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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Arisyi Fariza Raz

The purpose of this paper is to examine the behavior of banking risk in the emerging economies, particularly Indonesia and contribute to the discussion on the existing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the behavior of banking risk in the emerging economies, particularly Indonesia and contribute to the discussion on the existing policy debate regarding the impact of capital on bank risk.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigates the relationship between bank risk and capital using data on 15 Indonesian large banks between 2008 and 2015, using z-score and Delta-CoVaR to measure both idiosyncratic and systemic risks.

Findings

The empirical investigation suggests that capital has a negative and significant relationship with these risk measures. The authors also find that higher systemic risk encourages banks to increase their capital. However, similar evidence is not found in the idiosyncratic risk models. Finally, the role of capital in reducing risk is considered robust only during the normal periods, as banks may increase their assets risk during times of financial distress.

Originality/value

Systemic risk (CoVaR) is used to represent bank risk. This study focuses on the Indonesian banking sector (capture institutional arrangements and regulatory environment). It covers the period of 2008 GFC and post-crisis period.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2021

Mohamad Hassan and Evangelos Giouvris

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of bank mergers on systemic and systematic risks on the relative merits of product and market diversification…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of bank mergers on systemic and systematic risks on the relative merits of product and market diversification strategies. It also observes determinants of M&A deals criteria, product and market diversification positioning, crisis threshold and other regulatory and market factors.

Design/methodology/approach

This research examines the impact and association between merger announcements and regulatory reforms at bank and system levels by investigating the impact of various bank consolidation strategies on firms’ risks. We estimate beta(s) as an index of financial institutions’ systematic risk. We then develop an index of the estimated equity value loss as the long-rum marginal expected shortfall (LRMES). LRMES contributes to compute systemic risk (SRISK) contribution of these firms, which is the capital that a firm is expected to need if we have another financial crisis.

Findings

Large acquiring banks decrease systemic risk contribution in cross-border M&As with a non-bank financial institution, and witness profitability (ROA) gains, supporting geographic diversification stability. Capital requirements, activity restrictions and bank concentration increase systemic risk contribution in national mergers. Bank mergers with investment FIs targets enhance productivity but impair technical efficiency, contrary to bank-real estate deals where technical efficiency change accompanied lower systemic risk contribution.

Practical implications

Financial institutions are recommended to avoid trapped capital and liquidity by efficiently using local balance sheet and strengthening them via implementing models that clearly set diversification and netting benefits to determine capital reserves and to drive capital efficiency through the clarity on product–activity–geography diversification and focus. This contributes to successful ringfencing, decreases compliance costs and maximises returns and minimises several risks including systemic risk.

Social implications

Policy implications: the adversative properties of bank mergers in respect of systemic risk require strict and innovative monitoring of bank mergers from the bidding level by both acquirers and targets and regulators and competition supervisory bodies. Moreover, emphasis on regulators/governments intervention and role, as it provides a stabilising factor of the markets and consecutively lower systemic risk even if the systematic idiosyncratic risk contribution was significant. However, such roles have to be well planned and scaled to avoid providing motives for banks to seek too-big-too-fail or too-big-to-discipline status.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the renewing regulatory debate on banks sustainable structures by examining the risk effect of bank diversification versus focus. The authors aim to address the multidimensional impacts and risks inherent to M&A deals, by examining the extent of the interconnectedness of M&A and its implications within and beyond the banking sector.

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2018

Thomas Gehrig and Maria Chiara Iannino

This paper aims to analyze systemic risk in and the effect of capital regulation on the European insurance sector. In particular, the evolution of an exposure measure…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze systemic risk in and the effect of capital regulation on the European insurance sector. In particular, the evolution of an exposure measure (SRISK) and a contribution measure (Delta CoVaR) are analyzed from 1985 to 2016.

Design/methodology/approach

With the help of multivariate regressions, the main drivers of systemic risk are identified.

Findings

The paper finds an increasing degree of interconnectedness between banks and insurance that correlates with systemic risk exposure. Interconnectedness peaks during periods of crisis but has a long-term influence also during normal times. Moreover, the paper finds that the insurance sector was greatly affected by spillovers from the process of capital regulation in banking. While European insurance companies initially at the start of the Basel process of capital regulation were well capitalized according to the SRISK measure, they started to become capital deficient after the implementation of the model-based approach in banking with increasing speed thereafter.

Practical implications

These findings are highly relevant for the ongoing global process of capital regulation in the insurance sector and potential reforms of Solvency II. Systemic risk is a leading threat to the stability of the global financial system and keeping it under control is a main challenge for policymakers and supervisors.

