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Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2015

Mohammad Shamsuddoha

Contemporary literature reveals that, to date, the poultry livestock sector has not received sufficient research attention. This particular industry suffers from…

Abstract

Contemporary literature reveals that, to date, the poultry livestock sector has not received sufficient research attention. This particular industry suffers from unstructured supply chain practices, lack of awareness of the implications of the sustainability concept and failure to recycle poultry wastes. The current research thus attempts to develop an integrated supply chain model in the context of poultry industry in Bangladesh. The study considers both sustainability and supply chain issues in order to incorporate them in the poultry supply chain. By placing the forward and reverse supply chains in a single framework, existing problems can be resolved to gain economic, social and environmental benefits, which will be more sustainable than the present practices.

The theoretical underpinning of this research is ‘sustainability’ and the ‘supply chain processes’ in order to examine possible improvements in the poultry production process along with waste management. The research adopts the positivist paradigm and ‘design science’ methods with the support of system dynamics (SD) and the case study methods. Initially, a mental model is developed followed by the causal loop diagram based on in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and observation techniques. The causal model helps to understand the linkages between the associated variables for each issue. Finally, the causal loop diagram is transformed into a stock and flow (quantitative) model, which is a prerequisite for SD-based simulation modelling. A decision support system (DSS) is then developed to analyse the complex decision-making process along the supply chains.

The findings reveal that integration of the supply chain can bring economic, social and environmental sustainability along with a structured production process. It is also observed that the poultry industry can apply the model outcomes in the real-life practices with minor adjustments. This present research has both theoretical and practical implications. The proposed model’s unique characteristics in mitigating the existing problems are supported by the sustainability and supply chain theories. As for practical implications, the poultry industry in Bangladesh can follow the proposed supply chain structure (as par the research model) and test various policies via simulation prior to its application. Positive outcomes of the simulation study may provide enough confidence to implement the desired changes within the industry and their supply chain networks.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-707-3

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2019

Mirjana Pejic Bach, Emil Tustanovski, Andrew W.H. Ip, Kai-Leung Yung and Vasja Roblek

System dynamics is a whole-system modelling and learning approach, useful for tackling non-linear problems, such as sustainable urban development. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

System dynamics is a whole-system modelling and learning approach, useful for tackling non-linear problems, such as sustainable urban development. The purpose of this paper is to review system dynamics applications in the simulation of sustainable urban development over a period from 2005 to 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis reveals that the number of applications of system dynamics modelling in the area of urban sustainable development increased in the analysed period. Research has changed its focus from the modelling of environmental problems to more complex models, portraying the multidimensional socio-economic processes that have an impact on the sustainability of urban development. Analysed case studies most often use the behaviour reproduction test for model validation, but without a unified approach. In most cases, modelling has been done in China, Germany and the USA, while urban development in the Eastern European countries, Africa and Latin America has not often been investigated. This paper indicates the knowledge gaps and suggests future research directions.

Findings

Papers that report the use of system dynamics modelling reveal a wide range of applications in urban sustainability. The analysis shows significant emphasis on environmental problems, while the interest for modelling social problems has been increasing during the last several years. Most of the modelled problems examine the sustainability of resources (land, water) and waste management, which are used for insights into the reasons for the system behaviour, forecasting future behaviour and policy testing.

Originality/value

The presented models were developed in most cases for the purpose of understanding the phenomena examined, as well as the future use of the models in policy planning. This brings us back to the need for greater stakeholder involvement, not only in the initial phase, but also during the whole modelling process, which could increase understanding, use and ownership of the models in the future, and thus increase their practical application.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Dian Prama Irfani, Dermawan Wibisono and Mursyid Hasan Basri

Logistics systems used in companies that perform multiple roles are expected to be able to manage conflicting objectives. Nevertheless, the literature suggests that many…

Abstract

Purpose

Logistics systems used in companies that perform multiple roles are expected to be able to manage conflicting objectives. Nevertheless, the literature suggests that many existing logistics performance measurement system (PMS) frameworks are not optimized to provide mechanisms to reveal dynamic relationships between conflicting performance indicators. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new logistics PMS by linking the system dynamics model with a set of balanced performance indicators.

