an aid to problem solving, in particular to an integrated systems and product design. This approach is to be part of the suggested debate of the field of systems thinking. In general, there is no alternative to the structural view.

Research limitations/implications

The “new science of systems”, if found acceptable, can offer research opportunities in new applications of accepted branches of knowledge like logic, linguistics, mathematics of ordered pairs, uncertainties and in the philosophy of science. New teaching schemes can be developed at classroom level combined with engineering as creator of novelties with linguistics as the symbolism to supplement mathematics. Further considerations can be given to current methodologies of systems thinking as part of a debate with a view of future developments in exploring pioneering ideas. New software is needed for working out the dynamics of scenarios.

Practical implications

The debate, if it takes place, should result in new developments in the field of systems thinking such as concepts accepted as fundamental in the discipline of systems. Applications of the “new science of systems” to larger scale scenarios and organisations guided by the universal scheme in Figure 1 and linguistic modelling with software are needed for development of schemes for problem solving schemes “utilising” or “producing” products.

Social implications

The “new science of systems” is rooted in accepted branches of knowledge; it is highly teachable at school and university levels and should lead to use by professionals and in everyday life activities once found acceptable. The use of the scheme in Figure 1 should help in clarifying confusing scenarios and to aid problem solving.

Originality/value

The suggestion of a debate is an original idea. The “new science of systems” consists of three general principles of systems implemented by linguistic modelling of static and dynamic states. Mathematics of uncertainty and topics from conventional science at the object level supplement the “new science” which together form the “scientific enterprise”. The notions of cognitive value and informative content of models are introduced for evaluating their cognitive worth.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2017

Yuan Chih Fu

Taiwan serves as a case study to investigate the association between the expansion and reform of higher education and the growth of science production. More specifically…

Abstract

Purpose

Taiwan serves as a case study to investigate the association between the expansion and reform of higher education and the growth of science production. More specifically, what driving forces facilitated the growth of science production in different types of Taiwanese universities and other sectors, from 1980 to 2011.

Design

The contribution charts differential contributions to overall production. Taiwanese data from Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) is analyzed to show the expansion of the higher education system and its relationship to the production of science. The author uses sociological organization theories to facilitate our understanding of how and why the landscape of science production changed.

Findings

Results show that the growth of science production is associated with processes of isomorphism and competition within the higher education system. Findings also suggest that universities quickly seized upon external opportunities and turned themselves into what is known as the “knowledge conglomerate.” Unique organizational features bolster universities’ position as the driving force behind advancing national innovation.

Originality/value

This study extends previous research by examining multiple sectors of higher education, using longitudinal and recent data, and highlighting themes that have been ignored or overlooked, such as competition and collaboration among universities and industry partners.

Details

The Century of Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-469-9

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

Helen Sungaila

An emerging synthesis between natural and social sciences isdiscussed and the new science of “chaos” which originates inchemical researches is introduced. Educational…

Abstract

An emerging synthesis between natural and social sciences is discussed and the new science of “chaos” which originates in chemical researches is introduced. Educational systems are seen to be dissipative structures allowing analysis of them in “chaotic” terms. Such structures have a self‐organising dynamic which produces “second order” changes to a new regime. This has long been associated with analysis of leadership. The creative input of a single individual, though small, may lead to far‐reaching effects if guided by vision.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Brian Vickery

The paper attempts to provide an outline account of the development and context of scientific and technical communication during the twentieth century. The main channels…

Abstract

The paper attempts to provide an outline account of the development and context of scientific and technical communication during the twentieth century. The main channels and forms of communication are reviewed, and their changing contributions to the overall pattern of information flow. The ever‐increasing volume and diversity of scientific and technical information are emphasised. The paper concludes with some reflections on what may be learnt from this history.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 55 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2015

Patricia Goodson

This chapter introduces readers to a complex adaptive systems approach for integrating research on genes, behavior, and social structures/institutions. Until recently…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter introduces readers to a complex adaptive systems approach for integrating research on genes, behavior, and social structures/institutions. Until recently, scientists have resorted to reductionism as a decoding and epistemological strategy for understanding human health. The complex bonds among health’s biological, behavioral, and social dimensions, however, cannot be fully grasped with reductionist schemas. Moreover, because reducing and simplifying can lead to incomplete understanding of phenomena, the resulting deficient knowledge has the potential to be harmful.

Methodology/approach

To achieve its purpose, this primer will: (1) introduce fundamental notions from complexity science, useful for inquiry and practice integrating research on genes, behavior, and social structures; (2) outline selected methodological strategies employed in studying complex adaptive/dynamic systems; (3) address the question, “Specifically, how can a dynamic systems approach be helpful for integrating research on genes, behavior, and social structures/institutions, to improve the public’s health?”; and (4) provide examples of studies currently deploying a complexity perspective.

Originality/value

The originality/value of this primer rests in its critique of the research status quo and the proposition of an alternative lens for integrating genomic, biomedical, and sociological research to improve the public’s health. The topic of complex adaptive/dynamic systems has begun to flourish within sociology, medicine, and public health, but many researchers lack exposure to the topic’s basic notions and applications.

Details

Genetics, Health and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-581-4

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2016

Robert L. Axtell

Certain elements of Hayek’s work are prominent precursors to the modern field of complex adaptive systems, including his ideas on spontaneous order, his focus on market…

Abstract

Certain elements of Hayek’s work are prominent precursors to the modern field of complex adaptive systems, including his ideas on spontaneous order, his focus on market processes, his contrast between designing and gardening, and his own framing of complex systems. Conceptually, he was well ahead of his time, prescient in his formulation of novel ways to think about economies and societies. Technically, the fact that he did not mathematically formalize most of the notions he developed makes his insights hard to incorporate unambiguously into models. However, because so much of his work is divorced from the simplistic models proffered by early mathematical economics, it stands as fertile ground for complex systems researchers today. I suggest that Austrian economists can create a progressive research program by building models of these Hayekian ideas, and thereby gain traction within the economics profession. Instead of mathematical models the suite of techniques and tools known as agent-based computing seems particularly well-suited to addressing traditional Austrian topics like money, business cycles, coordination, market processes, and so on, while staying faithful to the methodological individualism and bottom-up perspective that underpin the entire school of thought.

Details

Revisiting Hayek’s Political Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-988-6

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 187000