Originality/value

This paper provides novel tools for supervisors to monitor risk exposures in the insurance sector while taking into account systemic feedback from the financial system and the banking sector in particular. These tools also allow an evidence-based policy evaluation of regulatory measures such as Solvency II.

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2021

Juhi Gupta and Smita Kashiramka

Systemic risk has been a cause of concern for the bank regulatory authorities worldwide since the global financial crisis. This study aims to identify systemically…

Abstract

Purpose

Systemic risk has been a cause of concern for the bank regulatory authorities worldwide since the global financial crisis. This study aims to identify systemically important banks (SIBs) in India by using SRISK to measure the expected capital shortfall of banks in a systemic event. The sample size comprises a balanced data set of 31 listed Indian commercial banks from 2006 to 2019.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors have used SRISK to identify banks that have a maximum contribution to the systemic risk of the Indian banking sector. Leverage, size and long-run marginal expected shortfall (LRMES) are used to compute SRISK. Forward-looking LRMES is computed using the GJR-GARCH-dynamic conditional correlation methodology for early prediction of a bank’s contribution to systemic risk.

Findings

This study finds that public sector banks are more vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks owing to their capital inadequacy vis-à-vis the private sector banks. This study also emphasizes that size should not be used as a standalone factor to assess the systemic importance of a bank.

Originality/value

Systemic risk has attracted a lot of research interest; however, it is largely limited to the developed nations. This paper fills an important research gap in banking literature about the identification of SIBs in an emerging economy, India. As SRISK uses both balance sheet and market-based information, it can be used to complement the existing methodology used by the Reserve Bank of India to identify SIBs.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2021

Trung Hai Le

The authors provide a comprehensive study on systemic risk of the banking sectors in the ASEAN-6 countries. In particular, they investigate the systemic risk dynamics and…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors provide a comprehensive study on systemic risk of the banking sectors in the ASEAN-6 countries. In particular, they investigate the systemic risk dynamics and determinants of 49 listed banks in the region over the 2000–2018 period.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ the market-based SRISK measure of Brownlees and Engle (2017) to investigate the systemic risk of the ASEAN-6's banking sectors.

Findings

The authors find that the regional systemic risk fluctuates significantly and currently at par or higher level than that of the recent global financial crisis. Systemic risk is generally associated with banks that have bigger size, more traditional business models, lower quality in their loan portfolios, less profitable and with lower market-to-book values. However, these relationships vary significantly between ASEAN countries.

Research limitations/implications

The research focuses on the systemic risk of ASEAN-6 countries. Therefore, the research results may lack generalizability to other countries.

Practical implications

The authors’ empirical evidence advocates the use of capital surcharges on the systemically important financial institutions. Although the region has been pushing to higher financial integration in recent years, the authors encourage the regional regulators to account for the idiosyncratic characteristics of their banking sectors in designing effective macroprudential policy to contain systemic risk.

Originality/value

This paper provides the first study on the systemic risk of the ASEAN-6 region. The empirical evidence on the drivers of systemic risk would be of interest to the regional regulators.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Shatha Qamhieh Hashem and Islam Abdeljawad

This chapter investigates the presence of a difference in the systemic risk level between Islamic and conventional banks in Bangladesh. The authors compare systemic

Abstract

This chapter investigates the presence of a difference in the systemic risk level between Islamic and conventional banks in Bangladesh. The authors compare systemic resilience of three types of banks: fully fledged Islamic banks, purely conventional banks (CB), and CB with Islamic windows. The authors use the market-based systemic risk measures of marginal expected shortfall and systemic risk to identify which type is more vulnerable to a systemic event. The authors also use ΔCoVaR to identify which type contributes more to a systemic event. Using a sample of observations on 27 publicly traded banks operating over the 2005–2014 period, the authors find that CB is the least resilient sector to a systemic event, and is the one that has the highest contribution to systemic risk during crisis times.

Details

Management of Islamic Finance: Principle, Practice, and Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-403-9

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Tomáš Konečný and Lukáš Pfeifer

This paper aims to focus on capital-related macroprudential policies in the context of recent policy discussions on the removal of barriers to the mobility of capital and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on capital-related macroprudential policies in the context of recent policy discussions on the removal of barriers to the mobility of capital and liquidity of cross-border banks in the European Union (EU).

Design/methodology/approach

This study first discusses the link between financial stability and internal resource mobility of cross-border banks. Then, it examines past heterogeneity in structural capital buffers as key macroprudential capital instruments applied in the EU and relate them to costs of policy action, degree of foreign penetration and membership in the Banking Union.