Design/methodology/approach

The logistics PMS is developed through a literature review and case study of a company that plays multiple roles. The interrelationships between logistics factors and their links to end results are modeled in diagrams through in-depth interviews with stakeholders. The developed model is then used to build a simulation tool to analyze factors that cause poor performance.

Findings

The new logistics PMS developed by incorporating system dynamics offers decision makers ways to identify dynamic relationships among factors and conflicting indicators, in turn helping them to understand holistic logistics performance, objectively analyze why logistics systems perform in a certain way and foster a common shared view.

Practical implications

Stakeholders of companies that play multiple roles can use the new PMS model to comprehensively evaluate the performance of logistics systems. In addition, the increased visibility of logistics systems may support decision-making while preventing local optimization.

Originality/value

A logistical PMS based on the system dynamics model for managing logistics systems in companies performing multiple roles has not yet been identified. This paper fills this theoretical gap and contributes to the academic literature by proposing a novel PMS model based on the system dynamics model to address the limitations of existing PMS frameworks.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Federico Barnabè

This paper aims to focus on the development of a “dynamic Balanced Scorecard” and to demonstrate that matching the traditional Balanced Scorecard (BSC) architecture with…

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5930

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the development of a “dynamic Balanced Scorecard” and to demonstrate that matching the traditional Balanced Scorecard (BSC) architecture with system dynamics principles offers better support for strategic management decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a case study related to a service‐based business. The maps, the mathematical model and the BSC developed according to system dynamics modelling principles are discussed.

Findings

A system dynamics‐based BSC, particularly if embedded into a management flight simulator, would allow exploration and understanding of features of complexity and dynamics, consideration of feedback loops rather than unidirectional causality, the use of mapping tools for a more comprehensive design of the strategy maps, the facilitation of a process of organisational learning; and support for policy design and strategic analysis performed by managers.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is two‐fold: first, it shows that by using system dynamics modelling principles it is possible to overcome positively some limitations of the original BSC framework; second, the paper provides information and suggestions that are helpful for companies that are interested in developing strategic management systems based on both BSC architecture and on system dynamics principles and simulation tools (e.g. the management flight simulator).

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 60 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1980

H. KRALLMANN

The integration of System Dynamics with LP‐ and Input‐Output models is realized by means of simple examples. Aspects of programming techniques as well as the conceptual…

Abstract

The integration of System Dynamics with LP‐ and Input‐Output models is realized by means of simple examples. Aspects of programming techniques as well as the conceptual meaning of this model‐method integration are discussed. By the combination of the stated methods with System Dynamics models an improved flexibility of the System Dynamics method is obtained. The optimization of a Simulation model is represented by the integration of a System Dynamics model into a higher level feedback loop structure. The optimization algorithm, the Razor Search procedure, modifies the parameters of the control vector in order to generate the optimal behaviour of the state vector of the model in relation to an objective function.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2011

Khalil Alipour and S. Ali A. Moosavian

A suspended wheeled mobile robot (SWMR) that consists of one or more manipulators can be exploited in various environmental conditions such as uneven surfaces. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

A suspended wheeled mobile robot (SWMR) that consists of one or more manipulators can be exploited in various environmental conditions such as uneven surfaces. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the requirements for stable motion planning of such robotic systems to perform heavy object manipulation tasks.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a systematic procedure for dynamics modelling of such complicated systems for planar motion is presented and verified using ADAMS simulation software. Next, based on the new dynamic moment‐height stability (MHS) measure, the stability of such systems will be investigated using the obtained dynamics. To this end, introducing the concept of a virtual frame, the obtained model of SWMR has been employed for investigating the effect of the base suspension characteristics as well as terrain roughness on the stability of the system. Next, the stability evaluation of the system is investigated after toppling down which has been rarely addressed in the literature. In addition, using the aforementioned model, the effect of stiffness is examined after instability.

Findings

First, a systematic procedure for dynamics modelling of such complicated systems for planar motion is presented and verified using ADAMS simulation software. Next, based on the new dynamic MHS measure, the stability of such systems will be investigated using the obtained dynamics. To this end, introducing the concept of a virtual frame, the obtained model of SWMR has been employed for investigating the effect of the base suspension characteristics as well as terrain roughness on the stability of the system. Next, the stability evaluation of the system is investigated after toppling down which has been rarely addressed in the literature. In addition, using the aforementioned model, the effect of stiffness is examined after instability.

Originality/value

A general procedure for dynamics modelling of SWMRs is presented. To verify the obtained dynamics model, another model for the considered system has been developed by ADAMS software. Next, using the obtained dynamics, the postural stability of such systems is investigated, based on the new postural MHS measure extended for SWMRs. The obtained simulation results show that by decreasing the stiffness coefficients of suspension subsystem the stability of the system weakens.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Khalid Hafeez and Izidean Aburawi

Effective human resource planning allows management to recruit, develop and deploy the right people at the right place at the right time, to meet organizational internal…

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3546

Abstract

Purpose

Effective human resource planning allows management to recruit, develop and deploy the right people at the right place at the right time, to meet organizational internal and external service level commitments. Firms are constantly looking out for strategies to cope with skill shortages that are particularly acute in the “knowledge intense” industries due to high staff turnover. The purpose of this paper is to describe how system dynamics modeling allows management to plan to hire and develop right level of skills and competencies in the organizational inventory to meet desired service level targets.

Design/methodology/approach

An integrated system dynamics framework is used to develop various feedbacks and feed forward paths in the context of competence planning and development. The model is mapped onto an overseas process industry company's recruitment and attrition situations and tested using real data.

Findings

Strategies for human resource planning are developed by conducting time‐based dynamic analysis. Optimum design guidelines are provided to reduce the unwanted scenario of competence surplus and/or shortage, and therefore, to reduce disparity in between service level needs and availability of right competencies.

Research limitations/implications

System dynamics type of modeling is usually suited for medium to long range timescale (two to five years scenarios). There is a need for the model to be tested in a high turnover industry such as IT to test its efficacy in short‐term time scale, where shortage in required talent is more acute. Also this model is tested for measuring the generic skill‐sets in here. There is a need to test the model for a mixture of generic and specialized skills‐set in a specific business operation.

Practical implications

The authors anticipate that system dynamics modeling would help the decision makers and HR professionals to devise medium to long‐term human resource planning strategies to anticipate and meet the service level expectations from the internal and external customers.

Social implications

Such planning exercise will avoid the situation of customer dissatisfaction due to right competence shortages. Also this will reduce the staff surplus scenario that usually leads to knee‐jerk reaction to lay‐off unwanted skills, which is usually a costly exercise and impacts negatively on staff morale.

Originality/value

Use of the systems dynamics model introduced here is a novel way to analyze human resource planning function to meet the target service level demands. The idea that an organization can estimate the service level requirements for medium to long‐term situations, and conduct what‐if scenarios in a dynamic sense, can provide valuable information in strategic planning purposes.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2010

Yen‐Hao Hsieh and Soe‐Tsyr Yuan

The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework of customer expectation management and a reference model of service experience design which are regarded as…

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5731

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework of customer expectation management and a reference model of service experience design which are regarded as the basic foundation to model the processes of service experience design for service operation strategies simulating and testing by employing a system dynamics approach.

Design/methodology/approach

System dynamics is the key approach which includes causal loop diagrams and stock and flow diagrams used to build the reference model of experience design. Simulations of the processes of service experience design have also been implemented by Vensim®.

Findings

It is found that the proposed reference model involving customer expectation management can successfully capture the key elements of the service experience design within service operation strategies. The system dynamics approach can effectively enable a macro viewpoint of service experience design for service operation strategies and policies.