Findings

Observed phase-in patterns of structural capital buffers in the EU are broadly consistent with costs of policy action, degree of foreign penetration and membership in the Banking Union as potential factors. The process of financial integration could be further enhanced through reduced uncertainty in the application of macroprudential policies that constrain capital mobility of cross-border banks.

Originality/value

This paper anchors macroprudential policies into a wider discussion on the mechanism and implications of ring-fencing in the EU over time. It discusses two policy areas, macroprudential policies and proposals for deeper financial integration, that share the same financial stability objective but tend to emphasize different implications of the mobility of capital and liquidity of cross-border banks in the EU. The study provides a discussion of potential implications of the recent adoption of the CRRII/CRDV legislation for future heterogeneity of macroprudential policies in the EU.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Dieter Gramlich and Mikhail V. Oet

Lessons from the most recent financial crisis show specific vulnerabilities of financial markets due to weaknesses in the structure of the financial system (structural…

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Abstract

Purpose

Lessons from the most recent financial crisis show specific vulnerabilities of financial markets due to weaknesses in the structure of the financial system (structural fragility). As the literature points out, the impact of systemic risk can be closely related to issues of concentration (“too big to fail”) and dependency (“too connected to fail”). However, different structural variables are emphasized in various ways, and most authors analyze each variable separately. This raises the questions of how structural fragility, as a cause of systemic distress, can be assessed more comprehensively and consistently, and what the implications are for modeling it within an integrated systemic risk framework. This paper seeks to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

On the basis of theoretical considerations and in the light of current transformations in financial markets, this paper explores elements of structural fragility and the requirements for modeling them.

Findings

The paper suggests an extended approach for conceptualizing structural fragility, evaluates directions for quantifying structural issues in early warning systems (EWSs) for systemic crises, and lays a theoretical groundwork for further empirical studies.

Originality/value

The need for supervisory actions to prevent crises is urgent, as is the need for integrating structural aspects into EWSs for systemic financial crises. Since a significant aspect of a financial firm's risk comes from outside the firm, individual institutions should understand and monitor the structural aspects of the various risk networks they are in.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Rainer Masera and Giancarlo Mazzoni

The paper aims to investigate whether the value of banks is affected by their financing policies. Higher capital requirements have been invoked by exploiting a renewed…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate whether the value of banks is affected by their financing policies. Higher capital requirements have been invoked by exploiting a renewed edition of the Modigliani–Miller (M&M) theorem. This paper shows the limits of this claim by highlighting that the general statement that “bank equity is not expensive” can be misleading. The authors argue that market prices should play an important role in bank supervision. Expectations of future profits in prices supply timely information on the viability of a bank.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the Merton model to show the inapplicability of M&M theorem to banks. The long-run viability of a bank is analyzed with a dividend discount model which allows to compare a bank’s long-term profitability with its overall cost of capital implicit in market prices.

Findings

The authors show that the M&M framework cannot be applied to banks neither ex-ante nor ex-post. Ex-ante the authors focus on government guarantees, ex-post they emphasize the risk-shifting phenomena that may increase the overall risk of the bank. The authors show that a bank’s stability cannot be achieved if the market expectations of its future profits stay below the cost of funding.

Research limitations/implications

The authors use simple analytical models. In a future study, some key peculiarities of banks, such as the monetary nature of deposits, should be analytically modelled.

Practical implications

The paper contributes to the debate on capital regulation on the level of capital requirements and the instruments to assess the viability/stability of banks.

Originality/value

This paper uses simple models to assess analytically the key issues in the debate on banks’ capital regulation.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2010

Pierre-Richard Agénor and Luiz A. Pereira da Silva

Purpose – To discuss, from the perspective of developing countries, recent proposals for reforming international standards for bank capital requirements.…

Abstract

Purpose – To discuss, from the perspective of developing countries, recent proposals for reforming international standards for bank capital requirements.

Methodology/approach – After evaluating, from the viewpoint of developing countries, the effectiveness of capital requirements reforms and progress in implementing existing regulatory accords, the chapter discusses the procyclical effects of Basel regimes, and suggests a reform proposal.

Findings – Minimum bank capital requirements proposals in developing countries should be complemented by the adoption of an incremental, size-based leverage ratio.

Originality/value of chapter – This chapter contributes to enlarge the academic and policy debate related to bank capital regulation, with a particular focus on the situation of developing countries.

Details

International Banking in the New Era: Post-Crisis Challenges and Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-913-8

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