Practical implications

With the proposed reference model of service experience design and the system dynamics modeling approach, service providers cannot only comprehensively examine the processes of service experience design in detail but also accomplish the strategies testing and simulating. Hence, service providers can make correct decisions to achieve the business goals via the simulation results beforehand.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to analyze and combine the idea of customer expectation management with service experience design and give rise to a unique reference model of service experience design that is shown to be valuable to service operation strategies testing and simulating based on the system dynamics perspective.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 39 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2019

Mehdi Poornikoo and Muhammad Azeem Qureshi

A plethora of studies focused on the cause and solutions for the bullwhip effect, and consequently many have successfully experimented to dampen the effect. However, the…

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857

Abstract

Purpose

A plethora of studies focused on the cause and solutions for the bullwhip effect, and consequently many have successfully experimented to dampen the effect. However, the feasibility of such studies and the actual contribution for supply chain performance are yet up for debate. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a holistic system-based perspective and proposes a fuzzy logic decision-making implementation for a single-product, three-echelon and multi-period supply chain system to mitigate such effect.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses system dynamics (SD) as the central modeling method for which Vensim® is used as a tool for hybrid simulation. Further, the authors used MATLAB for undertaking fuzzy logic modeling and constructing a fuzzy inference system that is later on incorporated into SD model for interaction with the main supply chain structure.

Findings

This research illustrated the usefulness of fuzzy estimations based on experts’ linguistically and logically defined parameters instead of relying merely on the traditional demand forecasting based on time series. Despite the increased complexity of the calculations and structure of the fuzzy model, the bullwhip effect has been considerably decreased resulting in an improved supply chain performance.

Practical implications

This dynamic modeling approach is not only useful in supply chain management but also the model developed for this study can be integrated into a corporate financial planning model. Further, this model enables optimization for an automated system in a company, where decision-makers can adjust the fuzzy variables according to various situations and inventory policies.

Originality/value

This study presents a systemic approach to deal with uncertainty and vagueness in dynamic models, which might be a major cause in generating the bullwhip effect. For this purpose, the combination between fuzzy set theory and system dynamics is a significant step forward.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Juan D. Mendoza, Josefa Mula and Francisco Campuzano-Bolarin

The purpose of this paper is to explore different aggregate production planning (APP) strategies (inventory levelling, validation of the workforce and flexible production…

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1640

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore different aggregate production planning (APP) strategies (inventory levelling, validation of the workforce and flexible production alternatives: overtime and/or outsourcing) by using a system dynamics model in a two-level, multi-product, multi-period manpower intensive supply chain (SC). Therefore, the appropriateness of using systems dynamics as a research method, by focusing on managerial applications, to analyse APP policies is proven. From the combination of systems dynamics and APP, recommendations and action strategies are considered for each scenario to understand how the system performs and to improve decision making on APP in the SC context.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design analyses a typical factory setting with representative parameter settings for five different conventional APP policies – inventory levelling, workforce variation, overtime, outsourcing and a combination of overtime and outsourcing – through deterministic systems dynamics-based simulation. In order to validate the simulation model, the results from published APP models were replicated. Then, optimisation is conducted for this deterministic setting to determine the performance of all these typical policies with optimal parameter settings. Next, a Monte Carlo stochastic simulation is used to assess the robustness of such performances in a variety of demand settings. Different aggregate plans are tested and the effect that events like demand variability and production times have on the SC performance results is analysed.

Findings

The results support the assertion that the greater the demand variability, the higher the flexibility costs (overtime, outsourcing, inventory levelling, and contracts and firings). As greater inter-month oscillations appear, which must be covered with additional alternatives, the optimum number of employees must be determined by analysing the interchanges and marginal costs between capacity oversizing costs (wages, idle time, storage) and the costs to undersize it (penalties for lowering safety stocks, delayed demand, greater use of overtime and outsourcing). Accordingly, controlling the times to avoid increased costs and penalties incurred by delayed demand becomes an essential important task, but one that also depends on the characteristics of this variability.

Practical implications

This paper has developed a modelling approach for APP in a manpower intensive SC by applying system dynamics. It includes a simulation model, the analysis of several scenarios, the impact on performance caused by variability events in the parameters, and some recommendations and action strategies to be subsequently applied. The modelling methodology proposed can be employed to design-specific models for each SC.

Originality/value

This paper proposes an APP system dynamics approach in a two-level, multi-product, multi-period manpower intensive SC for the first time. This model bridges the gap in the literature relating to simulation, specifically system dynamics and its application for APP. The paper also provides a qualitative description of the various pros and cons of each analysed policy and how they can be combined.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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